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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26812862/increased-levels-of-bisphenol-a-bpa-in-thai-girls-with-precocious-puberty
#1
Vichit Supornsilchai, Chutima Jantarat, Wichit Nosoognoen, Sopon Pornkunwilai, Suttipong Wacharasindhu, Olle Soder
BACKGROUND: Reports on the secular trend of pubertal onset indicate a recent earlier start especially in girls. Bisphenol A (BPA), which posses estrogenic activity, might be a cause of advanced puberty. The objective of the study was to determine the association between BPA and advanced puberty. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with advanced puberty (n=41) compared to age-matched controls (n=47). Anthropometric measurements, estradiol, basal and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, uterine sizes, ovarian diameters and bone ages were obtained...
January 21, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25575453/adult-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-bpa-in-wistar-rats-reduces-sperm-quality-with-disruption-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis
#2
Patricia Wisniewski, Renata M Romano, Marina M L Kizys, Kelen C Oliveira, Teresa Kasamatsu, Gisele Giannocco, Maria I Chiamolera, Magnus R Dias-da-Silva, Marco A Romano
Reproductive physiology involves complex biological processes that can be disrupted by exposure to environmental contaminants. The effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on spermatogenesis and sperm quality is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the reproductive toxicity of BPA at dosages considered to be safe (5 or 25mg BPA/kg/day). We assessed multiple sperm parameters, the relative expression of genes involved in the central regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, and the serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH...
March 2, 2015: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25198940/-male-infertility-non-surgical-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Gaetano Gulino, Marco Stefanucci, Michele Antonucci, Marco Racioppi, Emilio Sacco, Francesco Pinto, Pier Francesco Bassi
Infertility is defined as the inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of unprotected intercourse and affects 15% of couples with male component of 50%. The failure of spermatogenesis can result from hypothalamic, pituitary or testicular disorders although in the majority of cases it remains idiopathic. The diagnostic process includes medical history, semen analysis, hormonal studies, genetic studies and radiological evaluation.Targeted hormonal therapies are available for patients whose infertility is caused by altered levels of androgens, prolactin, or TSH...
July 2014: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24474947/role-of-estrogen-receptors-and-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-in-regulation-of-hypothalamus-pituitary-testis-axis-and-spermatogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Adele Chimento, Rosa Sirianni, Ivan Casaburi, Vincenzo Pezzi
Male reproductive function is under the control of both gonadotropins and androgens through a negative feedback loop that involves the hypothalamus, pituitary, and testis known as hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG). Indeed, estrogens also play an important role in regulating HPG axis but the study on relative contribution to the inhibition of gonadotropins secretion exerted by the amount of estrogens produced within the hypothalamus and/or the pituitary or by the amount of circulating estrogens is still ongoing...
2014: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24422632/disrupted-kisspeptin-signaling-in-gnrh-neurons-leads-to-hypogonadotrophic-hypogonadism
#5
Horacio J Novaira, Momodou L Sonko, Gloria Hoffman, Yongbum Koo, Chemyong Ko, Andrew Wolfe, Sally Radovick
Landmark studies have shown that mutations in kisspeptin and the kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1r) result in reproductive dysfunction in humans and genetically altered mouse models. However, because kisspeptin and its receptor are present in target cells of the central and peripheral reproductive axis, the precise location(s) for the pathogenic signal is unknown. The study described herein shows that the kisspeptin-Kiss1r signaling pathway in the GnRH neuron is singularly critical for both the onset of puberty as well as the attainment of normal reproductive function...
February 2014: Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22574563/-effects-of-preventive-electroacupuncture-of-guanyuan-cv-4-and-sanyinjiao-sp-6-on-hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary-axis-in-ovariectomized-rats
#6
Kai Cheng, Su-Ling Tian
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of preventive-electroacupuncture (PEA) at "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6)on hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary (HPO)activities in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, and to compare the specificity of efficacy of acupoints. METHODS: Sixty-two female SD rats were randomly divided into normal group (n = 6), sham-operation (sham) group (n = 6), model group (n = 6), PEA-Guanyuan (CV 4, PEA-CV 4) group (n = 11), PEA-Sanyinjiao (SP 6, PEA-SP 6) group (n = 11), complementary (C)-PEA-CV 4 (n = 11) and C-PEA-SP 6 group (n = 11)...
February 2012: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22283375/neuroendocrine-control-of-ovulation
#7
REVIEW
Sarah Berga, Frederick Naftolin
Modern methods of diagnosis have made the distinction between hypothalamic failure and ovarian failure routine. Failure of the orderly progression of hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) → pituitary gonadotrophins → ovarian steroids and inhibin → hypothalamus/pituitary results in anovulation/amenorrhea. The hypothalamic connections that regulate the pattern and amplitude of GnRH pulses are plastic and respond to external/psychological conditions and internal/metabolic factors that may affect the hypothalamic substrate on which estrogen levels can act...
March 2012: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22217844/steroid-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-deficiency-in-man-an-inherited-form-of-male-pseudohermaphroditism
#8
REVIEW
A Rösler
Sixty-eight males with testicular 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (17β-HSD) were identified among a highly inbred Arab population in Israel, and 45 studied over the last 15 years. The founders of this defect originated in the mountainous region of present Lebanon and Syria, but most of the families now live in Jerusalem, Hebron, the Tel-Aviv area, and in particular Gaza, where the frequency of affected males is estimated at 1 in 100 to 150. Affected individuals (46,XY) are born with ambiguity of the genitalia and reared as females until puberty...
December 1992: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21784738/gnrh-agonist-ovulation-trigger-and-hcg-based-progesterone-free-luteal-support-a-proof-of-concept-study
#9
Shahar Kol, Peter Humaidan, Joseph Itskovitz-Eldor
BACKGROUND: It is now well established that a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) ovulation trigger completely prevents ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. However, early studies, using conventional luteal support, showed inferior clinical results following a GnRHa trigger compared with a conventional hCG trigger in normal responder IVF patients. We here present a novel approach for luteal support after a GnRHa trigger. METHODS Normal responder patients who failed at least one previous IVF attempt, during which a conventional hCG trigger was used, were consecutively enrolled in the study...
October 2011: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21720063/feminizing-adrenocortical-carcinoma-with-selective-suppression-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-secretion-and-disorganized-steroidogenesis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
REVIEW
Takatoshi Saito, Katsuyoshi Tojo, Nozomu Furuta, Katsuhiko Ono, Hironobu Sasano, Kazunori Utsunomiya
We report a 61-year-old male with gynecomastia, poor libido and erectile dysfunction. Endocrinological studies showed high levels of estradiol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Although luteinizing hormone (LH) level was within the normal limit, the concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was under the normal limit. Delayed response of LH and poor response of FSH to gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration were detected. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen revealed a left adrenal tumor...
2011: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21358595/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-effect-of-concomitant-progesterone-administration-on-changes-caused-by-long-term-estrogen-treatment-in-pituitary-hormone-immunoreactivities-of-rats
#11
Andrea Heinzlmann, Katalin Koves, Magdolna Kovacs, Valer Csernus
BACKGROUND: Since in clinical practice long-term estrogen (E) treatment is frequently applied, our aim was to study the effect of concomitant progesterone (P) administration on changes caused by long-term estrogen treatment in the secretion of LH, FSH, PRL and GH. MATERIAL/METHODS: Diethylstilbestrol (DES), P or both in silastic capsules were implanted under the skin of prepubertal Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. Animals survived for two or five months. We have also studied whether the changed hormone secretion caused by DES can return to normal level 1 or 2 months after removing DES capsule...
February 25, 2011: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19605789/effects-of-atrazine-and-its-withdrawal-on-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neuroendocrine-function-in-the-adult-female-wistar-rat
#12
Chad D Foradori, Laura R Hinds, William H Hanneman, Robert J Handa
High doses of the commonly used herbicide atrazine have been shown to suppress luteinizing hormone (LH) release. To determine whether atrazine alters the function of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, we examined the effects of atrazine on GnRH neuronal activation and the subsequent release of LH normally associated with ovulation. Ovariectomized adult Wistar rats were administered atrazine (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg of body weight daily by gavage) or vehicle for 4 days. Animals were primed with estrogen and progesterone to induce an evening LH surge...
December 2009: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18690487/a-mathematical-model-for-the-actions-of-activin-inhibin-and-follistatin-on-pituitary-gonadotrophs
#13
Richard Bertram, Yue-Xian Li
The timed secretion of the luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from pituitary gonadotrophs during the estrous cycle is crucial for normal reproductive functioning. The release of LH and FSH is stimulated by gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secreted by hypothalamic GnRH neurons. It is controlled by the frequency of the GnRH signal that varies during the estrous cycle. Curiously, the secretion of LH and FSH is differentially regulated by the frequency of GnRH pulses. LH secretion increases as the frequency increases within a physiological range, and FSH secretion shows a biphasic response, with a peak at a lower frequency...
November 2008: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18175667/effect-of-clomiphene-citrate-on-sperm-density-in-male-partners-of-infertile-couples
#14
Simantini S Patankar, Shobha B Kaore, Manish V Sawane, Neelam V Mishra, Atul M Deshkar
Infertility is on the rise in today's world. A subnormal sperm count is frequently encountered in infertile couples. Clomiphene citrate, 1-[p-(beta-diethyl aminoethoxy) phenyl]-1,2-diphenyl chloroethylene, is an orally active nonsteroidal agent distantly related to diethylstilbestrol. It is thought to stimulate pituitary gonadotropin release by excluding estradiol from hypothalamic receptor sites. This interaction neutralizes the normal negative feedback control of estrogen and results in enhanced secretion of LH-RH, FSH-RH and gonadotropins...
April 2007: Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17344003/lateral-medullary-syndrome-in-a-woman-after-ovulation-induction
#15
Hsuan-Chih Lin, Mei-Jou Chen, Chen-Han Chou, Yi-Ho Young
Although atherothrombotic complications due to ovulation induction are well known in the literature, there is no previous report specifically on the presentation of a lateral medullary infarction. Recently, we have encountered a 36 years old woman with primary infertility having acute vertiginous attack after ovulation induction. Audiovestibular test battery revealed bilateral normal hearing, bilateral gaze nystagmus, rebound nystagmus beating toward the right side, loss of visual suppression with augmentation of caloric nystagmus in light on the left side, and delayed vestibular evoked myogenic potentials on the left side, which was subsequently confirmed as lateral medullary syndrome by MRI scan...
September 2007: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17308132/from-menarche-to-regular-menstruation-endocrinological-background
#16
REVIEW
Ioannis E Messinis
Marked changes in hormone secretion occur from childhood to adulthood. Prior to puberty gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion is markedly suppressed. At the onset of puberty, the hypothalamic gonadostat is derepressed and the amplitude of GnRH pulses increases. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels increase gradually during puberty stimulating follicle maturation and estrogen production in the ovaries. Only the negative feedback mechanism is powerful before puberty, while the positive feedback mechanism becomes active for the first time in late puberty...
December 2006: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17065413/the-bi-modal-effects-of-estradiol-on-gonadotropin-synthesis-and-secretion-in-female-mice-are-dependent-on-estrogen-receptor-alpha
#17
Jonathan Lindzey, Friederike L Jayes, Mariana M Yates, John F Couse, Kenneth S Korach
Depending on the estrous/menstrual cycle stage in females, ovarian-derived estradiol (E(2)) exerts either a negative or a positive effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to regulate the synthesis and secretion of pituitary gonadotropins, LH, and FSH. To study the role of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) mediating these effects, we assessed the relevant parameters in adult wild-type (WT) and ERalpha-null (alphaERKO) female mice in vivo and in primary pituitary cell cultures. The alphaERKO mice exhibited significantly higher plasma and pituitary LH levels relative to WT females despite possessing markedly high levels of circulating E(2)...
October 2006: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16989964/developmental-changes-of-fsh-r-lh-r-er-beta-and-gnrh-i-expression-in-the-ovary-of-prepubertal-ducks-anas-platyrhynchos
#18
Yingdong Ni, Yuchuan Zhou, Lizhi Lu, Roland Grossmann, Ruqian Zhao
Normal ovarian development is dependent on stimulation of the gonadotropic hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as some regulatory factors locally produced in ovary, e.g. 17beta-estradiol (E2) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), mediated by their respective receptors. In order to elucidate the potential roles of LH, FSH, E2 and GnRH-I during early follicular development in prepubertal ducks, mRNA expression of LH-R, FSH-R, ER-beta and GnRH-I in ovaries of 1-day-old (D1), 30-day-old (D30), 60-day-old (D60) and 90-day-old (D90) ducks was measured with semi-quantitative RT-PCR using beta-actin as an internal standard...
August 2007: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16870949/effects-of-estradiol-infusion-in-gnrh-immunized-boars-on-spermatogenesis
#19
Anna Wagner, Nina Messe, Martin Bergmann, Oksana Lekhkota, Rolf Claus
Active immunization of boars against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) inhibits luteinizing hormone (LH) and testicular steroids, so that mitosis of spermatogonia is reduced and apoptosis increased. To clarify whether high amounts of estrogens which are synthesized in the boar testis support spermatogenesis, a group of 6 boars was immunized against GnRH and then infused for 7 weeks with estradiol (E2-17beta). For comparison, intact boars and immunized boars were infused with saline only. Testicular tissue was then analyzed by immunocytochemistry for apoptosis (TUNEL, EM), mitosis (Ki67), and estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha)...
November 2006: Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16670102/the-origins-and-sequelae-of-abnormal-neuroendocrine-function-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
S K Blank, C R McCartney, J C Marshall
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common clinical disorder characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and hyperandrogenaemia. A neuroendocrine hallmark of PCOS is persistently rapid LH (GnRH) pulsatility, which favours pituitary synthesis of LH over that of FSH and contributes to the increased LH concentrations and LH : FSH ratios typical of PCOS. Inadequate FSH levels contribute to impaired follicular development, whereas elevated LH levels augment ovarian androgen production. Whereas luteal phase elevations in progesterone normally slow GnRH pulse frequency, women with PCOS do not experience normal progesterone-mediated slowing, due in part to impaired hypothalamic progesterone sensitivity...
July 2006: Human Reproduction Update
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