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Pulmonary compliance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919283/outcomes-and-survival-prediction-models-for-severe-adult-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-treated-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#1
REVIEW
Sacha Rozencwajg, David Pilcher, Alain Combes, Matthieu Schmidt
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has known a growing interest over the last decades with promising results during the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza epidemic. Targeting populations that can most benefit from this therapy is now of major importance.Survival has steadily improved for a decade, reaching up to 65% at hospital discharge in the most recent cohorts. However, ECMO is still marred by frequent and significant complications such as bleeding and nosocomial infections...
December 5, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910739/overview-on-therapeutic-applications-of-microparticulate-drug-delivery-systems
#2
Swarna Bale, Amit Khurana, A Shiva Shankar Reddy, Mandip Singh, Chandraiah Godugu
Research in novel drug delivery systems is being explored competitively in order to attain maximum therapeutic effect while minimizing the adverse effects. Despite several advancements in pharmaceutical formulations, one of the major challenges still persisting is sustained drug release. Microencapsulation enacts as an intelligent approach with a strong therapeutic impact and is in demand globally in medical technology due to its specific and attractive properties, including biocompatibility, stability, target specificity, uniform encapsulation, better compliance, and controlled and sustained release patterns that are responsible for diminishing the toxicity and dosage frequency...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903664/practical-considerations-for-therapies-targeting-the-prostacyclin-pathway
#3
REVIEW
Harrison W Farber, Wendy Gin-Sing
Therapies that target the prostacyclin pathway play a key role in the treatment of both early- and late-stage pulmonary arterial hypertension, and provide significant clinical benefits for patients. A number of agents have been approved, which are administered via intravenous, subcutaneous, inhaled or oral routes. The use of these therapies is associated with practical challenges, relating to the need for up-titration and their routes of administration. We discuss here a number of measures that can be taken to support patients and healthcare professionals in order to address the complexities of using these therapies and to encourage compliance...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894292/reliability-of-breath-by-breath-spirometry-and-relative-flow-time-indices-for-pulmonary-function-testing-in-horses
#4
K Burnheim, K J Hughes, D L Evans, S L Raidal
BACKGROUND: Respiratory problems are common in horses, and are often diagnosed as a cause of poor athletic performance. Reliable, accurate and sensitive spirometric tests of airway function in resting horses would assist with the diagnosis of limitations to breathing and facilitate investigations of the effects of various treatments on breathing capacity. The evaluation of respiratory function in horses is challenging and suitable procedures are not widely available to equine practitioners...
November 28, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882294/cough-and-fever-in-an-immigrant-adolescent-with-abnormal-chest-x-ray
#5
Nicole Giles, Rajeev Bhatia
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide with 80,000 pediatric deaths annually. Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is usually asymptomatic in pediatric patients and resolves after completion of standard therapy with isoniazid (INH). Rare reports document children greater than 10 years of age in endemic regions developing adult type cavitary disease, an infectious pulmonary tuberculosis lesion. This is a notable case of post-infectious pulmonary TB disease with adult type cavitation in an immigrant adolescent, which developed even after completing standard therapy with INH...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873442/forced-deflation-pulmonary-function-test-a-novel-method-to-evaluate-lung-function-in-infants-and-young-children
#6
Rakesh K Goyal, Azada Ibrahimova, Maria L Escolar, Paul Szabolcs, Mark Vander Lugt, Randy M Windreich, Daniel J Weiner
We describe the safety and feasibility of a forced deflation pulmonary function test (dPFT) in infants and young children. Fifty-two dPFT studies were performed in 26 patients (median age, 1.4 years). Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow (FEF75 ) were normal in all except one case, but respiratory system compliance (Crs) was reduced in 24% patients. There were no significant differences in pre-blood and marrow transplantation FVC, FEF75 , and Crs between those patients who did and those who did not have posttransplant pulmonary complications...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870560/effect-of-prenatal-versus-postnatal-vitamin-d-deficiency-on-pulmonary-structure-and-function-in-mice
#7
Ammar Saadoon, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Kurt Zinn, Ambika P Ashraf, Mark MacEwen, Teodora Nicola, Michelle V Fanucchi, William T Harris
Epidemiologic studies have linked gestational vitamin D deficiency to respiratory diseases, although mechanisms have not been defined. We hypothesized that antenatal vitamin D deficiency would impair airway development and alveolarization in a mouse model. We studied the effect of antenatal vitamin D deficiency by inducing vitamin D deficiency in pregnant mice and then compared lung development and function in their offspring to littermate controls. Postnatal vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency models from each group were also studied...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861600/heart-rate-dependence-of-the-pulmonary-resistance-x-compliance-rc-time-and-impact-on-right-ventricular-load
#8
Thomas S Metkus, Christopher J Mullin, E Wilson Grandin, J Eduardo Rame, Emmanouil Tampakakis, Steven Hsu, Todd M Kolb, Rachel Damico, Paul M Hassoun, David A Kass, Stephen C Mathai, Ryan J Tedford
BACKGROUND: The effect of heart rate (HR) and body surface area (BSA) on pulmonary RC time and right ventricular (RV) load is unknown. METHODS: To determine the association of HR and BSA with the pulmonary RC time and measures of RV load, we studied three large patient cohorts including subjects with 1) known or suspected pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (n = 1008), 2) pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (n = 468), and 3) end-stage heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (n = 150)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860342/compliance-with-a-copd-bundle-of-care-in-an-australian-emergency-department-a-cohort-study
#9
Alexis Gerber, Catriona Moynihan, Sharon Klim, Peter Ritchie, Anne-Maree Kelly
INTRODUCTION: Bundles of care are gaining popularity for treating acute severe illness. OBJECTIVE: To describe compliance with bundle of care elements (individually and as a 'bundle') for patients treated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Retrospective observational study of patients presenting in the 2014 calendar year with an ED diagnosis of COPD. The primary outcomes of interest were compliance with key bundle of care elements (individually and as a 'bundle')...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852197/antimicrobial-use-in-australian-hospitals-how-much-and-how-appropriate
#10
John D Turnidge, Karin Thursky, Caroline S Chen, Vicki R McNeil, Irene J Wilkinson
Antimicrobial agents play a central role in modern health care, especially in the hospital setting. This article describes the currently available information on the volumes of antimicrobial use in Australian hospitals, the appropriateness of that use, and the levels of compliance with nationally or locally endorsed prescribing guidelines. The data presented here come from the 2014 National Antimicrobial Utilisation Surveillance Program report and the 2013 and 2014 National Antimicrobial Prescribing Survey reports and are based on voluntary participation in the two programs...
November 21, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832835/pulmonary-function-at-hospital-discharge-in-preterm-infants-randomized-to-a-single-rescue-course-of-antenatal-steroids
#11
Brian K Jordan, Diane Schilling, Cindy T McEvoy
OBJECTIVE: To compare the pulmonary function, measured at birth and at hospital discharge, of infants whose mothers had been randomized to a single rescue course of antenatal steroids versus those whose mothers had been randomized to placebo. STUDY DESIGN: This study involved follow-up at hospital discharge of subjects of a randomized, double-blinded trial. In the original trial, pregnant women at ≥14 days after their initial course of antenatal steroids and <34 weeks' gestation were randomized to rescue antenatal steroids (44 mothers, 56 infants) or placebo (41 mothers, 57 infants)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831997/pulmonary-arterial-compliance-improves-rapidly-after-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation
#12
S Carolina Masri, Ryan J Tedford, Monica M Colvin, Peter J Leary, Rebecca Cogswell
Pulmonary artery compliance (PAC) contributes to right ventricular (RV) afterload, is decreased in the setting of increased left ventricular (LV) filling pressures, and may be an important component of World Health Organization (WHO) Group II Pulmonary Hypertension (PH). Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation can rapidly change LV filling, but its relationship with PAC is unknown. Right heart catheterization was performed pre-operatively, post-operatively (between 48-72 hours), and > 30 days post-LVAD implantation in a cohort of 64 patients with end stage systolic heart failure...
November 9, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830033/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-boletus-edulis-polysaccharide-on-asthma-pathology
#13
Songquan Wu, Guangli Wang, Ruhui Yang, Yubao Cui
Asthma is a chronic airway disease common around the world. The burden of this disease could be reduced with new and effective treatments. Here, the efficacy of a polysaccharide extract from the Boletus edulis (BEP) mushroom, which has demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, was tested in a mouse model of asthma. Five groups of BaLB/C mice were developed; one group served as a control and did not have asthma induction. The other four groups of mice were sensitized by ovalbumin challenge. FinePointe™ RC animal airway resistance and pulmonary compliance was used to assess airway function in asthma models...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822030/management-of-copd-equal-treatment-across-age-gender-and-social-situation-a-register-study
#14
Ingela Henoch, Susann Strang, Claes-Göran Löfdahl, Ann Ekberg-Jansson
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive chronic disease where treatment decisions should be based on disease severity and also should be equally distributed across age, gender, and social situation. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent patients with COPD are offered evidence-based interventions and how the interventions are distributed across demographic and clinical factors in the sample. Baseline registrations of demographic, disease-related, and management-related variables of 7,810 patients in the Swedish National Airway Register are presented...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821164/the-evaluation-of-a-remote-support-program-on-quality-of-life-and-evolution-of-disease-in-copd-patients-with-frequent-exacerbations
#15
Bernardino Alcazar, Pilar de Lucas, Joan B Soriano, Alonso Fernández-Nistal, Antonia Fuster, Jose Miguel Rodríguez González-Moro, Aurelio Arnedillo, Patricia García Sidro, María José Espinosa de Los Monteros
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients often present considerable individual medical burden in their symptoms, limitations, and well-being that complicate medical treatment. To improve their overall health status, while reducing the number of exacerbations, a multidisciplinary approach including different elements of care is needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a remote support program on COPD patients at high risk of experiencing worsening of their disease and other health-related outcomes...
November 8, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815258/inflammation-and-lung-injury-in-an-ovine-model-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-support
#16
Margaret Passmore, Yoke L Fung, Gabriela Simonova, Samuel R Foley, Kimble R Dunster, Sara D Diab, John-Paul Tung, Robyn M Minchinton, Charles I McDonald, Chris M Anstey, Kiran Shekar, John F Fraser
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving treatment for patients with severe, refractory, cardiorespiratory failure. Exposure to the ECMO circuit is thought to trigger/exacerbate inflammation. Determining whether inflammation is due to the patients underlying pathologies or the ECMO circuit is difficult. To discern how different insults contribute to the inflammatory response we developed an ovine model of lung injury and ECMO to investigate the impact of smoke-induced lung injury and ECMO in isolation and cumulatively on pulmonary and circulating inflammatory cells, cytokines and tissue remodeling...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812547/acute-hemodynamic-effects-of-inhaled-sodium-nitrite-in-pulmonary-hypertension-associated-with-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#17
Marc A Simon, Rebecca R Vanderpool, Mehdi Nouraie, Timothy N Bachman, Pamela M White, Masataka Sugahara, John Gorcsan, Ed L Parsley, Mark T Gladwin
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with poor outcomes, yet specific treatments only exist for a small subset of patients. The most common form of PH is that associated with left heart disease (Group 2), for which there is no approved therapy. Nitrite has shown efficacy in preclinical animal models of Group 1 and 2 PH, as well as in patients with left heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a potentially novel inhaled formulation of nitrite in PH-HFpEF patients as compared with Group 1 and 3 PH...
November 3, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812430/synthetic-lung-surfactants-containing-sp-b-and-sp-c-peptides-plus-novel-phospholipase-resistant-lipids-or-glycerophospholipids
#18
Robert H Notter, Rohun Gupta, Adrian L Schwan, Zhengdong Wang, Mohanad Gh Shkoor, Frans J Walther
BACKGROUND: This study examines the biophysical and preclinical pulmonary activity of synthetic lung surfactants containing novel phospholipase-resistant phosphonolipids or synthetic glycerophospholipids combined with Super Mini-B (S-MB) DATK and/or SP-Css ion-lock 1 peptides that replicate the functional biophysics of surfactant proteins (SP)-B and SP-C. Phospholipase-resistant phosphonolipids used in synthetic surfactants are DEPN-8 and PG-1, molecular analogs of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), while glycerophospholipids used are active lipid components of native surfactant (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812082/assessment-of-inhalation-technique-among-patients-of-chronic-respiratory-disorders-in-civil-hospital-karachi-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Muhammad Zain Farooq, Muhammad Saad Farooq, Wajiha Waqar, Marium Mustaqeem, Javaid Ahmed Khan, Samiyah Saadullah
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the inhaler technique of patients and the awareness acquired during pulmonary teachings given in the beginning of the treatment. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi, from December 2013 to July 2014, and comprised patients diagnosed with obstructive broncho-pulmonary diseases and who were using inhaler therapy. A questionnaire was designed to assess the technique by an inhaler technique checklist, which was pilot-tested and was filled after obtaining verbal consent...
November 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807020/miliary-tuberculosis-in-an-immunocompetent-male-with-a-fatal-outcome
#20
Louise Dunphy, Elizabeth Keating, T Parke
A man aged 33 years, born in Nepal, but resident in the UK for 7 years presented to the emergency department with a 4-day history of general malaise, fever (temperature 38.6°C) and a non-productive cough. His medical history was unremarkable and no high-risk behaviour was identified. Clinical examination confirmed decreased air entry bilaterally with bibasal crackles. He was tachycardic, with a heart rate of 120 bpm. Further investigation with a 12-lead ECG confirmed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) which was terminated with vagal manoeuvres...
November 2, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
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