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Pulmonary compliance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334496/oxygen-in-the-critically-ill-friend-or-foe
#1
Elisa Damiani, Abele Donati, Massimo Girardis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the potential harmful effects of hyperoxia and summarize the results of most recent clinical studies evaluating oxygen therapy in critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Excessive oxygen supplementation may have detrimental pulmonary and systemic effects because of enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury includes altered surfactant protein composition, reduced mucociliary clearance and histological damage, resulting in atelectasis, reduced lung compliance and increased risk of infections...
January 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332319/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-its-clinical-efficacy
#2
REVIEW
Hyung Woo Kim, Ju Sang Kim
The role of the treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been underscored in the intermediate tuberculosis (TB) burden countries like South Korea. LTBI treatment is recommended only for patients at risk for progression to active TB-those with frequent exposure to active TB cases, and those with clinical risk factors (e.g., immunocompromised patients). Recently revised National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline recommended that close contacts of individuals with active pulmonary or laryngeal TB, aged between 18 and 65 years, should undergo LTBI treatment...
January 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317351/a-new-physiological-model-for-studying-the-effect-of-chest-compression-and-ventilation-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-the-thiel-cadaver
#3
Emmanuel Charbonney, Stéphane Delisle, Dominique Savary, Gilles Bronchti, Marceau Rigollot, Adrien Drouet, Bilal Badat, Paul Ouellet, Patrice Gosselin, Alain Mercat, Laurent Brochard, Jean-Christophe M Richard
BACKGROUND: Studying ventilation and intrathoracic pressure (ITP) induced by chest compressions (CC) during Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation is challenging and important aspects such as airway closure have been mostly ignored. We hypothesized that Thiel Embalmed Cadavers could constitute an appropriate model. METHODS: We assessed respiratory mechanics and ITP during CC in 11 cadavers, and we compared it to measurements obtained in 9 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients and to predicted values from a bench model...
January 6, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316567/modern-invasive-hemodynamic-assessment-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#4
Alberto Pagnamenta, Frédéric Lador, Andrea Azzola, Maurice Beghetti
Since 1998 pulmonary hypertension has been clinically classified into five well-defined, distinct categories. A definitive diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension requires the invasive confirmation of an elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above during a right heart catheterization. From a hemodynamic point of view, pulmonary hypertension is classified into precapillary and postcapillary pulmonary hypertension on the basis of a pulmonary artery wedge pressure threshold value of 15 mm Hg. Pulmonary vascular resistance is better characterized by multi-point pressure/flow measurements than by single-point determination...
January 9, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314868/bronchiolitis-obliterans-and-pulmonary-fibrosis-after-sulfur-mustard-inhalation-in-rats
#5
Matthew D McGraw, Marilyn M Dysart, Tara B Hendry-Hofer, Paul R Houin, Jacqueline S Rioux, Rhonda B Garlick, Joan E Loader, Russell Smith, Danielle C Paradiso, Wesley W Holmes, Dana R Anderson, Carl W White, Livia A Veress
RATIONALE: Inhalation of powerful chemical agents, such as sulfur mustard (SM), can have debilitating pulmonary consequences, such as bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and parenchymal fibrosis (PF). The underlying pathogenesis of disorders after SM inhalation is not clearly understood, resulting in a paucity of effective therapies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of pro-fibrotic pathways involving TGF-β and PDGF in the development of BO and PF after inhalation injury sustained by SM, using a rat model...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310945/image-based-computational-assessment-of-vascular-wall-mechanics-and-hemodynamics-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-patients
#6
Byron A Zambrano, Nathan A McLean, Xiaodan Zhao, Ju-Le Tan, Liang Zhong, C Alberto Figueroa, Lik Chuan Lee, Seungik Baek
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disease characterized by an elevated pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure. While several computational hemodynamic models of the pulmonary vasculature have been developed to understand PAH, they are lacking in some aspects, such as the vessel wall deformation and its lack of calibration against measurements in humans. Here, we describe a computational modeling framework that addresses these limitations. Specifically, computational models describing the coupling of hemodynamics and vessel wall mechanics in the pulmonary vasculature of a PAH patient and a normal subject were developed...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288717/ventilator-derived-dynamic-respiratory-system-compliance-comparison-with-static-compliance-in-children
#7
Anu K Kaskinen, Turkka Kirjavainen, Paula Rautiainen, Laura Martelius, Sture Andersson, Olli M Pitkänen
Measurement of dynamic lung compliance during breathing requires measurement of esophageal pressure, whereas static respiratory system compliance (Crs) method requires several airway occlusions. Despite their precision these compliance methods are cumbersome and not suitable for evaluation of pulmonary system in intensive care. The current ventilators display dynamic Crs, which, however, is seldom utilized in clinical practice. We studied the feasibility of ventilator-derived dynamic Crs measurement in pulmonary evaluation after congenital cardiac surgery in children...
December 27, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284473/involvements-of-p38-mapk-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-ozone-induced-enhancement-of-ahr-and-pulmonary-inflammation-in-an-allergic-asthma-model
#8
Aihua Bao, Hong Yang, Jie Ji, Yuqin Chen, Wuping Bao, Feng Li, Min Zhang, Xin Zhou, Qiang Li, Suqin Ben
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient ozone (O3) increases the susceptivity to allergens and triggers exacerbations in patients with asthma. However, the detailed mechanisms of action for O3 to trigger asthma exacerbations are still unclear. METHODS: An ovalbumin (OVA)-established asthmatic mouse model was selected to expose to filtered air (OVA-model) or 1.0 ppm O3 (OVA-O3 model) during the process of OVA challenge. Next, the possible involvements of p38 MAPK and oxidative stress in the ozone actions on the asthma exacerbations were investigated on the mice of OVA-O3 model by treating them with SB239063 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor), and/or the α-tocopherol (antioxidant)...
December 29, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221484/the-impacts-of-baseline-ventilator-parameters-on-hospital-mortality-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-treated-with-venovenous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Meng-Yu Wu, Yu-Sheng Chang, Chung-Chi Huang, Tzu-I Wu, Pyng-Jing Lin
BACKGROUND: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is a valuable life support in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adult patients. However, the success of VV-ECMO is known to be influenced by the baseline settings of mechanical ventilation (MV) before its institution. This study was aimed at identifying the baseline ventilator parameters which were independently associated with hospital mortality in non-trauma patients receiving VV-ECMO for severe ARDS. METHODS: This retrospective study included 106 non-trauma patients (mean age: 53 years) who received VV-ECMO for ARDS in a single medical center from 2007 to 2016...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220407/respiratory-resistance-and-reactance-in-adults-with-sickle-cell-anemia-correlation-with-functional-exercise-capacity-and-diagnostic-use
#10
Cirlene de Lima Marinho, Maria Christina Paixão Maioli, Jorge Luis Machado do Amaral, Agnaldo José Lopes, Pedro Lopes de Melo
BACKGROUND: The improvement in sickle cell anemia (SCA) care resulted in the emergence of a large population of adults living with this disease. The mechanisms of lung injury in this new population are largely unknown. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) represents the current state-of-the-art in the assessment of lung function. The present work uses the FOT to improve our knowledge about the respiratory abnormalities in SCA, evaluates the associations of FOT with the functional exercise capacity and investigates the early detection of respiratory abnormalities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219321/sheta2-dry-powder-aerosols-for-tuberculosis-formulation-design-and-optimization-using-quality-by-design
#11
Mariam Ibrahim, Manolya Kukut Hatipoglu, Lucila Garcia-Contreras
Tuberculosis (TB) is a life threatening pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Current treatments are complex, lengthy and associated with severe side effects that decrease patient compliance and increase the probability of the emergence of drug resistant strains. Thus, more effective drugs with little to no side effects are needed to diversify the armamentarium against the global TB epidemic. SHetA2, an anticancer compound with null toxicity at doses much higher than the effective dose, was recently discovered to be active against MTB...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219243/genetic-polymorphism-of-human-leucocyte-antigen-and-susceptibility-to-multidrug-resistant-and-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-in-han-chinese-from-hubei-province
#12
X Zhou, Q Zhou, Z-F Yang, W-X Li
We determined the high-resolution allele and haplotype frequencies at the human leucocyte antigen (HLA)A, B and DRB1 loci in the Han population of Hubei province, the TB endemic area of Central China, with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and established the relationship between HLA-A, B and DRB1 alleles as well as haplotypes and susceptibility to multidrug-resistant and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB). Blood samples were drawn from 174 patients with MDR/RR-TB and 838 patients with drug-susceptible PTB in ethnic Han population from Hubei province (central China)...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219058/macrophage-targeted-cellular-carriers-for-effective-delivery-of-anti-tubercular-drugs
#13
S Beg, Jaya Agnihotri, Shibhna Singh, Mohammad Wais
Newly developed vaccine VPM1002 confers paradigm swing in the prophylactic treatment of tuberculosis (TB).Multi drug resistant and latent TB in adults as well as in underprivileged patients is instigating menace over world population if the host is immune-compromised. One third of the world's population is infected with TB. Recently it is estimated around 9.6 million people around the world became sick with TB disease. There were 1.5 million TB-related deaths worldwide. Therefore with the advent in biotechnology and Nano engineering, newly adapted survival molecular mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, new targets receptors on alveolar macrophages must be explored out for eradication of TB from the globe...
December 7, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215132/may-car-washing-represent-a-risk-for-legionella-infection
#14
T Baldovin, A Pierobon, C Bertoncello, E Destefani, M Gennari, A Stano, V Baldo
BACKGROUND: Legionella is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium naturally found in aquatic environments. It can pose a health problem when it grows and spreads in man-made water systems. Legionella pneumophila is the most common cause of Legionnaires' disease nowadays, a community-acquired pneumonia with pulmonary symptoms and chest radiography no different from any other form of infectious pneumonia. Legionella monitoring is important for public health reasons, including the identification of unusual environmental sources of Legionella...
January 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209514/fish-oil-supplementation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-feasibility-of-conducting-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Ashley S Fulton, Alison M Coates, Marie T Williams, Peter R C Howe, Manohar L Garg, Lisa G Wood, Peter Frith, Alison M Hill
Background: Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFAs) may act as an effective adjunct therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a condition characterised by persistent airflow limitation and inflammation. However, the nature of this illness presents challenges for evaluating potential benefits. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of undertaking a randomised controlled trial of LCn-3PUFA supplementation in adults with COPD. Methods: A 16-week parallel, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled dietary supplementation trial was conducted...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200177/effect-of-body-mass-on-oxygenation-and-intra-abdominal-pressure-when-using-a-jackson-surgical-table-in-the-prone-position-during-lumbar-surgery
#16
Liya Ni, Yuhua Fan, Jinjun Bian, Xiaoming Deng, Yu Ma
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that different types of surgical frame and the patient's body mass index can affect pulmonary compliance, intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and oxygenation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) and IAP are known to be associated with body mass index (BMI) when patients are in the supine position. However, there are few reports on the correlation between BMI, the oxygenation index, and IAPin the prone position, especially when a Jackson surgical table is used...
December 1, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193758/haemodynamic-impact-of-pulmonary-vasodilators-on-single-ventricle-physiology
#17
Biagio Castaldi, Giulia Bordin, Massimo Padalino, Elena Cuppini, Vladimiro Vida, Ornella Milanesi
INTRODUCTION: The Fontan procedure is the palliative procedure for single ventricle physiology. Pulmonary resistance plays a key role in the success of this operation. There are conflicting data concerning the impact of pulmonary vasodilators on survival and functional capacity among Fontan patients. AIM: The aim of this retrospective, single-centre, non-randomised study was to investigate the potential effect of pulmonary vasodilators on pulmonary vasculature in Fontan patients...
November 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193631/an-audit-of-change-in-clinical-practice-from-oxygen-driven-to-air-driven-nebulisers-for-prehospital-patients-with-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-aecopd
#18
Deborah Heys, Andrew Swain, Sarah Knowles, Amy Waugh, Mark Bailey
BACKGROUND: In developed countries, ambulances normally carry oxygen cylinders but not compressed air. Treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) with oxygen-driven nebulisers can result in hypercapnia and acidosis. Attempts to avoid this have involved interrupted administration of oxygen.1 However, small battery-powered air nebulisers are now available. AIMS: This study aims to compare the prehospital oxygen saturations and treatment of patients suffering from AECOPD before and after the introduction of air nebulisers...
November 29, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193283/diastolic-dysfunction-in-pulmonary-artery-hypertension-creatine-kinase-and-the-potential-therapeutic-benefit-of-beta-blockers
#19
Ewan D Fowler, Mark J Drinkhill, Rachel Stones, Ed White
Passive properties of the myocardium influence diastolic filling and cardiac output. In heart failure, changes in contributors to the passive properties of the ventricle, such as titin and collagen, and loss of the metabolic enzyme creatine kinase, increase resistance to filling resulting in diastolic dysfunction. Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) arises from interactions between the pulmonary vasculature and the right ventricle (RV) which ultimately leads to RV failure. Beta1-adrenergic receptor blockers (BB) act on the myocardium and are beneficial in left heart failure but are not used in PAH...
November 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191052/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-resistance-and-endurance-exercise-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#20
Lora L Clawson, Merit Cudkowicz, Lisa Krivickas, Benjamin R Brooks, Mohammed Sanjak, Peggy Allred, Nazem Atassi, Amy Swartz, Gabrielle Steinhorn, Alpa Uchil, Kristen M Riley, Hong Yu, David A Schoenfeld, Nicholas J Maragakis
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the safety and tolerability of resistance and endurance exercise in ALS participants as measured by their ability to complete this six-month study. METHODS: Participants were randomized to Resistance, Endurance, or Stretching/Range of Motion (SROM the exercise regimen prescribed for most ALS patients) exercises. All exercises were performed at home with an individualized regimen designed by a physical therapist trained in ALS management. Primary outcome measures were tolerability of the exercises at 24 weeks defined by 50% of participants completing at least 50% of the prescribed exercise regimen...
November 30, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
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