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Lung compliance

Arnoldo Santos, Luca Lucchetta, M Ignacio Monge-Garcia, Joao Batista Borges, Gerardo Tusman, Goran Hedenstierna, Anders Larsson, Fernando Suarez-Sipmann
OBJECTIVE: To test whether positive end-expiratory pressure consistent with an open lung approach improves pulmonary vascular mechanics compared with higher or lower positive end-expiratory pressures in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Ten pigs, 35 ± 5.2 kg. INTERVENTIONS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced combining saline lung lavages with injurious mechanical ventilation...
October 19, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Shadi Shafaghi, Azizollah Abbasi Dezfuli, Zahra Ansari Aval, Kambiz Sheikhy, Behrooz Farzanegan, Esmaeil Mortaz, Habib Emami, Clemens Aigner, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini-Baharanchi, Katayoun Najafizadeh
OBJECTIVES: Although the number of lung transplants is limited because of general shortage of organ donors, ex vivo lung perfusion is a novel method with 2 main benefits, including better evaluation of lung potential and recovery of injured lungs. The main aim of this study was to establish and operationalize ex vivo lung perfusion as the first experience in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective operational research study on 5 cases, including 1 pig from Vienna Medical University and 4 patients from Masih Daneshvari Hospital...
October 14, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Julia Scheiermann, Dennis M Klinman
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation (MV) is commonly used to improve blood oxygenation in critically ill patients and for general anesthesia. Yet the cyclic mechanical stress induced at even moderate ventilation volume settings [tidal volume (Vt) <10 mL/kg] can injure the lungs and induce an inflammatory response. This work explores the effect of treatment with suppressive oligonucleotides (Sup ODN) in a mouse model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). METHODS: Balb/cJ mice were mechanically ventilated for 4 h using clinically relevant Vt and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 3 cmH2O under 2-3% isoflurane anesthesia...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Keiji Ohata, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Toshi Menju, Ei Miyamoto, Satona Tanaka, Mamoru Takahashi, Hideki Motoyama, Kyoko Hijiya, Akihiro Aoyama, Hiroshi Date
BACKGROUND: Rho-kinase, an intracellular serine/threonine kinase, is a key regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Recent studies have demonstrated that Rho-kinase is involved in the ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) pathogenesis of many organs; however, its involvement with lung IRI remains unclear. This study assessed the association of Rho-kinase with lung IRI and evaluated the protective effect of inhaled Rho-kinase inhibitors in lung IRI. METHODS: The study included isolated rat lung perfusion models, divided into three groups: sham, Rho-kinase inhibitor, and warm ischemia (n = 6 each)...
October 12, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Christina Brandenberger, Christian Mühlfeld
Lung aging is associated with structural remodeling, a decline of respiratory function and a higher susceptibility to acute and chronic lung diseases. Individual factors that modulate pulmonary aging include basic genetic configuration, environmental exposure, life-style and biography of systemic diseases. However, the actual aging of the lung takes place in pulmonary resident cells and is closely linked to aging of the immune system (immunosenescence). Therefore, this article reviews the current knowledge about the impact of aging on pulmonary cells and the immune system, without analyzing those factors that may accelerate the aging process in depth...
October 14, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
M M C da Silva, R A Corcha, A M Oliveira da Silva, F J B Z Franco, J R de Souza Almeida, I F S F Boin
BACKGROUND: Patients in the immediate post-operative liver transplantation (LxT) period can develop respiratory and functional complications. In the postoperative months, these functions tend to improve. Nevertheless, there are few studies that evaluate precisely and specifically respiratory function in post-LxT long-term after surgery. The objective of the study was to describe the respiratory profile of patients 1 to 6 months after LxT, accompanied by LxT outpatients. METHODS: We included patients between 25 and 60 years old...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
J Hunter Mehaffey, Eric J Charles, Ashish K Sharma, Dustin T Money, Yunge Zhao, Mark H Stoler, Christine L Lau, Curtis G Tribble, Victor E Laubach, Mark E Roeser, Irving L Kron
OBJECTIVE: Critical organ shortages have resulted in ex vivo lung perfusion gaining clinical acceptance for lung evaluation and rehabilitation to expand the use of donation after circulatory death organs for lung transplantation. We hypothesized that an innovative use of airway pressure release ventilation during ex vivo lung perfusion improves lung function after transplantation. METHODS: Two groups (n = 4 animals/group) of porcine donation after circulatory death donor lungs were procured after hypoxic cardiac arrest and a 2-hour period of warm ischemia, followed by a 4-hour period of ex vivo lung perfusion rehabilitation with standard conventional volume-based ventilation or pressure-based airway pressure release ventilation...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Anu K Kaskinen, Laura Martelius, Turkka Kirjavainen, Paula Rautiainen, Sture Andersson, Olli M Pitkänen
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasounds show vertical artifacts known as B-lines in the presence of increased extravascular lung water (EVLW). We aimed to investigate whether lung ultrasound could estimate EVLW after congenital cardiac surgery. METHODS: This prospective observational study comprised 61 children (age range 3 days to 7.4 years) undergoing congenital cardiac surgery. We compared postoperative B-line scores from lung ultrasounds, early postoperative ultrasound as our primary interest, with corresponding postoperative chest radiography (CXR) lung edema scores, with static lung compliance, and with short-term clinical outcome interpreted as time on mechanical ventilation and length of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection.In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogenous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Kyoko Hijiya, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Takeshi Kondo, Hideki Motoyama, Akihiro Ohsumi, Daisuke Nakajima, Jin Sakamoto, Keiji Ohata, Mamoru Takahashi, Satona Tanaka, Ei Miyamoto, Akihiro Aoyama, Hiroshi Date
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that an injured lung graft from donation after cardiac death donors could be reconditioned before transplantation using an ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) system and ventilation with high-dose short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonists. METHODS: Cardiac arrest was induced in a canine model by intravenous potassium chloride injection. Lungs were randomly assigned to two groups after 150 minutes of warm ischemia: inhalation of 1,400 μg of procaterol (BETA group, n = 5) or control group receiving solvent (CON group, n = 5) during EVLP...
October 10, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Yen Leong Chua, Ka Hang Liong, Chiung-Hui Huang, Hok Sum Wong, Qian Zhou, Say Siong Ler, Yafang Tang, Chin Pei Low, Hui Yu Koh, I-Chun Kuo, Yongliang Zhang, W S Fred Wong, Hong Yong Peh, Hwee Ying Lim, Moyar Qing Ge, Angela Haczku, Veronique Angeli, Paul A MacAry, Kaw Yan Chua, David M Kemeny
Previous studies have highlighted the importance of lung-draining lymph nodes in the respiratory allergic immune response, whereas the lung parenchymal immune system has been largely neglected. We describe a new in vivo model of respiratory sensitization to Blomia tropicalis, the principal asthma allergen in the tropics, in which the immune response is focused on the lung parenchyma by transfer of Th2 cells from a novel TCR transgenic mouse, specific for the major B. tropicalis allergen Blo t 5, that targets the lung rather than the draining lymph nodes...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Toshihiro Okamoto, David Wheeler, Qiang Liu, Cristiano Quintini, J Steven Hata, Kenneth R McCurry
BACKGROUND: Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) may be an essential process for the pre-transplant evaluation of the donor lungs. Currently, the partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2, or PF) ratio is the standard in the assessment of lung function in cellular EVLP, whereas other parameters, including airway and vascular parameters, have only been partially utilized. The primary purpose of this study is to assess the potential utility of other parameters as a surrogate of lung function in EVLP...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection.In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogenous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Keisuke Fujii, Kyle McMillan, Maryam Bostani, Christopher Cagnon, Michael McNitt-Gray
OBJECTIVE: The U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) recently approved the use of low-dose CT for lung cancer screening and described volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) requirements. These were based on the National Lung Screening Trial, which used only fixed-tube-current techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate dose index data from a lung cancer screening program using automatic exposure control (AEC) techniques to ensure compliance with requirements and to correlate dose index values with patient size...
October 11, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Takahiro Sugiura, Rei Urushibata, Kenji Komatsu, Tsutomu Shioda, Tatsuki Ota, Megumi Sato, Yumiko Okubo, Tetsuya Fukuoka, Shigeharu Hosono, Masanori Tamura
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend avoiding excessive oxygen administration during neonatal resuscitation. Recent studies have suggested that oxygen titration can be achieved using a self-inflating bag. However, only a few data have supported the effectiveness of resuscitators used in neonatal ventilation. The aim of this study is to determine the amount of oxygen delivered using several brands of neonatal self-inflating resuscitation bags without reservoirs under several conditions, including different oxygen flow rates, ventilation rates (VR), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) ranges, and test lung compliances...
October 5, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Laura Lucarini, Mariaconcetta Durante, Cecilia Lanzi, Alessandro Pini, Giulia Boccalini, Laura Calosi, Flavio Moroni, Emanuela Masini, Guido Mannaioni
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a severe disease characterized by excessive myofibroblast proliferation, extracellular matrix and fibrils deposition, remodelling of lung parenchyma and pulmonary insufficiency. Drugs able to reduce disease progression are available, but therapeutic results are unsatisfactory; new and safe treatments are urgently needed. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases-1 (PARP-1) is an abundant nuclear enzyme involved in key biological processes: DNA repair, gene expression control, and cell survival or death...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Takemasa Matsumoto, Masaki Fujita, Ryosuke Hirano, Junji Uchino, Yukari Tajiri, Satoru Fukuyama, Yasuo Morimoto, Kentaro Watanabe
The club cell secretory protein (CCSP) is a regulator of lung inflammation following acute respiratory infection or lung injury. Recently, the relationship between CCSP and COPD has been reported. Since COPD results from an abnormal inflammatory response, we hypothesized that CCSP could have a protective role against chronic inflammation-induced lung damage. To address this issue, the pathophysiology of chronic lung inflammation induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in CCSP-deficient mice was determined. A tube of 5 mm in length was soaked in a fluid containing P...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Michihiro Hashimoto, Azusa Asai, Hiroyuki Kawagishi, Ryuta Mikawa, Yuji Iwashita, Kazuki Kanayama, Kazushi Sugimoto, Tadashi Sato, Mitsuo Maruyama, Masataka Sugimoto
Senescent cells accumulate in many tissues as animals age and are considered to underlie several aging-associated pathologies. The tumor suppressors p19(ARF) and p16(INK4a), both of which are encoded in the CDKN2A locus, play critical roles in inducing and maintaining permanent cell cycle arrest during cellular senescence. Although the elimination of p16(INK4a)-expressing cells extends the life span of the mouse, it is unclear whether tissue function is restored by the elimination of senescent cells in aged animals and whether and how p19(ARF) contributes to tissue aging...
August 4, 2016: JCI Insight
Simon B Drysdale, Mireia Alcazar, Theresa Wilson, Melvyn Smith, Mark Zuckerman, Hennie M Hodemaekers, Riny Janssen, Louis Bont, Sebastian L Johnston, Anne Greenough
: Term born infants are predisposed to human rhinovirus (HRV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) by reduced neonatal lung function and genetic susceptibility. Our aim was to investigate whether prematurely born infants were similarly predisposed to HRV LRTIs or any other viral LRTIs. Infants born less than 36 weeks of gestational age were recruited. Prior to neonatal/maternity unit discharge, lung function (functional residual capacity by helium gas dilution and multiple breath washout, lung clearance index and compliance (Crs), and resistance (Rrs) of the respiratory system) was assessed and DNA samples assessed for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes: ADAM33, IL10, MMP16 NFκB1A,SFTPC, VDR, and NOS2A...
October 1, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Grace Hofmann, Lutana Haan, Jeff Anderson
Esophageal balloons are used in the respiratory monitoring of critical care patients. After the esophageal pressure is measured, the corresponding pleural pressure in the thorax can be projected, enabling lung-thorax compliance to be partitioned into chest-wall compliance and lung compliance. The esophageal balloon allows determination of transpulmonary pressures and a correspondingly individually tailored approach to respiratory care, such as patient-specific titration of positive end-expiratory pressure for patients with extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 2016: Critical Care Nurse
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