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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225865/continuous-blood-purification-treatment-for-endotoxin-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#1
Y Jiang, R Lin, Y Xu, S Zhang, K Cui, M Zhu, A Li, C Chen, J Yang, W Yang
This study aimed to explore the effects of continuous blood purification (CBP) treatment in pigs affected with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A total of 12 healthy male pigs, weighing 12±1.8 kg, were randomly and equally assigned to the control and experimental groups. The ARDS pig model was prepared by intravenous injections of endotoxin (20 µg/kg). The control group was given conventional supportive therapy, while the experimental group was given continuous veno-venous hemofiltration therapy...
February 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223154/idiopathic-and-systemic-sclerosis-associated-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-comparison-of-demographic-haemodynamic-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-characteristics-and-outcomes
#2
Sheila Ramjug, Nehal Hussain, Judith Hurdman, Catherine Billings, Athanasios Charampopoulos, Charlie A Elliot, David G Kiely, Ian Sabroe, Smitha Rajaram, Andrew J Swift, Robin Condliffe
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified survival in systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH) to be worse than in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). We investigated differences between these conditions by comparing demographic, haemodynamic and radiological characteristics and outcomes in a large cohort of incident patients. METHODS: 651 patients diagnosed with IPAH or SSc-associated pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension were included...
February 18, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221999/coupling-effect-of-double-lungs-on-a-vcv-ventilator-with-automatic-secretion-clearance-function
#3
Yan Shi, Bolun Zhang, Maolin Cai, Weiqing Xu
For patients with mechanical ventilation, secretions in airway are harmful and sometimes even mortal, it's of great significance to clear secretion timely and efficiently. In this paper, a new secretion clearance method for VCV (volume-controlled ventilation) ventilator is put forward, and a secretion clearance system with a VCV ventilator and double lungs is designed. Furthermore, the mathematical model of the secretion clearance system is built and verified via experimental study. Finally, to illustrate the influence of key parameters of respiratory system and secretion clearance system on the secretion clearance characteristics, coupling effects of two lungs on VCV secretion clearance system are studied by an orthogonal experiment, it can be obtained that rise of tidal volume adds to efficiency of secretion clearance while effect of area, compliance and suction pressure on efficiency of secretion clearance needs further study...
February 16, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216699/comparison-of-volume-controlled-ventilation-and-pressure-controlled-ventilation-in-patients-undergoing-robot-assisted-pelvic-surgeries-an-open-label-trial
#4
Rishabh Jaju, Pooja Bihani Jaju, Mamta Dubey, Sadik Mohammad, A K Bhargava
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although volume controlled ventilation (VCV) has been the traditional mode of ventilation in robotic surgery, recently pressure controlled ventilation (PCV) has been used more frequently. However, evidence on whether PCV is superior to VCV is still lacking. We intended to compare the effects of VCV and PCV on respiratory mechanics and haemodynamic in patients undergoing robotic surgeries in steep Trendelenburg position. METHODS: This prospective, randomized trial was conducted on sixty patients between 20 and 70 years belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologist Physical Status I-II...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215134/drainage-of-pleural-effusion-improves-diaphragmatic-function-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#5
Michele Umbrello, Giovanni Mistraletti, Andrea Galimberti, Ilaria R Piva, Ottavia Cozzi, Paolo Formenti
BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion adversely affects the pressuregenerating capacity of the diaphragm. It uncouples the lung and chest wall, which may result in diaphragmatic dysfunction. Information on the effects of effusion drainage on diaphragmatic function is limited, but several studies report relief of dyspnoea after drainage, which was attributed to improved diaphragmatic mechanics, even if this issue was never formally addressed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of drainage of unilateral pleural effusion on diaphragmatic function...
March 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213006/a-prospective-multi-institutional-phase-ii-study-of-induction-chemoradiotherapy-followed-by-surgery-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-involving-the-chest-wall-cjlsg0801
#6
Koji Kawaguchi, Kohei Yokoi, Hiroshi Niwa, Yasuhisa Ohde, Shoichi Mori, Sakae Okumura, Satoshi Shiono, Hiroyuki Ito, Motoki Yano, Kikuo Shigemitsu, Yoshinori Hiramatsu, Jiro Okami, Hideo Saka
OBJECTIVES: The standard therapy for patients with T3N0-1M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) involving the chest wall is considered surgical resection and adjuvant therapy. However, the compliance of adjuvant therapy is relatively low, and the prognosis for those patients has been unsatisfactory. Therefore, we conducted a phase II study of induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery with the aim of improving the survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This treatment strategy consisted of induction chemotherapy (two cycles of cisplatin at 80mg/m(2) on Day 1 and vinorelbine at 20mg/m(2) on Days 1 and 8) concurrent with radiotherapy (40Gy in 20 fractions) followed by surgery...
February 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212162/volume-and-pressure-delivery-during-pediatric-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation
#7
Ronald Wong, Timothy Deakers, Justin Hotz, Robinder G Khemani, Patrick A Ross, Christopher J Newth
OBJECTIVE: Identify variables independently associated with delivered tidal volume (VT) and measured mean airway pressure during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation across the range of pediatric endotracheal tube sizes. DESIGN: In vitro study. SETTING: Research laboratory. INTERVENTIONS: An in vitro bench model of the intubated pediatric respiratory system during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation was used to obtain delivered VT and mean airway pressure (in the distal lung) for various endotracheal tube sizes...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210319/physiology-of-respiratory-disturbances-in-muscular-dystrophies
#8
Antonella Lo Mauro, Andrea Aliverti
: Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited myopathies characterised by progressive skeletal muscle wasting, including of the respiratory muscles. Respiratory failure, i.e. when the respiratory system fails in its gas exchange functions, is a common feature in muscular dystrophy, being the main cause of death, and it is a consequence of lung failure, pump failure or a combination of the two. The former is due to recurrent aspiration, the latter to progressive weakness of respiratory muscles and an increase in the load against which they must contract...
December 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199243/intraabdominal-surgery-and-anesthesia-management
#9
John Hedley-Whyte
: Inspired Oxygenation in Surgical Patients During General Anesthesia With Controlled Ventilation: A Concept of Atelectasis. By Bendixen HH, Hedley-Whyte J, and Laver MB. New Engl J Med 1963; 269:991-996. Reprinted with permission. ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine if the pattern of ventilation, by itself, influences oxygenation during anesthesia and surgery and examine the hypothesis that progressive pulmonary atelectasis may occur during constant ventilation whenever periodic hyperventilation is lacking, but is reversible by passive hyperinflation of the lungs...
March 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185721/approaches-and-adjuncts-used-by-physiotherapists-when-suctioning-adult-patients-who-are-intubated-and-ventilated-in-intensive-care-units-in-australia-and-new-zealand-a-cross-sectional-survey
#10
Charissa S L Tan, Meg Harrold, Kylie Hill
BACKGROUND: Suctioning is an integral component of care for patients who are intubated and ventilated in an intensive care unit (ICU). There appears to be no published data of physiotherapy suctioning practices in Australia or New Zealand. OBJECTIVE: To describe suctioning practices and the factors which have shaped these practices, of experienced physiotherapists working with adults who are intubated and ventilated in an ICU across Australia and New Zealand. Areas of investigation focused on: (i) suctioning approach (i...
February 6, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182686/predicting-structure-function-relations-and-survival-following-surgical-and-bronchoscopic-lung-volume-reduction-treatment-of-emphysema
#11
Jarred R Mondoñedo, Béla Suki
Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (bLVR) are palliative treatments aimed at reducing hyperinflation in advanced emphysema. Previous work has evaluated functional improvements and survival advantage for these techniques, although their effects on the micromechanical environment in the lung have yet to be determined. Here, we introduce a computational model to simulate a force-based destruction of elastic networks representing emphysema progression, which we use to track the response to lung volume reduction via LVRS and bLVR...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170388/lung-liquid-clearance-in-preterm-lambs-assessed-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Ali Houeijeh, Pierre Tourneux, Sébastien Mur, Estelle Aubry, Romain Viard, Dyuti Sharma, Laurent Storme
BACKGROUND: Postnatal adaptation requires liquid clearance and lung aeration. However, their relative contribution to the expansion of functional residual capacity (FRC) has not been fully investigated. We studied evolution of lung liquid removal and lung aeration after birth in preterm lambs. METHODS: Lung liquid content and lung volume were assessed at birth and every 30 minutes over 2 hours using MRI in 3 groups of lambs delivered by cesarean: preterm, late preterm, and late preterm with antenatal steroids...
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166118/all-extremity-exercise-training-improves-arterial-stiffness-in-older-adults
#13
Han-Kyul Kim, Chueh-Lung Hwang, Jeung-Ki Yoo, Moon-Hyon Hwang, Eileen M Handberg, John W Petersen, Wilmer W Nichols, Sofia Sofianos, Demetra D Christou
: Large elastic arteries stiffen with age which predisposes older adults to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise training is known to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease, but the optimal exercise prescription for attenuating large elastic arterial stiffening in older adults is not known. PURPOSE: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the effect of all-extremity high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and carotid artery compliance in older adults...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159013/the-effects-of-low-tidal-ventilation-on-lung-strain-correlate-with-respiratory-system-compliance
#14
Jianfeng Xie, Fang Jin, Chun Pan, Songqiao Liu, Ling Liu, Jingyuan Xu, Yi Yang, Haibo Qiu
BACKGROUND: The effect of alterations in tidal volume on mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is determined by respiratory system compliance. We aimed to investigate the effects of different tidal volumes on lung strain in ARDS patients who had various levels of respiratory system compliance. METHODS: Nineteen patients were divided into high (Chigh group) and low (Clow group) respiratory system compliance groups based on their respiratory system compliance values...
February 3, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157412/a-trans-nasal-aerosol-delivery-device-for-efficient-pulmonary-deposition
#15
Kirby L Zeman, Juan Rojas Balcazar, Fred Fuller, Karl H Donn, Richard C Boucher, William D Bennett, Scott H Donaldson
BACKGROUND: Efficient delivery of aerosols to the lungs via the nasal route has been difficult to achieve, but it may offer benefits over the traditional oral route for a range of patient populations. Because slow, continuous delivery of short-acting agents could improve safety, tolerability, compliance, and efficacy when compared with the rapid, intermittent aerosol treatments delivered by mouthpiece or mask, a novel trans-nasal pulmonary aerosol delivery (tPAD) device was developed...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156620/usage-of-oregon-s-death-with-dignity-act-dwda
#16
Michael Leo LeBlanc, Dawn L Hershman, Lee M Ellis, Frank L Meyskens
: 44 Background: In 1997, OR enacted a voter initiative allowing terminally ill residents to self-administer physician-prescribed medication to end their lives. Statute requires prescriptions written for lethal medications be reported; the state also collects demographic and intended use data. We wished to to evaluate and report participation trends. METHODS: OR's Public Health Division gathers compliance forms from prescribing/consulting physicians, pharmacists, and psychiatrists, prescribing physician follow-up forms, and death certificates...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155806/human-immunology-of-tuberculosis
#17
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection. In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogeneous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152837/discussions-of-cancer-screening-what-do-physicians-say-what-do-patients-hear-and-how-much-shared-decision-making-occurs
#18
Gina Aharonoff, Maureen Bezuhly, Jessica Herzstein, Michael P Osborne, Floyd Jackson Fowler
: 180 Background: Like other medical interventions, cancer screening requires shared decision-making (SDM). To better understand the process, we are performing a cluster-randomized trial of educational supports to improve screening guideline compliance for breast, cervical, colorectal, lung and prostate cancer at two urban academic medical centers. We present interim results that focus on recalled SDM discussions. METHODS: We are enrolling an age- and sex-stratified sample of 216 patients aged 30 to 89 years, 18 treated by each of 12 primary care physicians at two affiliated hospitals before a periodic physical examination...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150228/personalizing-mechanical-ventilation-according-to-physiologic-parameters-to-stabilize-alveoli-and-minimize-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-vili
#19
REVIEW
Gary F Nieman, Joshua Satalin, Penny Andrews, Hani Aiash, Nader M Habashi, Louis A Gatto
It has been shown that mechanical ventilation in patients with, or at high-risk for, the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be a double-edged sword. If the mechanical breath is improperly set, it can amplify the lung injury associated with ARDS, causing a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Conversely, the mechanical breath can be adjusted to minimize VILI, which can reduce ARDS mortality. The current standard of care ventilation strategy to minimize VILI attempts to reduce alveolar over-distension and recruitment-derecruitment (R/D) by lowering tidal volume (Vt) to 6 cc/kg combined with adjusting positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP) based on a sliding scale directed by changes in oxygenation...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146639/fifty-years-of-research-in-ards-setting-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#20
Sarina K Sahetya, Ewan C Goligher, Roy G Brower
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has been utilized during mechanical ventilation since the first description of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the subsequent decades, many different strategies for optimally titrating PEEP have been proposed. Higher PEEP can improve arterial oxygenation, reduce tidal lung stress and strain, and promote more homogenous ventilation by preventing alveolar collapse at end expiration. However, PEEP may also cause circulatory depression and contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury through alveolar overdistention...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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