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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138038/low-dose-betamethasone-acetate-for-fetal-lung-maturation-in-preterm-sheep
#1
Augusto F Schmidt, Matthew W Kemp, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Paranthaman S Kannan, Haruo Usuda, Masatoshi Saito, Lucy Furfaro, Shimpei Watanabe, Sarah Stock, Boris W Kramer, John P Newnham, Suhas G Kallapur, Alan H Jobe
BACKGROUND: Antenatal steroids (ANS) are standard of care for women at risk of preterm delivery; however ANS dosing and formulation have not been adequately evaluated. The standard clinical 2-dose treatment with betamethasone-acetate+betamethasone-phosphate (Beta-P+Beta-Ac) is more effective than 2 doses of Beta-P for inducing lung maturation in preterm fetal sheep. We hypothesized that the slowly-released Beta-Ac component induces similar lung maturation to Beta-P+Beta-Ac with decreased dose and fetal exposure...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135755/management-of-skin-toxicity-caused-by-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-inhibitors-an-evidence-based-implementation-project
#2
Xiaolu Guo, Micah D J Peters, Zhenqi Lu
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) bind to and inhibit epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in cancer cells, slowing/preventing tumor growth. As a type of "targeted therapy", they have demonstrated therapeutic effects on solid tumors including colorectal, lung, and head and neck cancers. While effective, various skin reactions are associated with EGFRI therapy which can lead to dose modification or discontinuation as well as discomfort, pain and reduced quality of life...
November 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131071/highly-selective-endothelin-1-receptor-a-inhibition-prevents-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-mice
#3
Nikolaos Manitsopoulos, Ioanna Nikitopoulou, Nikolaos A Maniatis, Christina Magkou, Anastasia Kotanidou, Stylianos E Orfanos
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic disease, which progressively leads to respiratory failure and ultimately death. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a vasoconstrictor secreted by endothelial cells, promotes vasoconstriction by activation of its receptors A and B. OBJECTIVES: We addressed the role of highly selective ET-1 receptor A (ETA) inhibition in the pathogenesis of experimental pulmonary fibrosis by bleomycin (BLM). METHODS: BLM sulfate (2 U/mL) or saline was intratracheally administered to C57/Bl6 mice (4 groups; n = 5-11/group)...
November 9, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129441/health-related-quality-of-life-results-for-pembrolizumab-versus-chemotherapy-in-advanced-pd-l1-positive-nsclc-keynote-024-a-multicentre-international-randomised-open-label-phase-3-trial
#4
Julie R Brahmer, Delvys Rodríguez-Abreu, Andrew G Robinson, Rina Hui, Tibor Csőszi, Andrea Fülöp, Maya Gottfried, Nir Peled, Ali Tafreshi, Sinead Cuffe, Mary O'Brien, Suman Rao, Katsuyuki Hotta, Jin Zhang, Gregory M Lubiniecki, Anne C Deitz, Reshma Rangwala, Martin Reck
BACKGROUND: In the phase 3 KEYNOTE-024 trial, treatment with pembrolizumab conferred longer progression-free survival than did platinum-based therapy in patients with treatment-naive, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumour proportion score of 50% or greater (PD-L1-positive). Here we report the prespecified exploratory endpoint of pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). METHODS: In this multicentre, international, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients with treatment-naive, stage IV NSCLC in 102 sites in 16 countries...
November 9, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129030/effects-of-cpap-and-mandibular-advancement-device-treatment-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Martha Schwartz, Luis Acosta, Yuan-Lung Hung, Mariela Padilla, Reyes Enciso
The purpose of this review is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) in improving the quality of life (sleepiness, cognitive, and functional outcomes) in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Authors identified randomized, placebo-controlled studies from MEDLINE through PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Studies were assessed for inclusion and exclusion criteria, as well as risk of bias...
November 11, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112971/effects-of-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-and-recruitment-maneuvers-in-a-ventilator-induced-injury-mouse-model
#6
Laura A Cagle, Lisa M Franzi, Angela L Linderholm, Jerold A Last, Jason Y Adams, Richart W Harper, Nicholas J Kenyon
BACKGROUND: Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation is an essential therapeutic intervention, yet it causes the clinical syndrome known as ventilator-induced lung injury. Various lung protective mechanical ventilation strategies have attempted to reduce or prevent ventilator-induced lung injury but few modalities have proven effective. A model that isolates the contribution of mechanical ventilation on the development of acute lung injury is needed to better understand biologic mechanisms that lead to ventilator-induced lung injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111860/identification-of-the-gender-specific-health-needs-of-women-following-lung-transplantation
#7
Emily E Robertson, Robin J Bell, Penelope J Robinson, Greg Snell, Bronwyn Levvey, Helen M Whitford, Jane Harris, Susan R Davis
BACKGROUND: Little is known of the prevalence and severity of menstrual dysfunction, climacteric symptoms, pelvic floor disorders, sexual problems, and psychological wellbeing after lung transplantation in women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult female lung transplant recipients, attending the Alfred Hospital Lung Transplant Service in Melbourne, Australia participated in a women's health, cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. RESULTS: The 123 of 149 potential participants were recruited between September 2014 and July 2015...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107740/autonomic-function-testing-compliance-and-consequences
#8
Thorsten Kamlarczyk Rasmussen, John Hansen, Phillip A Low, Paola Sandroni, Wolfgang Singer, Troels Staehelin Jensen, Astrid Juhl Terkelsen
BACKGROUND: The deep breathing test (DB) and Valsalva maneuver (VM) are used to detect autonomic dysfunction. The VM induces sympathetically mediated changes in blood pressure (phase II late, phase IV, and recovery time) and both tests induce vagally mediated heart rate changes. There is limited information on effects of key variables, compliance with testing and the effects of non-compliance This study has twin goals of evaluating compliance with standard instructions and the effects of changes in key variables...
October 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104545/the-adenosine-hypothesis-revisited-modulation-of-coupling-between-myocardial-perfusion-and-arterial-compliance
#9
Geoffrey P Dobson, Aryadi Arsyad, Hayley L Letson
For over four decades the thoracic aortic ring model has become one of the most widely used methods to study vascular reactivity and electromechanical coupling. A question that is rarely asked, however, is what function does a drug-mediated relaxation (or contraction) in this model serve in the intact system? The physiological significance of adenosine relaxation in rings isolated from large elastic conduit arteries from a wide range of species remains largely unknown. We propose that adenosine relaxation increases aortic compliance in acute stress states and facilitates ventricular-arterial (VA) coupling, and thereby links compliance and coronary artery perfusion to myocardial energy metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104008/structured-pharmacist-led-intervention-programme-to-improve-medication-adherence-in-copd-patients-a-randomized-controlled-study
#10
Suhaj Abdulsalim, Mazhuvancherry Kesavan Unnikrishnan, Mohan K Manu, Alian A Alrasheedy, Brian Godman, Donald E Morisky
BACKGROUND: COPD is characterised by a progressive airflow limitation in the lungs. However, adherence to therapy improves management of symptoms and delays disease progression. Therefore, patients' knowledge and awareness about the disease are important. Hence, pharmacist-led educational interventions could achieve this and improve medication adherence. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a clinical pharmacist-led intervention on medication adherence in COPD patients in a teaching hospital...
October 26, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099037/quantification-of-age-related-lung-tissue-mechanics-under-mechanical-ventilation
#11
JongWon Kim, Rebecca L Heise, Angela M Reynolds, Ramana M Pidaparti
Elderly patients with obstructive lung diseases often receive mechanical ventilation to support their breathing and restore respiratory function. However, mechanical ventilation is known to increase the severity of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in the elderly. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of aging to better understand the lung tissue mechanics to estimate the severity of ventilator-induced lung injuries. Two age-related geometric models involving human bronchioles from generation G10 to G23 and alveolar sacs were developed...
September 29, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098998/the-emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-on-inhaled-antibiotics
#12
Atqah AbdulWahab, Khalid Zahraldin, Mazen A Sid Ahmed, Sulieman Abu Jarir, Mohammed Muneer, Shehab F Mohamed, Jemal M Hamid, Abubaker A I Hassan, Emad Bashir Ibrahim
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA) is an important and growing issue in the care of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the frequency of MDR-PA recovered from the lower respiratory samples of pediatric and adult CF patients, and its antibiotic resistance pattern to commonly used antimicrobial agents including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones...
November 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080709/internet-based-monitoring-in-the-severe-asthma-research-program-identifies-a-subgroup-of-patients-with-labile-asthma-control
#13
Kelly Wong-McGrath, Loren C Denlinger, Eugene R Bleecker, Mario Castro, Ben Gaston, Elliot Israel, Nizar N Jarjour, David T Mauger, Stephen Peters, Brenda R Phillips, Sally E Wenzel, John V Fahy, Michael C Peters
BACKGROUND: We designed an Internet-Based Monitoring Systems (IBS) survey to facilitate monitoring of asthma symptoms and asthma exacerbations in the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP). Our objective was to evaluate compliance with the IBS survey tool and to explore how data from an IBS tool can inform understanding of asthma phenotypes. METHODS: We invited adult subjects in the SARP III cohort (N = 528) to complete a monthly IBS asthma control survey. We compared the characteristics of subjects who did and those who did not participate in the IBS survey tool...
October 26, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080401/reactive-oxygen-species-as-signaling-molecules-in-the-development-of-lung-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Francisco J Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Navdeep Chandel, Manu Jain, G R Scott Budinger
Pulmonary fibrosis is a relatively rare but devastating disease characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. The increased matrix results in reduced lung compliance and increased work of breathing, while the obliteration of alveolar-capillary structures can result in hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension, which manifests clinically as worsening shortness of breath, respiratory failure, and death. Unbiased genome-wide association studies combined with animal models suggest that damage to the alveolar epithelium is the initiating factor in pulmonary fibrosis...
October 10, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078641/robotic-assisted-lobectomy-for-locally-advanced-lung-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Giulia Veronesi, Pierluigi Novellis, Orazio Difrancesco, Mark Dylewski
Some series report the use of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but, few studies describe the use of the robotic approach specifically for locally advanced disease. One potential advantage of the robotic approach over traditional VATS is the increased radicality. While the benefit of the robotic approach over open thoracotomy is directly related to reduced surgical trauma and the improved tolerability in fragile patients that have received induction treatment...
2017: J Vis Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077160/effect-of-pulmonary-surfactant-combined-with-mechanical-ventilation-on-oxygenation-functions-and-expressions-of-serum-transforming-growth-factor-beta1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-bmp-7-of-neonatal-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#16
L-P Wang, Q-H Mao, L Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and discuss the effect of early treatment with pulmonary surfactant (PS) on oxygenation functions in neonates with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), to understand the expression trend of serum transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) in children with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS), and to provide help for early prevention and treatment of NRDS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All the children were treated with mechanical ventilation; among them, 25 NRDS children who were given PS within 12 h after birth were selected as PS group, and 25 NRDS children who were never given PS were selected as conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) group...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074714/potential-for-non-invasive-assessment-of-lung-inhomogeneity-using-highly-precise-highly-time-resolved-measurements-of-gas-exchange
#17
James E Mountain, Peter Santer, David Patrick O'Neill, Nicholas M J Smith, Luca Ciaffoni, John H Couper, Grant A D Ritchie, Gus Hancock, Jonathan P Whiteley, Peter A Robbins
Inhomogeneity in the lung impairs gas exchange and can be an early marker of lung disease. We hypothesised that highly precise measurements of gas exchange contain sufficient information to quantify many aspects of the inhomogeneity non-invasively. Our aim was to explore whether one parameterization of lung inhomogeneity could both fit such data and provide reliable parameter estimates. A mathematical model of gas exchange in an inhomogeneous lung was developed, containing inhomogeneity parameters for compliance, vascular conductance and deadspace, all relative to lung volume...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073967/inhibition-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-blocks-mesomesenchymal-transition-and-attenuates-streptococcus-pneumonia-mediated-pleural-injury-in-mice
#18
Jake Boren, Grant Shryock, Alexis Fergis, Ann Jeffers, Shuzi Owens, Wenyi Qin, Kathleen B Koenig, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Satoshi Komatsu, Mitsuo Ikebe, Steven Idell, Torry A Tucker
Pleural loculation affects about 30,000 patients annually in the United States and in severe cases can resolve with restrictive lung disease and pleural fibrosis. Pleural mesothelial cells contribute to pleural rind formation by undergoing mesothelial mesenchymal transition (MesoMT), whereby they acquire a profibrotic phenotype characterized by increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen 1. Components of the fibrinolytic pathway (urokinase plasminogen activator and plasmin) are elaborated in pleural injury and strongly induce MesoMT in vitro...
November 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070502/the-prognostic-value-of-follow-up-hemodynamic-variables-after-initial-management-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#19
Jason Weatherald, Athénaïs Boucly, Denis Chemla, Laurent Savale, Mingkai Peng, Mitja Jevnikar, Xavier Jaïs, Yu Taniguchi, Caroline O'Connell, Florence Parent, Caroline Sattler, Philippe Hervé, Gérald Simonneau, David Montani, Marc Humbert, Yochai Adir, Olivier Sitbon
Background -Hemodynamic variables, such as cardiac index and right atrial pressure (RAP), have consistently been associated with survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) at the time of diagnosis. Recent studies have suggested pulmonary arterial compliance (PCa) may also predict prognosis in PAH. The prognostic importance of hemodynamic values achieved after treatment initiation is less well established. Methods -Our objective was to evaluate the prognostic importance of clinical and hemodynamic variables during follow-up, including PCa, after initial management in PAH...
October 25, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062835/toward-exosome-based-therapeutics-isolation-heterogeneity-and-fit-for-purpose-potency
#20
Gareth R Willis, Stella Kourembanas, S Alex Mitsialis
Exosomes are defined as submicron (30-150 nm), lipid bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles (EVs), specifically generated by the late endosomal compartment through fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Produced by almost all cells, exosomes were originally considered to represent just a mechanism for jettisoning unwanted cellular moieties. Although this may be a major function in most cells, evolution has recruited the endosomal membrane-sorting pathway to duties beyond mere garbage disposal, one of the most notable examples being its cooption by retroviruses for the generation of Trojan virions...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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