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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933153/improving-pneumococcal-vaccination-rates-of-medical-inpatients-in-urban-nepal-using-quality-improvement-measures
#1
Allison Bock, Kathan Chintamaneni, Lisa Rein, Tifany Frazer, Gyan Kayastha, Theodore MacKinney
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is associated with high morbidity and mortality in low income countries. In Nepal, there is a high lung disease burden and incidence of pneumonia due to multiple factors including indoor air pollution, dust exposure, recurrent infections, and cigarette smoking. Despite the ready availability of effective pneumococcal vaccines (PNV), vaccine coverage rates remain suboptimal globally. Quality Improvement (QI) principles could be applied to improve compliance, but it is a virtually new technology in Nepal...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924200/effect-of-recruitment-maneuver-on-arterial-oxygenation-in-patients-undergoing-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-prostatectomy-with-intraoperative-15-cmh2o-positive-end-expiratory-pressure
#2
Sowoon Ahn, Sung Hye Byun, Haeyoon Chang, Young Bin Koo, Jong Chan Kim
BACKGROUND: This randomized, controlled study was designed to compare the effects of recruitment maneuvers (RMs) with a 15 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the systemic oxygenation and lung compliance of patients with healthy lungs following robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing a RALP with an intraoperative 15 cmH2O PEEP were randomly allocated to an RM or a Control group. The patients in the RM group received a single RM through the application of a continuous positive airway pressure of 40 cmH2O for 40 s 15 min after being placed in the Trendelenburg position...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919213/characteristics-and-performance-of-flurbiprofen-8-75-mg-spray-for-sore-throat
#3
David Veale, Adrian Shephard, Verity Adams, Charlotte Lidster
BACKGROUND: Sore throat sprays provide targeted relief by delivering the active ingredient directly to the site of pain. Although there are several throat sprays available, they vary with respect to the spray characteristics, thus affecting delivery of the active ingredient to the throat as well as more functional attributes of the product, which have the potential to impact compliance. OBJECTIVE: The characteristics and performance of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg sore throat spray were compared with 12 other sprays...
December 5, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914896/optimal-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-techniques-with-oxygenated-perfusate
#4
Kentaro Noda, Shinya Tane, Seok Jin Haam, Awori J Hayanga, Jonathan D'Cunha, James D Luketich, Norihisa Shigemura
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence supports an increasing role of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) in clinical lung transplantation. However, EVLP has adverse effects on the quality of lung grafts, which have rarely been discussed. Careful optimization of current EVLP protocols might improve outcomes. This study examined effects of different levels of oxygenation of the perfusate circulated through the lungs during EVLP and the impact on post-transplant functional outcomes. METHODS: We compared results of 4 different oxygenation levels in the perfusate during EVLP: 6% oxygen (O2), 40% O2, 60% O2, and 100% O2...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899896/respiratory-function-in-voluntary-participating-patagonia-sea-lions-otaria-flavescens-in-sternal-recumbency
#5
Andreas Fahlman, Johnny Madigan
We measured esophageal pressures (n = 4), respiratory flow rates (n = 5), and expired O2 and CO2 (n = 4) in five adult Patagonia sea lions (Otaria flavescens, body mass range 94.3-286.0 kg) during voluntary breaths while laying down out of water. The data were used to estimate the dynamic specific lung compliance (sCL), the O2 consumption rate ([Formula: see text]O2) and CO2 production rates ([Formula: see text]CO2) during rest. Our results indicate that the resting tidal volume in Patagonia sea lions is approximately 47-73% of the estimated total lung capacity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899539/reliability-of-displayed-tidal-volume-in-healthy-and-surfactant-depleted-piglets
#6
A Cecilia Mendiondo Luedloff, Tracy L Thurman, Shirley J Holt, Shasha Bai, Mark J Heulitt, Sherry E Courtney
BACKGROUND: Volutrauma has been established as the key factor in ventilator-induced lung injury and can only be avoided if tidal volume (VT) is accurately displayed and delivered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of displayed exhaled VT in a ventilator commonly used in small infants with or without a proximal flow sensor and using 3 methods to achieve a target VT in both a healthy and lung-injured neonatal pig model. METHODS: This was a prospective animal study utilizing 8 male pigs, approximately 2...
December 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894328/effect-of-driving-pressure-on-mortality-in-ards-patients-during-lung-protective-mechanical-ventilation%C3%A2-in-two-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
Claude Guérin, Laurent Papazian, Jean Reignier, Louis Ayzac, Anderson Loundou, Jean-Marie Forel
BACKGROUND: Driving pressure (ΔPrs) across the respiratory system is suggested as the strongest predictor of hospital mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We wonder whether this result is related to the range of tidal volume (VT). Therefore, we investigated ΔPrs in two trials in which strict lung-protective mechanical ventilation was applied in ARDS. Our working hypothesis was that ΔPrs is a risk factor for mortality just like compliance (Crs) or plateau pressure (Pplat,rs) of the respiratory system...
November 29, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875410/should-we-use-driving-pressure-to-set-tidal-volume
#8
Domenico L Grieco, Lu Chen, Martin Dres, Laurent Brochard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) can occur despite use of tidal volume (VT) limited to 6 ml/kg of predicted body weight, especially in patients with a smaller aerated compartment (i.e. the baby lung) in which, indeed, tidal ventilation takes place. Because respiratory system static compliance (CRS) is mostly affected by the volume of the baby lung, the ratio VT/CRS (i.e. the driving pressure, ΔP) may potentially help tailoring interventions on VT setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Driving pressure is the ventilatory variable most strongly associated with changes in survival and has been shown to be the key mediator of the effects of mechanical ventilation on outcome in the acute respiratory distress syndrome...
November 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873442/forced-deflation-pulmonary-function-test-a-novel-method-to-evaluate-lung-function-in-infants-and-young-children
#9
Rakesh K Goyal, Azada Ibrahimova, Maria L Escolar, Paul Szabolcs, Mark Vander Lugt, Randy M Windreich, Daniel J Weiner
We describe the safety and feasibility of a forced deflation pulmonary function test (dPFT) in infants and young children. Fifty-two dPFT studies were performed in 26 patients (median age, 1.4 years). Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow (FEF75 ) were normal in all except one case, but respiratory system compliance (Crs) was reduced in 24% patients. There were no significant differences in pre-blood and marrow transplantation FVC, FEF75 , and Crs between those patients who did and those who did not have posttransplant pulmonary complications...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870560/effect-of-prenatal-versus-postnatal-vitamin-d-deficiency-on-pulmonary-structure-and-function-in-mice
#10
Ammar Saadoon, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Kurt Zinn, Ambika P Ashraf, Mark MacEwen, Teodora Nicola, Michelle V Fanucchi, William T Harris
Epidemiologic studies have linked gestational vitamin D deficiency to respiratory diseases, although mechanisms have not been defined. We hypothesized that antenatal vitamin D deficiency would impair airway development and alveolarization in a mouse model. We studied the effect of antenatal vitamin D deficiency by inducing vitamin D deficiency in pregnant mice and then compared lung development and function in their offspring to littermate controls. Postnatal vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency models from each group were also studied...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864287/double-hit-mouse-model-of-cigarette-smoke-priming-for-acute-lung-injury
#11
Pavlo Sakhatskyy, Zhengke Wang, Diana Borgas, Joanne Lomas-Neira, Yaping Chen, Alfred Ayala, Sharon Rounds, Qing Lu
Epidemiologic studies indicate that cigarette smoking (CS) increases the risk and severity of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The mechanism is not understood at least in part due to lack of animal models that reproduce the key features of CS priming process. In this study, using two strains of mice we characterized a double-hit mouse model of ALI induced by CS priming of injury caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). C57BL/6 and AKR mice were pre-exposed to CS briefly (3 hours) or sub-acutely (3 weeks) before intra-tracheal instillation of LPS and ALI was assessed 18 hours after LPS administration by measuring lung static compliance, lung edema, vascular permeability, inflammation and alveolar apoptosis...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864284/region-specific-role-for-pten-in-maintenance-of-epithelial-phenotype-and-integrity
#12
Per Flodby, Janice Marie Liebler, Mitsuhiro Sunohara, Dan Ran, Alicia M McConnell, Manda Sai Krishnaveni, Agnes Banfalvi, Min Li, Barry R Stripp, Beiyun Zhou, Edward D Crandall, Parviz Minoo, Zea Borok
Previous studies have demonstrated resistance to naphthalene-induced injury in proximal airways of mice with lung epithelial-specific deletion of the tumor-suppressor gene Pten, attributed to increased proliferation of airway progenitors. We tested effects of Pten loss following bleomycin injury, a model typically used to study distal lung epithelial injury, in conditional PtenSFTPC-cre knockout mice. Pten-deficient airway epithelium exhibited marked hyperplasia, particularly in small bronchioles and at bronchoalveolar duct junctions, with reduced E-cadherin and β-catenin expression between cells towards the luminal aspect of the hyperplastic epithelium...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861467/antenatal-dexamethasone-vs-betamethasone-dosing-for-lung-maturation-in-fetal-sheep
#13
Augusto F Schmidt, Matthew W Kemp, Paranthaman S Kannan, Boris W Kramer, John P Newnham, Suhas G Kallapur, Alan H Jobe
BackgroundDexamethasone-phosphate (Dex-PO4) and the combination betamethasone-phosphate (Beta-PO4) + betamethasone-acetate (Beta-Ac) are the most used antenatal corticosteroids to promote fetal lung maturation . We compared fetal lung maturation induced by Beta-Ac+Beta-PO4, Dex-PO4, or Beta-PO4 alone.MethodsPregnant ewes received 2 intramuscular doses 24h apart of 0.25mg/kg/dose of Beta-Ac+Beta-PO4, Dex-PO4 or Beta-PO4; or 2 doses of 0.125mg/kg/dose of Beta-PO4 at 6h, 12h, or 24h intervals. Fetuses were delivered 48h after the first dose and ventilated for 30min...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861182/cryopreserved-xeno-free-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-reduce-lung-injury-severity-and-bacterial-burden-in-rodent-escherichia-coli-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#14
Gerard F Curley, Mirjana Jerkic, Steve Dixon, Grace Hogan, Claire Masterson, Daniel O'Toole, James Devaney, John G Laffey
OBJECTIVE: Although mesenchymal stem/stromal cells represent a promising therapeutic strategy for acute respiratory distress syndrome, clinical translation faces challenges, including scarcity of bone marrow donors, and reliance on bovine serum during mesenchymal stem/stromal cell proliferation. We wished to compare mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from human umbilical cord, grown in xeno-free conditions, with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from human bone marrow, in a rat model of Escherichia coli pneumonia...
November 16, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852063/depression-induces-poor-prognosis-associates-with-the-down-regulation-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-of-serum-in-advanced-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Yufeng Wu, Ruirui Si, Sen Yang, Suhua Xia, Zelai He, Lili Wang, Zhen He, Qiming Wang, Hong Tang
Patients with lung cancer often experience a state of depression, and these conditions may severely affect their quality of life (QoL) and prescription compliance. The current study was conducted to delineate the complex links between depression and the prognosis of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and the underlying mechanism was also explored.186 patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy for newly diagnosed stage III or stage IV SCLC were enrolled. The Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) questionnaire was completed the day before the start of chemotherapy to assess the depression status of the patients...
November 11, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851954/airway-bistability-is-modulated-by-smooth-muscle-dynamics-and-length-tension-characteristics
#16
Graham M Donovan
Airway closure has important implications for lung disease, especially asthma; in particular, the prospect of bistability between open and closed (or effectively closed) airway states has been thought to play a prominent role in airway closure associated with the formation of clustered ventilation defects in asthma. However, many existing analyses of closure consider only static airway equilibria; here we construct, to our knowledge, a new model wherein airway narrowing and closure dynamics are modulated by coupling the airway to cross-bridge models of airway smooth muscle dynamics and force generation...
November 15, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849732/52-thioredoxin-mimetic-preserves-ve-cadherin-expression-and-lung-compliance-in-a-rat-model-of-vili
#17
Humberto Sasieta, Shaohua Wang, Randolph Stroetz, Bruce Walters, Richard Oeckler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847247/three-arm-randomized-trial-of-sodium-alginate-for-preventing-radiation-induced-esophagitis-in-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-receiving-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-the-olcsg1401-study-protocol
#18
Kiichiro Ninomiya, Eiki Ichihara, Katsuyuki Hotta, Naoyuki Sone, Toshi Murakami, Daijiro Harada, Isao Oze, Toshio Kubo, Hisaaki Tanaka, Shoichi Kuyama, Daizo Kishino, Akihiro Bessho, Shingo Harita, Kuniaki Katsui, Mitsune Tanimoto, Katsuyuki Kiura
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard of care for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). However, this intensive therapy often causes severe esophagitis, which could deteriorate a patient's quality of life (QOL), leading to poor treatment compliance. Sodium alginate, approved in Japan for gastritis, is sufficiently highly viscous to remain in the esophageal mucosa, providing a protective effect in the esophagus. To investigate whether this compound has a preventive effect against severe esophagitis in patients receiving concurrent CRT, we plan a 3-arm randomized trial of sodium alginate with 2 different schedules versus water...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842708/-effects-of-different-levels-of-end-expiratory-pressure-on-hemodynamic-respiratory-mechanics-and-systemic-stress-response-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#19
Oznur Sen, Yasemin Erdogan Doventas
OBJECTIVE: General anesthesia causes reduction of functional residual capacity. And this decrease can lead to atelectasis and intrapulmonary shunting in the lung. In this study we want to evaluate the effects of 5 and 10cmH2O PEEP levels on gas exchange, hemodynamic, respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: American Society of Anesthesiologist I-II physical status 43 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly selected to receive external PEEP of 5cmH2O (PEEP 5 group) or 10cmH2O PEEP (PEEP 10 group) during pneumoperitoneum...
November 11, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830033/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-boletus-edulis-polysaccharide-on-asthma-pathology
#20
Songquan Wu, Guangli Wang, Ruhui Yang, Yubao Cui
Asthma is a chronic airway disease common around the world. The burden of this disease could be reduced with new and effective treatments. Here, the efficacy of a polysaccharide extract from the Boletus edulis (BEP) mushroom, which has demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, was tested in a mouse model of asthma. Five groups of BaLB/C mice were developed; one group served as a control and did not have asthma induction. The other four groups of mice were sensitized by ovalbumin challenge. FinePointe™ RC animal airway resistance and pulmonary compliance was used to assess airway function in asthma models...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
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