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Lianguang Shang, Yumei Wang, Shihu Cai, Lingling Ma, Fang Liu, Zhiwen Chen, Ying Su, Kunbo Wang, Jinping Hua
Yield is an important breeding target. As important yield components, boll number per plant (BNP) shows dynamic character and strong heterosis in Upland cotton. However, the genetic basis underlying the dynamic heterosis is poorly understood. In this study, we conducted dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for BNP and heterosis at multiple developmental stages and environments using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and two corresponding backcross populations. By the single-locus analysis, 23 QTLs were identified at final maturity, while 99 QTLs were identified across other three developmental stages...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jyoti R Misra, Kenneth D Irvine
The protocadherins Dachsous and Fat initiate a signaling pathway that controls growth and planar cell polarity by regulating the membrane localization of the atypical myosin Dachs. How Dachs is regulated by Fat signaling has remained unclear. Here we identify the vamana gene as playing a crucial role in regulating membrane localization of Dachs and in linking Fat and Dachsous to Dachs regulation. Vamana, an SH3-domain-containing protein, physically associates with and co-localizes with Dachs and promotes its membrane localization...
October 7, 2016: Developmental Cell
M E Varney, K Choi, L Bolanos, S Christie, J Fang, L H Grimes, J P Maciejewski, J-I Inoue, D T Starczynowski
Leukemia accepted article preview online, 13 October 2016. doi:10.1038/leu.2016.276.
October 13, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Sara Magalhães, Élio Sucena
One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to unravel the genetic basis of adaptation. This issue has been gaining momentum in recent years with the accelerated development of novel genetic and genomic techniques and resources. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cogni et al. (2016) address the genetic basis of resistance to two viruses in Drosophila melanogaster using a panel of recombinant inbred lines with unprecedented resolution allowing detection of rare alleles and/or alleles of small effect...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
Pedro Correa Brauner, Albrecht E Melchinger, Tobias A Schrag, H Friedrich Utz, Wolfgang Schipprack, Bettina Kessel, Milena Ouzunova, Thomas Miedaner
Six quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Gibberella ear rot resistance in maize were tested in two different genetic backgrounds; three QTL displayed an effect in few near isogenic line pairs. Few quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping studies for Gibberella ear rot (GER) have been conducted, but no QTL have been verified so far. QTL validation is prudent before their implementation into marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs. Our objectives were to (1) validate six QTL for GER resistance, (2) evaluate the QTL across two genetic backgrounds, (3) investigate the genetic background outside the targeted introgressions...
October 5, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
M A C Oliveira, J B Duarte, C L Morello, N D Suassuna, A B Oliveira
Ramulosis is one of the most aggressive diseases in cotton, and understanding the genetic control of its resistance is imperative for selecting superior cotton genotypes in breeding programs. This study analyzed the inheritance pattern of this resistance using chi-square goodness-of-fit tests to determine the phenotypic proportions of the F2 generation, and a mixed inheritance approach to jointly model major gene and polygenes effects. F1, F2, Rc1, and Rc2 generations were obtained by crossing resistant (BRS Facual, CNPA 2984, or CNPA 2043) and susceptible (Delta Opal, CNPA 999, or CNPA 2161) genotypes, and were assessed under field conditions with artificial inoculation of the pathogen (Colletotrichum gossypii var...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Mauricio Cortes, Michael J Chen, David L Stachura, Sarah Y Liu, Wanda Kwan, Francis Wright, Linda T Vo, Lindsay N Theodore, Virginie Esain, Isaura M Frost, Thorsten M Schlaeger, Wolfram Goessling, George Q Daley, Trista E North
Vitamin D insufficiency is a worldwide epidemic affecting billions of individuals, including pregnant women and children. Despite its high incidence, the impact of active vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)D3) on embryonic development beyond osteo-regulation remains largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that 1,25(OH)D3 availability modulates zebrafish hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) production. Loss of Cyp27b1-mediated biosynthesis or vitamin D receptor (VDR) function by gene knockdown resulted in significantly reduced runx1 expression and Flk1(+)cMyb(+) HSPC numbers...
October 4, 2016: Cell Reports
Maeson S Latsko, T Lee Gilman, Lindsey M Matt, K Maria Nylocks, Karin G Coifman, Aaron M Jasnow
Poor inhibitory processing of negative emotional content is central to many psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that core aspects of emotion-inhibitory processing are largely inherited and as such may represent a key intermediate or risk-related phenotype for common affective diseases (e.g., unipolar depressive, anxiety disorders). The current study employed a candidate-gene approach in order to most effectively examine this complex behavioral phenotype...
2016: PloS One
Nicholas Jochumsen, Rasmus L Marvig, Søren Damkiær, Rune Lyngklip Jensen, Wilhelm Paulander, Søren Molin, Lars Jelsbak, Anders Folkesson
Colistin is an antimicrobial peptide that has become the only remaining alternative for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, but little is known of how clinical levels of colistin resistance evolve. We use in vitro experimental evolution and whole-genome sequencing of colistin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients to reconstruct the molecular evolutionary pathways open for high-level colistin resistance. We show that the evolution of resistance is a complex, multistep process that requires mutation in at least five independent loci that synergistically create the phenotype...
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
Robert Polster, Christos J Petropoulos, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Frédéric Guillaume
The genotype-phenotype (GP) map is a central concept in evolutionary biology as it describes the mapping of molecular genetic variation onto phenotypic trait variation. Our understanding of that mapping remains partial, especially when trying to link functional clustering of pleiotropic gene effects with patterns of phenotypic trait co-variation. Only on rare occasions have studies been able to fully explore that link and tend to show poor correspondence between modular structures within the GP map and among phenotypes...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Maggie Haitian Wang, Rui Sun, Junfeng Guo, Haoyi Weng, Jack Lee, Inchi Hu, Pak Chung Sham, Benny Chung-Ying Zee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Qingshan Chen, Xinrui Mao, Zhanguo Zhang, Rongsheng Zhu, Zhengong Yin, Yue Leng, Hongxiao Yu, Huiying Jia, Shanshan Jiang, Zhongqiu Ni, Hongwei Jiang, Xue Han, Chunyan Liu, Zhenbang Hu, Xiaoxia Wu, Guohua Hu, Dawei Xin, Zhaoming Qi
Soybean oil content is one of main quality traits. In this study, we used the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method and a soybean high-density genetic map including 5,308 markers to identify stable single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-SNP interactions controlling oil content in soybean across 23 environments. In total, 36,442,756 SNP-SNP interaction pairs were detected, 1865 of all interaction pairs associated with soybean oil content were identified under multiple environments by the Bonferroni correction with p <3...
2016: PloS One
Mathilde Lescat, Adrien Launay, Mohamed Ghalayini, Mélanie Magnan, Jérémy Glodt, Coralie Pintard, Sara Dion, Erick Denamur, Olivier Tenaillon
Although microbial ecology of the gut is now a major focus of interest, little is known about the molecular determinants of microbial adaptation in the gut. Experimental evolution coupled with whole-genome sequencing can provide insights of the adaptive process. In vitro experiments have revealed some conserved patterns: intermediate convergence, and epistatic interactions between beneficial mutations and mutations in global regulators. To test the relevance of these patterns and to identify the selective pressures acting in vivo, we have performed a long-term adaptation of an E...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Ence Yang, Gang Wang, Jizhou Yang, Beiyan Zhou, Yanan Tian, James J Cai
Increasing evidence shows that, like phenotypic mean, phenotypic variance is also genetically determined, but the underlying mechanisms of genetic control over the variance remain obscure. Here, we conducted variance-association mapping analyses to identify expression variability QTLs (evQTLs), i.e., genomic loci associated with gene expression variance, in humans. We discovered that common genetic variations may contribute to increasing gene expression variability via two distinct modes of action-epistasis and destabilization...
September 20, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Pamela J Kaisaki, Georg W Otto, Karène Argoud, Stephan C Collins, Robert H Wallis, Steven P Wilder, Anthony C Y Yau, Christophe Hue, Sophie Calderari, Marie-Thérèse Bihoreau, Jean-Baptiste Cazier, Richard Mott, Dominique Gauguier
To test the impact of genetic heterogeneity on cis- and trans-mediated mechanisms of gene expression regulation, we profiled the transcriptome of adipose tissue in 20 inbred congenic strains derived from diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and Brown-Norway (BN) controls, which contain well-defined blocks (1Mb-183Mb) of genetic polymorphisms, and in 123 genetically heterogeneous rats of an (GKxBN)F2 offspring. Within each congenic we identified 73 to 1,351 differentially expressed genes (DEG), only 7.7% of which mapped within the congenic blocks, and which may be regulated in cis The remainder localised outside the blocks, and therefore must be regulated in trans Most trans-regulated genes exhibited approximately two-fold expression changes, consistent with mono-allelic expression...
September 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Benjamin H Good, Michael M Desai
Mutator and antimutator alleles often arise and spread in both natural microbial populations and laboratory evolution experiments. The evolutionary dynamics of these mutation rate modifiers are determined by indirect selection on linked beneficial and deleterious mutations. These indirect selection pressures have been the focus of much earlier theoretical and empirical work, but we still have a limited analytical understanding of how the interplay between hitchhiking and deleterious load influences the fates of modifier alleles...
September 19, 2016: Genetics
Stephen Harrap, Katrina Scurrah, Angela Lamantia, Justine Ellis
OBJECTIVE: Genes encoding key elements of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) cascade have been previously but inconsistently associated with blood pressure. Sex-dependency might be important here and functional genetic polymorphisms might exhibit epistatic effects. DESIGN AND METHOD: We assessed variation in the genes encoding renin (REN), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Alexandra E Fish, John A Capra, William S Bush
The importance of epistasis-or statistical interactions between genetic variants-to the development of complex disease in humans has been controversial. Genome-wide association studies of statistical interactions influencing human traits have recently become computationally feasible and have identified many putative interactions. However, statistical models used to detect interactions can be confounded, which makes it difficult to be certain that observed statistical interactions are evidence for true molecular epistasis...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Seyun Roh, Da-Som Yang, Sangyun Jeong
Plexins (Plexs) are a large family of phylogenetically conserved guidance receptors that bind specifically to semaphorins (Semas), another large family of guidance molecules. In the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS), the secreted semaphorins Sema-2a and Sema-2b both act as ligands for PlexB, but mediate mutually independent and opposite functions (repulsive and attractive guidance, respectively). PlexB is also known to regulate motor axon guidance in the embryonic peripheral nervous system (PNS)...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Fábio K Mendes, Yoonsoo Hahn, Matthew W Hahn
Phenotypic convergence is an exciting outcome of adaptive evolution, occurring when different species find similar solutions to the same problem. Unraveling the molecular basis of convergence provides a way to link genotype to adaptive phenotypes, but can also shed light on the extent to which molecular evolution is repeatable and predictable. Many recent genome-wide studies have uncovered a striking pattern of diminishing convergence over time, ascribing this pattern to the presence of intramolecular epistatic interactions...
September 15, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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