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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641369/markers-of-inflammation-and-incident-breast-cancer-risk-in-the-women-s-health-study
#1
Deirdre K Tobias, Akintunde O Akinkuolie, Paulette D Chandler, Patrick R Lawler, JoAnn E Manson, Julie E Buring, Paul M Ridker, Lu Wang, I-Min Lee, Samia Mora
Chronic inflammation may be a risk factor for breast cancer development and progression, yet which inflammatory biomarkers and pathways are relevant is unknown. The study included 27,071 Women's Health Study participants (mean, 54.5 years old) free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at enrollment (1992 to 1995) with baseline measures of four inflammatory biomarkers: high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, N-acetyl side-chains of acute phase proteins (GlycA), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641318/comment-on-the-impact-of-vitamin-d-pathway-genetic-variation-and-circulating-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-on-cancer-outcome-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Alain Braillon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641317/reply-to-comment-on-the-impact-of-vitamin-d-pathway-genetic-variation-and-circulating-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-on-cancer-outcome-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
L Zgaga, P G Vaughan-Shaw, F O'Sullivan, S M Farrington, E Theodoratou, H Campbell, M G Dunlop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641316/a-cancer-geography-paradox-poorer-cancer-outcomes-with-longer-travelling-times-to-healthcare-facilities-despite-prompter-diagnosis-and-treatment-a-data-linkage-study
#4
Melanie Turner, Shona Fielding, Yuhan Ong, Chris Dibben, Zhiqianq Feng, David H Brewster, Corri Black, Amanda Lee, Peter Murchie
BACKGROUND: Rurality and distance from cancer treatment centres have been shown to negatively impact cancer outcomes, but the mechanisms remain obscure. METHODS: We analysed the impact of travel time to key healthcare facilities and mainland/island residency on the cancer diagnostic pathway (treatment within 62 days of referral, and within 31 days of diagnosis) and 1-year mortality using a data-linkage study with 12 339 patients. RESULTS: After controlling for important confounders, mainland patients with more than 60 min of travelling time to their cancer treatment centre ((OR 1...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641312/impact-of-novel-mir-145-3p-regulatory-networks-on-survival-in-patients-with-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#5
Yusuke Goto, Akira Kurozumi, Takayuki Arai, Nijiro Nohata, Satoko Kojima, Atsushi Okato, Mayuko Kato, Kazuto Yamazaki, Yasuo Ishida, Yukio Naya, Tomohiko Ichikawa, Naohiko Seki
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advancements, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is not considered curative. Novel approaches for identification of therapeutic targets of CRPC are needed. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing revealed 945-1248 miRNAs from each lethal mCRPC sample. We constructed miRNA expression signatures of CRPC by comparing the expression of miRNAs between CRPC and normal prostate tissue or hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC)...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641070/elmo-proteins-transduce-g-protein-coupled-receptor-signal-to-control-reorganization-of-actin-cytoskeleton-in-chemotaxis-of-eukaryotic-cells
#6
Xuehua Xu, Tian Jin
Chemotaxis, which is chemoattractant-guided directional cell migration, plays major roles in recruitment of neutrophils, the metastasis of cancer cells, and the development of the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum. These cells share remarkable similarities in the signaling pathways by which they control chemotaxis. They all use a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signal transduction pathway to sense the chemotactic gradient to guide cell migration. Diverse chemokines activate Rac through conserved GPCR signaling pathways...
June 22, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640972/understanding-adaptogenic-activity-specificity-of-the-pharmacological-action-of-adaptogens-and-other-phytochemicals
#7
REVIEW
Alexander Panossian
Adaptogens are stress-response modifiers that increase an organism's nonspecific resistance to stress by increasing its ability to adapt and survive. The classical reductionist model is insufficiently complex to explain the mechanistic aspects of the physiological notion of "adaptability" and the adaptogenic activity of adaptogens. Here, I demonstrate that (1) the mechanisms of action of adaptogens are impossible to rationally describe using the reductionist concept of pharmacology, whereas the network pharmacology approach is the most suitable method; and (2) the principles of systems biology and pharmacological networks appear to be more suitable for conceptualizing adaptogen function and are applicable to any phytochemical...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640887/epidermal-growth-factor-promotes-cyclin-g2-degradation-via-calpain-mediated-proteolysis-in-gynaecological-cancer-cells
#8
Stefanie Bernaudo, Shahin Khazai, Eilyad Honarparvar, Alina Kopteva, Chun Peng
Cyclin G2 (CCNG2) is an atypical cyclin that functions to inhibit cell cycle progression and is often dysregulated in human cancers. We have previously shown that cyclin G2 is highly unstable and can be degraded through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Furthermore, cyclin G2 contains a PEST domain, which has been suggested to act as a signal for degradation by multiple proteases. In this study, we determined if calpains, a family of calcium-dependent proteases, are also involved in cyclin G2 degradation. The addition of calpain inhibitors or silencing of calpain expression by siRNAs strongly enhanced cyclin G2 levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640877/identification-of-c-ebp%C3%AE-as-a-novel-target-of-the-hpv8-e6-protein-regulating-mir-203-in-human-keratinocytes
#9
Anna M Marthaler, Marta Podgorska, Pascal Feld, Alina Fingerle, Katrin Knerr-Rupp, Friedrich Grässer, Hans Smola, Klaus Roemer, Elke Ebert, Yoo-Jin Kim, Rainer M Bohle, Cornelia S L Müller, Jörg Reichrath, Thomas Vogt, Magdalena Malejczyk, Sławomir Majewski, Sigrun Smola
Patients suffering from Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited skin disease, display a particular susceptibility to persistent infection with cutaneous genus beta-human papillomavirus (beta-HPV), such as HPV type 8. They have a high risk to develop non-melanoma skin cancer at sun-exposed sites. In various models evidence is emerging that cutaneous HPV E6 proteins disturb epidermal homeostasis and support carcinogenesis, however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood as yet. In this study we demonstrate that microRNA-203 (miR-203), a key regulator of epidermal proliferation and differentiation, is strongly down-regulated in HPV8-positive EV-lesions...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640835/bilateral-blockade-of-mek-and-pi3k-mediated-pathways-downstream-of-mutant-kras-as-a-treatment-approach-for-peritoneal-mucinous-malignancies
#10
Murali R Kuracha, Peter Thomas, Brian W Loggie, Venkatesh Govindarajan
Mucinous colorectal adenocarcinomas (MCAs) are clinically and morphologically distinct from nonmucinous colorectal cancers (CRCs), show a distinct spectrum of genetic alterations (higher KRAS mutations, lower p53, high MUC2), exhibit more aggressive behavior (more prone to peritoneal dissemination and lymph node involvement) and are associated with poorer response to chemotherapy with limited treatment options. Here, we report the effectiveness of combinatorial targeting of two KRAS-mediated parallel pathways in reducing MUC2 production and mucinous tumor growth in vitro and in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640831/ribosomal-dna-copy-number-loss-and-sequence-variation-in-cancer
#11
Baoshan Xu, Hua Li, John M Perry, Vijay Pratap Singh, Jay Unruh, Zulin Yu, Musinu Zakari, William McDowell, Linheng Li, Jennifer L Gerton
Ribosomal DNA is one of the most variable regions in the human genome with respect to copy number. Despite the importance of rDNA for cellular function, we know virtually nothing about what governs its copy number, stability, and sequence in the mammalian genome due to challenges associated with mapping and analysis. We applied computational and droplet digital PCR approaches to measure rDNA copy number in normal and cancer states in human and mouse genomes. We find that copy number and sequence can change in cancer genomes...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640700/cns-tumors-in-neurofibromatosis
#12
Jian Campian, David H Gutmann
Neurofibromatosis (NF) encompasses a group of distinct genetic disorders in which affected children and adults are prone to the development of benign and malignant tumors of the nervous system. The purpose of this review is to discuss the spectrum of CNS tumors arising in individuals with NF type 1 (NF1) and NF type 2 (NF2), their pathogenic etiologies, and the rational treatment options for people with these neoplasms. This article is a review of preclinical and clinical data focused on the treatment of the most common CNS tumors encountered in children and adults with NF1 and NF2...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637314/dna-methylation-signatures-and-coagulation-factors-in-the-peripheral-blood-leucocytes-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#13
Lian Li, Hong Zheng, Yubei Huang, Caiyun Huang, Shuang Zhang, Jing Tian, Pei Li, Anil K Sood, Wei Zhang, Kexin Chen
Solid tumors are increasingly recognized as a systemic disease that is manifested by changes in DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites in the blood. Whereas many studies have reported gene mutation events in the circulation, few studies have focused on epigenetic DNA methylation markers. To identify DNA methylation biomarkers in peripheral blood for ovarian cancer, we performed a two-stage epigenome-wide association study. In the discovery stage, we measured genome wide DNA methylation for 485,000 CpG sites in peripheral blood in 24 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 24 age-matched healthy controls...
June 16, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637221/digital-direct-detection-of-micrornas-using-single-molecule-arrays
#14
Limor Cohen, Mark R Hartman, Aaron Amardey-Wellington, David R Walt
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in many biological pathways, and detecting miRNAs accurately is critical for diagnosing a variety of diseases including cancer. However, most current methods for miRNA detection require lengthy sample preparation and amplification steps that can bias the results. In addition, lack of specificity and reproducibility give rise to various challenges in detection of circulating miRNAs in biological samples. In this work, we applied the Single Molecule Array (Simoa) technique to develop an ultra-sensitive sandwich assay for direct detection of multiple miRNAs without pre-amplification...
June 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637194/high-iron-supply-inhibits-the-synthesis-of-the-genotoxin-colibactin-by-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-through-a-non-canonical-fur-ryhb-mediated-pathway
#15
Sophie Tronnet, Christophe Garcie, Alexander O Brachmann, Jörn Piel, Eric Oswald, Patricia Martin
The genotoxin colibactin is a secondary metabolite produced by a variety of pathogenic Enterobacteria, and is associated with colon cancer development and acute systemic infections. The colibactin biosynthesis requires the enzymatic activity of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase ClbA. We recently evidenced that two master regulators of bacterial iron homeostasis, i.e. the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) and the small regulatory non-coding RNA RyhB, were involved in the regulation of the clbA transcription and of the colibactin production...
June 20, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637025/runx3-regulates-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-metastasis-via-targeting-mir-186-e-cadherin-emt-pathway
#16
Yuli Gou, Fangbing Zhai, Liang Zhang, Lan Cui
Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) has been reported as a tumor suppressor in some kinds of cancers. In the present study, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) microarray analysis showed that RUNX3 expression was significantly lower in HCC tissues compared with that in adjacent non-tumor tissues, and was negatively associated with metastasis and TNM stage. RUNX3 was an independently prognostic factor for 5-year overall and disease-free patient survival. Mechanically, RUNX3 repressed metastasis and invasion of HCC, and increased E-cadherin expression...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637014/a-combination-of-valproic-acid-sodium-salt-chir99021-e-616452-tranylcypromine-and-3-deazaneplanocin-a-causes-stem-cell-like-characteristics-in-cancer-cells
#17
Shuang Sha, Yuanfen Zhai, Chengzhao Lin, Heyong Wang, Qing Chang, Shuang Song, Mingqiang Ren, Gentao Liu
Many studies are based on the hypothesis that recurrence and drug resistance in lung carcinoma are due to a subpopulation of cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) in solid tumors. Therefore it is crucial to screen for and recognize lung CSLCs. In this study, we stimulated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells to display stem cell-like characteristics using a combination of five small molecule compounds. The putative A549 stem cells activated an important CSLC marker, CD133 protein, as well multiple CSLC-related genes including ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), NESTIN, and BMI1...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637006/the-effect-of-ca125-on-metastasis-of-ovarian-cancer-old-marker-new-function
#18
Qin Yuan, Jiayin Song, Weiwei Yang, Hongyan Wang, Qianyu Huo, Jie Yang, Xiaoxu Yu, Yunde Liu, Chen Xu, Huijing Bao
CA125 has been used extensively to screen for neoplasms, especially in ovarian cancer. The serum CA125 level can be used as a better prognosis evaluation and it may dynamic monitoring the disease progression. We explored the effect of CA125 on ovarian cancer cell migration and its underlying mechanism. Transwell assays showed that exposure to 0.2 μg/ml or 0.4 μg/ml CA125 for 48 h increased migration of A2780 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. This effect of CA125 was blocked addition of 200 ng/ml DKK-1, a Wnt pathway inhibitor...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637004/autophagy-is-required-for-crizotinib-induced-apoptosis-in-met-amplified-gastric-cancer-cells
#19
Rebecca D Schroeder, Woonyoung Choi, David S Hong, David J McConkey
MET amplification has been clinically credentialed as a therapeutic target in gastric cancer, but the molecular mechanisms underlying sensitivity and resistance to MET inhibitors are still not well understood. Using whole-genome mRNA expression profiling, we identified autophagy as a top molecular pathway that was activated by the MET inhibitor crizotinib in drug-sensitive human gastric cancer cells, and functional studies confirmed that crizotinib increased autophagy levels in the drug-sensitive cells in a concentration-dependent manner...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636995/experimental-study-on-the-therapeutic-effect-and-underlining-mechanisms-of-positron-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#20
Ying Wang, Ming Li, Rao Diao, Brian Tung, Dalong Zhang, Yaming Li
The purpose of this study was to assess the potential therapeutic effect of positrons emitted by 18F-2-Deoxy-2-Fluoro-D-Glucose (18F-FDG) on pancreatic cancer cells and elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Pancreatic cancer cells were incubated with different radioactive concentrations of 18F-FDG and evaluated for anti-cancer properties and underlining mechanisms. In addition, three groups of tumor-bearing mice were treated with different doses of 18F-FDG weekly, the tumor growth rate was calculated, and the mice were imaged by positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-FDG before and after treatment...
June 5, 2017: Oncotarget
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