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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933454/improved-production-of-adipate-with-escherichia-coli-by-reversal-of-%C3%AE-oxidation
#1
Nicolai Kallscheuer, Jochem Gätgens, Marvin Lübcke, Jörg Pietruszka, Michael Bott, Tino Polen
The linear C6 dicarboxylic acid adipic acid is an important bulk chemical in the petrochemical industry as precursor of the polymer nylon-6,6-polyamide. In recent years, efforts were made towards the biotechnological production of adipate from renewable carbon sources using microbial cells. One strategy is to produce adipate via a reversed β-oxidation pathway. Hitherto, the adipate titers were very low due to limiting enzyme activities for this pathway. In most cases, the CoA intermediates are non-natural substrates for the tested enzymes and were therefore barely converted...
December 8, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933453/engineering-of-escherichia-coli-to-facilitate-efficient-utilization-of-isomaltose-and-panose-in-industrial-glucose-feedstock
#2
Kenji Abe, Akio Kuroda, Ryo Takeshita
Industrial glucose feedstock prepared by enzymatic digestion of starch typically contains significant amounts of disaccharides such as maltose and isomaltose and trisaccharides such as maltotriose and panose. Maltose and maltosaccharides can be utilized in Escherichia coli fermentation using industrial glucose feedstock because there is an intrinsic assimilation pathway for these sugars. However, saccharides that contain α-1,6 bonds, such as isomaltose and panose, are still present after fermentation because there is no metabolic pathway for these sugars...
December 8, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932313/3rd-congress-on-applied-synthetic-biology-in-europe-costa%C3%A2-da-caparica-portugal-february-2016
#3
Miguel Cueva
The third meeting organised by the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) on advances in Applied Synthetic Biotechnology in Europe (ASBE) was held in Costa da Caparica, Portugal, in February 2016. Abundant novel applications in synthetic biology were described in the six sessions of the meeting, which was divided into technology and tools for synthetic biology (I, II and III), bionanoscience, biosynthetic pathways and enzyme synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering and chemical manufacturing. The meeting presented numerous methods for the development of novel synthetic strains, synthetic biological tools and synthetic biology applications...
December 5, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930319/co-synthesized-from-the-central-one-carbon-pool-as-source-for-the-iron-carbonyl-in-o2-tolerant-nife-hydrogenase
#4
Ingmar Bürstel, Elisabeth Siebert, Stefan Frielingsdorf, Ingo Zebger, Bärbel Friedrich, Oliver Lenz
Hydrogenases are nature's key catalysts involved in both microbial consumption and production of molecular hydrogen. H2 exhibits a strongly bonded, almost inert electron pair and requires transition metals for activation. Consequently, all hydrogenases are metalloenzymes that contain at least one iron atom in the catalytic center. For appropriate interaction with H2, the iron moiety demands for a sophisticated coordination environment that cannot be provided just by standard amino acids. This dilemma has been overcome by the introduction of unprecedented chemistry-that is, by ligating the iron with carbon monoxide (CO) and cyanide (or equivalent) groups...
December 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930305/artemisia-annua-mutant-impaired-in-artemisinin-synthesis-demonstrates-importance-of-nonenzymatic-conversion-in-terpenoid-metabolism
#5
Tomasz Czechowski, Tony R Larson, Theresa M Catania, David Harvey, Geoffrey D Brown, Ian A Graham
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone produced by Artemisia annua glandular secretory trichomes, is the active ingredient in the most effective treatment for malaria currently available. We identified a mutation that disrupts the amorpha-4,11-diene C-12 oxidase (CYP71AV1) enzyme, responsible for a series of oxidation reactions in the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. Detailed metabolic studies of cyp71av1-1 revealed that the consequence of blocking the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway is the redirection of sesquiterpene metabolism to a sesquiterpene epoxide, which we designate arteannuin X...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929078/gut-microbiota-from-metabolic-disease-resistant-macrophage-specific-rip140-knockdown-mice-improves-metabolic-phenotype-and-gastrointestinal-integrity
#6
Yi-Wei Lin, Emmanuel Montassier, Dan Knights, Li-Na Wei
While fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) presents an attractive therapeutic strategy, it remains unclear how to choose the microbiota repertoire that most effectively transfers benefit to recipients. We identified a beneficial taxonomic repertoire in a transgenic mouse model (RIP140mϕKD) which resists the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic diseases due to enhanced anti-inflammation engineered by lowering receptor interacting protein (RIP140) expression in macrophage. We confirmed using FMT from HFD-fed RIP140mϕKD to wild type (WT) mice that recipient mice acquired the microbiota repertoire of donor mice...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928897/intracellular-metabolite-profiling-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-evolved-under-furfural
#7
Young Hoon Jung, Sooah Kim, Jungwoo Yang, Jin-Ho Seo, Kyoung Heon Kim
Furfural, one of the most common inhibitors in pre-treatment hydrolysates, reduces the cell growth and ethanol production of yeast. Evolutionary engineering has been used as a selection scheme to obtain yeast strains that exhibit furfural tolerance. However, the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to furfural at the metabolite level during evolution remains unknown. In this study, evolutionary engineering and metabolomic analyses were applied to determine the effects of furfural on yeasts and their metabolic response to continuous exposure to furfural...
December 8, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928894/the-renaissance-of-life-near-the-boiling-point-at-last-genetics-and-metabolic-engineering
#8
Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
We discuss here the prospects for biotechnology of extreme thermophilic microorganisms.
December 8, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927998/role-and-functioning-of-bhlh-transcription-factors-in-jasmonate-signalling
#9
REVIEW
Jonas Goossens, Jan Mertens, Alain Goossens
Plant growth, development and interaction with the environment involve the action of multiple phytohormones. Transcription factors (TFs) of diverse families play essential roles in the signalling cascades triggered by the perception of a particular hormone. TFs may act alone or in a combinatorial fashion with other TFs, and may act specifically in a single hormonal signalling cascade or as signalling hubs for multiple hormones. In the signalling cascades triggered by the phytohormone jasmonate (JA), which modulates a diverse, but specific, range of aspects of plant growth, development and defence, the TFs of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family play an essential and often conserved role in the plant kingdom...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925692/a-method-to-generate-and-analyze-modified-myristoylated-proteins
#10
Huanyao Gao, Wei Sun, Zhiquan Song, Yanbao Yu, Li Wang, Xian Chen, Qisheng Zhang
Covalent lipid modification of proteins is essential to their cellular localizations and functions. Engineered lipid motif coupled with bio-orthogonal chemistry has been utilized to identify myristoylated or palmitoylated proteins in cells. However, whether modified proteins have similar properties as endogenous ones has not been well investigated mainly due to lack of methods to generate and analyze purified proteins. We have developed a method that utilizes metabolic interference and mass spectrometry to produce and analyze modified, myristoylated small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1)...
December 7, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925440/enhancing-bioactive-properties-of-silk-fibroin-with-diatom-particles-for-bone-tissue-engineering-applications
#11
Thi Duy Hanh Le, Volha Liaudanskaya, Walter Bonani, Claudio Migliaresi, Antonella Motta
Many studies have highlighted the role of silicon in human bone formation and maintenance. Silicon, in fact, is considered to nucleate the precipitation of hydroxyapatite and to reduce the bone resorption. For this reason, we have combined silk fibroin with silicon releasing diatom particles, as potential material for bone tissue engineering applications. Sponges of fibroin loaded with different amounts and sizes of diatom particles were prepared by solvent casting-particulate leaching method, and their morphology, porosity and mechanical properties were evaluated...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924940/the-metabolic-flux-regulation-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-based-on-quorum-sensing-system
#12
Shujing Sun, Haiyang Zhang, Shuyi Lu, Chunfen Lai, Huijun Liu, Hu Zhu
Quorum-sensing (QS) systems exist universally in bacteria to regulate multiple biological functions. Klebsiella pneumoniae, an industrially important bacterium that produces bio-based chemicals such as 2,3-butanediol and acetoin, can secrete a furanosyl borate diester (AI-2) as the signalling molecule mediating a QS system, which plays a key regulatory role in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In this study, the molecular regulation and metabolic functions of a QS system in K. pneumoniae were investigated...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924918/production-of-phloroglucinol-a-platform-chemical-in-arabidopsis-using-a-bacterial-gene
#13
Salah E Abdel-Ghany, Irene Day, Adam L Heuberger, Corey D Broeckling, Anireddy S N Reddy
Phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene; PG) and its derivatives are phenolic compounds that are used for various industrial applications. Current methods to synthesize PG are not sustainable due to the requirement for carbon-based precursors and co-production of toxic byproducts. Here, we describe a more sustainable production of PG using plants expressing a native bacterial or a codon-optimized synthetic PhlD targeted to either the cytosol or chloroplasts. Transgenic lines were analyzed for the production of PG using gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924712/cytotoxicity-of-carbon-nanohorns-in-different-human-cells-of-the-respiratory-system
#14
Franziska Schramm, Martina Lange, Pia Hoppmann, Astrid Heutelbeck
One of the new synthetic carbon-based nanomaterials is carbon nanohorns (CNH). A potential risk for employees of production processes is an unintentional intake of these nanomaterials via inhalation. Once taken up, nanoparticles might interact with cells of different tissues as well as with intercellular substances. These interactions may have far-reaching consequences for human health. Currently, many gaps in available information on the CNH toxicological profile remain. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of CNH particles on human epithelial cells of the respiratory system with special consideration given to different particle sizes...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922071/a-carotenogenic-mini-pathway-introduced-into-white-corn-does-not-affect-development-or-agronomic-performance
#15
Daniela Zanga, Teresa Capell, Gustavo A Slafer, Paul Christou, Roxana Savin
High-carotenoid corn (Carolight®) has been developed as a vehicle to deliver pro-vitamin A in the diet and thus address vitamin A deficiency in at-risk populations in developing countries. Like any other novel crop, the performance of Carolight® must be tested in different environments to ensure that optimal yields and productivity are maintained, particularly in this case to ensure that the engineered metabolic pathway does not attract a yield penalty. Here we compared the performance of Carolight® with its near isogenic white corn inbred parental line under greenhouse and field conditions, and monitored the stability of the introduced trait...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920297/role-of-ribonucleotide-reductase-on-bacillus-subtilis-stress-associated-mutagenesis
#16
Karla Viridiana Castro-Cerritos, Ronald E Yasbin, Eduardo A Robleto, Mario Pedraza-Reyes
: The Gram-positive microorganism Bacillus subtilis relies on a single class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) to generate 2' -deoxyribonucleotides (dNDPs) for DNA replication and repair. In this work, we investigated the influence of RNR levels on B. subtilis stationary-phase-associated mutagenesis (SPM). Since RNR is essential in this bacterium, we engineered a conditional mutant in the strain B. subtilis YB955 (hisC952, metB5, leu427) in which expression of the nrdEF operon was modulated by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919791/biosensor-assisted-transcriptional-regulator-engineering-for-methylobacterium-extorquens-am1-to-improve-mevalonate-synthesis-by-increasing-the-acetyl-coa-supply
#17
Wei-Fan Liang, Lan-Yu Cui, Jin-Yu Cui, Kai-Wen Yu, Song Yang, Chong Zhang, Xin-Hui Xing
Acetyl-CoA is not only an important intermediate metabolite for cells but also a significant precursor for production of industrially interesting metabolites. Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, a model strain of methylotrophic cell factories using methanol as carbon source, is of interest because it produces abundant coenzyme A compounds capable of directing to synthesis of different useful compounds from methanol. However, acetyl-CoA always does not efficiently accumulate in M. extorquens AM1, as it is located in the center of three cyclic central metabolic pathways...
December 3, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918882/metabolic-engineering-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-for-the-production-of-3-hydroxypropionic-acid-from-glucose-and-xylose
#18
Zhen Chen, Jinhai Huang, Yao Wu, Wenjun Wu, Ye Zhang, Dehua Liu
3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is a promising platform chemical which can be used for the production of various value-added chemicals. In this study,Corynebacterium glutamicumwas metabolically engineered to efficiently produce 3-HP from glucose and xylose via the glycerol pathway. A functional 3-HP synthesis pathway was engineered through a combination of genes involved in glycerol synthesis (fusion ofgpdandgppfromSaccharomyces cerevisiae) and 3-HP production (pduCDEGHfromKlebsiella pneumoniaeand aldehyde dehydrogenases from various resources)...
December 2, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917951/catalytic-conversion-of-lipophilic-substrates-by-phase-constrained-enzymes-in-the-aqueous-or-in-the-membrane-phase
#19
Marcus Cebula, Ilke Simsek Turan, Birgitta Sjödin, Madhuranayaki Thulasingam, Joseph Brock, Volodymyr Chmyrov, Jerker Widengren, Hiroshi Abe, Bengt Mannervik, Jesper Z Haeggström, Agnes Rinaldo-Matthis, Engin U Akkaya, Ralf Morgenstern
Both soluble and membrane-bound enzymes can catalyze the conversion of lipophilic substrates. The precise substrate access path, with regard to phase, has however, until now relied on conjecture from enzyme structural data only (certainly giving credible and valuable hypotheses). Alternative methods have been missing. To obtain the first experimental evidence directly determining the access paths (of lipophilic substrates) to phase constrained enzymes we here describe the application of a BODIPY-derived substrate (PS1)...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916886/cyanobacteria-as-chassis-for-industrial-biotechnology-progress-and-prospects
#20
REVIEW
Lamya Al-Haj, Yuen Tin Lui, Raeid M M Abed, Mohamed A Gomaa, Saul Purton
Cyanobacteria hold significant potential as industrial biotechnology (IB) platforms for the production of a wide variety of bio-products ranging from biofuels such as hydrogen, alcohols and isoprenoids, to high-value bioactive and recombinant proteins. Underpinning this technology, are the recent advances in cyanobacterial "omics" research, the development of improved genetic engineering tools for key species, and the emerging field of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. These approaches enabled the development of elaborate metabolic engineering programs aimed at creating designer strains tailored for different IB applications...
November 30, 2016: Life
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