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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922541/effects-of-the-5-ht1a-receptor-agonists-buspirone-and-8-oh-dpat-on-pupil-size-in-common-marmosets
#1
Manato Kotani, Naoko Urushino, Itaru Natsutani, Yuji Ogi, Kazuhito Ikeda
As pupil size is affected by psychotropic drugs in all mammals, it has been used as a well-established clinical indicator for the preclinical and clinical development of novel drugs. It has been reported that activation of the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor differently affects pupil response in rodents (mydriasis) and humans (miosis). Thus, it is important to establish a quantitative system for measuring pupil size using other species, such as nonhuman primates. Common marmosets have recently attracted a great deal of attention as suitable experimental animals in the psychoneurological field because of handling ease compared with other nonhuman primates and the requirement for small amounts of test drugs...
December 2, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919490/quantitative-visual-tests-after-poorly-recovered-optic-neuritis-due-to-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Erin E Longbrake, Samantha Lancia, Nhial Tutlam, Kathryn Trinkaus, Robert T Naismith
BACKGROUND: Visual dysfunction in MS can be quantified using a variety of tests. Many vision tests have not been formally evaluated among MS patients with existing visual dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate several versions of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity tests, measures of central and peripheral vision, retina structure, electrophysiologic function, and quality of life among MS patients with moderate/severe visual dysfunction. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 46 patients with stable, incompletely recovered optic neuritis...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919334/ionizing-radiation-induced-cataracts-recent-biological-and-mechanistic-developments-and-perspectives-for-future-research
#3
Elizabeth A Ainsbury, Stephen Barnard, Scott Bright, Claudia Dalke, Miguel Jarrin, Sarah Kunze, Rick Tanner, Joseph R Dynlacht, Roy A Quinlan, Jochen Graw, Munira Kadhim, Nobuyuki Hamada
The lens of the eye has long been considered as a radiosensitive tissue, but recent research has suggested that the radiosensitivity is even greater than previously thought. The 2012 recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to substantially reduce the annual occupational equivalent dose limit for the ocular lens has now been adopted in the European Union and is under consideration around the rest of the world. However, ICRP clearly states that the recommendations are chiefly based on epidemiological evidence because there are a very small number of studies that provide explicit biological, mechanistic evidence at doses <2Gy...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918354/ethical-issues-in-transnational-eye-banking
#4
Dominique E Martin, Richard Kelly, Gary L A Jones, Heather Machin, Graeme A Pollock
PURPOSE: To review ethical issues that may arise in the setting of transnational eye banking activities, such as when exporting or importing corneal tissue for transplantation. METHODS: A principle-based normative analysis of potential common dilemmas in transnational eye banking activities was performed. RESULTS: Transnational activities in eye banking, like those in other fields involving procurement and use of medical products of human origin, may present a number of ethical issues for policy makers and professionals...
December 1, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917718/the-role-of-rho-kinase-inhibitors-in-corneal-endothelial-dysfunction
#5
Naoki Okumura, Shigeru Kinoshita, Noriko Koizumi
BACKGROUND: The cornea is transparent tissue that serves as the window of the eye, allowing light to enter from the outer environment. The corneal endothelium maintains corneal transparency; thus, its dysfunction results in corneal haziness and causes severe vision loss. The only available therapeutic choice for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction has been transplantation using donor corneas; consequently, researchers have been pressed to develop new therapeutic options. METHODS: The goal of the review is to provide an overview of the research into Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors in the field of corneal endothelium therapy and the potential for clinical use of ROCK inhibitors...
December 5, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916714/comparison-of-retinal-vessel-diameter-between-open-angle-glaucoma-patients-with-initial-parafoveal-scotoma-and-peripheral-nasal-step
#6
Eunjoo Yoo, Chungkwon Yoo, Tae-Eun Lee, Yong Yeon Kim
PURPOSE: To compare retinal vessel diameters (RVDs) between open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients with initial parafoveal scotoma (PFS) and those with initial peripheral nasal step (PNS). DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional study METHODS: We enrolled 151 eyes of 151 patients with OAG (83 with normal-tension glaucoma [NTG] and 68 with primary open-angle glaucoma [POAG]). The patients were categorized into the PFS and PNS groups according to the location of the initial visual field (VF) defect...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915318/services-for-the-detection-and-treatment-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-in-major-indian-cities-the-11-city-9-state-study
#7
Clare Gilbert, Rajan Shukla, Rakesh Kumar, Ajay Khera, G Vs Murthy
OBJECTIVE: Control of visual loss from retinopathy of prematurity requires high quality neonatal care, and timely screening and treatment of sight-threatening disease. We assessed services for retinopathy of prematurity provided by ophthalmic training institutions in major Indian cities. METHODS: Eleven cities were purposefully selected and eye-care facilities were evaluated using predefined criteria. Field teams visited these facilities to collect data by interview and observation using structured questionnaires...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914235/hyaluronan-as-a-promising-excipient-for-ocular-drug-delivery
#8
REVIEW
Michaela Guter, Miriam Breunig
Hyaluronan (HA) is a naturally occurring polysaccharide and well known for its exceptional properties such as high biocompatibility and biodegradability, along with a low immunogenicity. Besides its use for various biomedical applications it recently came into focus as a favorable excipient for the formulation of various ocular therapeutics. This review article summarizes the ocular distribution of HA and its most heavily investigated binding protein "cluster of differentiation 44" (CD44) which is the rationale for the clinical use of HA, primarily as an additive in ocular applications ranging from eye drops to contact lenses...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913216/spatiotopic-updating-across-saccades-revealed-by-spatially-specific-fmri-adaptation
#9
Scott L Fairhall, Jens Schwarzbach, Angelika Lingnau, Martijn Gerbrand Van Koningsbruggen, David Melcher
Brain representations of visual space are predominantly eye-centred (retinotopic) yet our experience of the world is largely world-centred (spatiotopic). A long-standing question is how the brain creates continuity between these reference frames across successive eye movements (saccades). Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to address whether spatially specific repetition suppression (RS) is evident during trans-saccadic perception. We presented two successive Gabor patches (S1 and S2) in either the upper or lower visual field, left or right of fixation...
November 29, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912882/tenuifolin-a-saponin-derived-from-radix-polygalae-exhibits-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-mice
#10
Qing Cao, Yong Jiang, Su-Ying Cui, Peng-Fei Tu, Yue-Mei Chen, Xiao-Li Ma, Xiang-Yu Cui, Yuan-Li Huang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ye, Xiao Hu, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radix Polygalae, the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine for promoting intelligence and tranquilization. Polygalasaponins extracted from the root of P. tenuifolia possess evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities. Previous studies have reported that tenuifolin was a major constituent of polygalasaponins. PURPOSE: The currently study aims to investigate the hypnotic effect and possible mechanism of tenuifolin in freely moving mice...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911113/a-tribute-to-professor-steven-l-wechsler-1948-2016-the-man-and-the-scientist
#11
Anthony B Nesburn, Lbachir BenMohamed
Professor Steven L. Wechsler, a world-renowned eye researcher and virologist, passed away unexpectedly on June 12, 2016 at the age of 68. Many scientists came to know Professor Wechsler as a gifted researcher in the field of ocular Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) latency, reactivation, and pathogenesis. Professor Wechsler published over 150 peer-reviewed scientific papers during his career, pushing forward the frontiers of his field eye research. His colleagues would say, 'Steve literally wrote the book on herpes latency and reactivation...
December 2, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909987/orexin-ox2-receptor-antagonists-as-sleep-aids
#12
Laura H Jacobson, Sui Chen, Sanjida Mir, Daniel Hoyer
The discovery of the orexin system represents the single major progress in the sleep field of the last three to four decades. The two orexin peptides and their two receptors play a major role in arousal and sleep/wake cycles. Defects in the orexin system lead to narcolepsy with cataplexy in humans and dogs and can be experimentally reproduced in rodents. At least six orexin receptor antagonists have reached Phase II or Phase III clinical trials in insomnia, five of which are dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) that target both OX1 and OX2 receptors (OX2Rs)...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909833/verification-of-a-virtual-fields-method-to-extract-the-mechanical-properties-of-human-optic-nerve-head-tissues-in-vivo
#13
Liang Zhang, Sri Gowtham Thakku, Meghna R Beotra, Mani Baskaran, Tin Aung, James C H Goh, Nicholas G Strouthidis, Michael J A Girard
We aimed to verify a custom virtual fields method (VFM) to estimate the patient-specific biomechanical properties of human optic nerve head (ONH) tissues, given their full-field deformations induced by intraocular pressure (IOP). To verify the accuracy of VFM, we first generated 'artificial' ONH displacements from predetermined (known) ONH tissue biomechanical properties using finite element analysis. Using such deformations, if we are able to match back the known biomechanical properties, it would indicate that our VFM technique is accurate...
December 1, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909418/risk-and-ambiguity-in-information-seeking-eye-gaze-patterns-reveal-contextual-behavior-in-dealing-with-uncertainty
#14
Peter Wittek, Ying-Hsang Liu, Sándor Darányi, Tom Gedeon, Ik Soo Lim
Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907042/role-of-platelet-parameters-on-neovascular-glaucoma-a-retrospective-case-control-study-in-china
#15
Shengjie Li, Wenjun Cao, Xinghuai Sun
PURPOSE: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are two major sight-threatening diseases which may lead to neovascular glaucoma (NVG). The aim of this study was to explore the association between platelet parameters and NVG. METHODS: A total of 185 subjects were enrolled for the study from January, 2012 to December, 2015 at the Eye-ENT Hospital of Fudan University. Patients include those with NVG secondary to RVO (RVO group, n = 38), patients with NVG secondary to DR (DR group, n = 47), diabetics mellitus without retinopathy (DM group, n = 52), and healthy individuals (control group, n = 48)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906204/design-of-a-large-field-of-view-see-through-near-to-eye-display-with-two-geometrical-waveguides
#16
Jianming Yang, Patrice Twardowski, Philippe Gérard, Joël Fontaine
A novel waveguide near to eye display (WGNED), with new in-coupling and propagation subsystems, is proposed for the first time, to our knowledge, to enlarge the vertical field-of-view (FOV) and the vertical size of the eye box. Two waveguides are stacked-one is for in-coupling and the other for out-coupling. A freeform prism is used to correct the aberrations. These components are combined to form the WGNED. We have simulated such a system; as a result, we show that it achieves a FOV of 30°horizontal (H)×60°vertical (V) and an eye box of about 15  mm (H)×12  mm (V)...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906070/subretinal-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-implantation-in-advanced-stage-retinitis-pigmentosa-a-phase-i-clinical-safety-study
#17
Ayse Oner, Z Burcin Gonen, Neslihan Sinim, Mustafa Cetin, Yusuf Ozkul
BACKGROUND: This prospective clinical case series aimed to investigate the safety of subretinal adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) implantation in advanced stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS: This study included 11 patients with end-stage RP who received subretinal implantation of ADMSCs. All patients had a total visual field defect and five of them only had light perception. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the study was 20/2000...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905344/concurrent-retinitis-pigmentosa-and-pigmented-paravenous-retinochoroidal-atrophy-phenotypes-in-the-same-patient
#18
Dhanashree Ratra, Dhileesh P Chandrasekharan, P Aruldas, Vineet Ratra
We report a unique case of a patient with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) phenotype in one eye and pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (PPRCA) phenotype in the other eye. We describe in detail the symptoms, clinical findings, and investigations done for a 32-year-old Indian woman. This patient had phenotypical picture resembling typical RP in the right eye, with characteristic symptoms of night blindness and constricted field of vision and a nonrecordable electroretinogram (ERG). The left eye of the same patient revealed typical PPRCA phenotype, with no night blindness, normal field, and normal ERG...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905341/heidenhain-variant-of-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-in-a-patient-who-had-bovine-bioprosthetic-valve-implantation
#19
Jehard Hashoul, Waleed Saliba, Irina Bloch, Haneen Jabaly-Habib
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by rapidly progressing dementia, general neurologic deterioration, and death. When the leading symptoms are visual disturbances, it is termed as the Heidenhain variant of CJD (HvCJD). CJD was reported following prion-contaminated pericardium transplants but never after bovine bioprosthetic cardiac valve. In this case report, we describe HvCJD in a patient who had a bovine bioprosthetic cardiac valve implant. An 82-year-old-woman was referred to neuro-ophthalmology clinic for unexplained visual loss that started 1 month previously...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903637/spatial-scale-and-distribution-of-neurovascular-signals-underlying-decoding-of-orientation-and-eye-of-origin-from-fmri-data
#20
Jonas Larsson, Charlotte Harrison, Jade Jackson, Seung-Mock Oh, Vaida Zeringyte
Multivariate pattern analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) data is widely used, yet the spatial scales and origin of neurovascular signals underlying such analyses remain unclear. We compared decoding performance for stimulus orientation and eye-of-origin from fMRI measurements in human visual cortex with predictions based on the columnar organisation of each feature, and estimated the spatial scales of patterns driving decoding. Both orientation and eye-of-origin could be decoded significantly above chance in early visual areas (V1-V3)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
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