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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646240/delineating-function-and-connectivity-of-optokinetic-hubs-in-the-cerebellum-and-the-brainstem
#1
Ria Maxine Ruehl, Carolin Hinkel, Thomas Bauermann, Peter Zu Eulenburg
Optokinetic eye movements are crucial for keeping a stable image on the retina during movements of the head. These eye movements can be differentiated into a cortically generated response (optokinetic look nystagmus) and the highly reflexive optokinetic stare nystagmus, which is controlled by circuits in the brainstem and cerebellum. The contributions of these infratentorial networks and their functional connectivity with the cortical eye fields are still poorly understood in humans. To map ocular motor centres in the cerebellum and brainstem, we studied stare nystagmus using small-field optokinetic stimuli in the horizontal and vertical directions in 22 healthy subjects...
June 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644852/comparisons-of-retinal-vessel-diameter-and-glaucomatous-parameters-between-both-eyes-of-subjects-with-clinically-unilateral-pseudoexfoliation-syndrome
#2
Yasuyuki Takai, Masaki Tanito, Tetsuro Omura, Ryo Kawasaki, Yumiko Kawasaki, Akihiro Ohira
PURPOSE: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX), the most common identifiable cause of open-angle glaucoma, might affect the retinal hemodynamics. To test this, we compared retinal vessel diameter and glaucoma-related parameters between eyes with pseudoexfoliation material (PE+) and fellow unaffected (PE-) eyes of patients with clinically unilateral PEX. METHODS: The medical records of 30 consecutive Japanese subjects were reviewed retrospectively. The retinal vessel diameters were measured and expressed as the central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE) using standardized software...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644776/eye-injuries-in-high-school-and-collegiate-athletes
#3
Barry P Boden, Lauren A Pierpoint, Rebecca G Boden, R Dawn Comstock, Zachary Y Kerr
BACKGROUND: Although eye injuries constitute a small percentage of high school and college sports injuries, they have the potential to be permanently debilitating. HYPOTHESIS: Eye injury rates will vary by sport, sex, and between the high school and college age groups. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Data from eye injury reports in high school and college athletes were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) database over a 10-year span (2005-2006 through 2014-2015 school years) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) over an 11-year span (2004-2005 through 2014-2015 school years)...
June 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643686/-pachymeningitis-associated-with-igg4-disease
#4
Dan Zimelewicz Oberman, Carolina Cuello Oderiz, Matteo Baccanelli, Silvia Christiansen, María Cristina Zurrú
Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is an infrequent disorder. It can be idiopathic or secondary to infectious, autoimmune or neoplastic disease. The recently described 〈IgG4-related disease〉 could be the origin of many cases considered cryptogenic. We present the case of a 60-year-old man, with a history of headache and episcleritis in both eyes, with partial response to corticoid therapy. The brain MR study with gadolinium showed enhancement and thickening of the dura mater, extending from lateral wall of left temporal and occipital lobes to ipsilateral tentorium...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642003/strabismus-and-binocular-diplopia-due-to-advanced-glaucomatous-visual-field-loss
#5
Cheryl L Khanna, Jonathan M Holmes
PURPOSE: To describe a small series of patients with glaucoma whose strabismus and binocular diplopia were due to advanced visual field loss and inability to maintain sensory and motor fusion. METHODS: This study is an observational case series of 3 patients with binocular diplopia, associated with variable strabismus, which was due to advanced visual field loss. RESULTS: Specific characteristics of the strabismus associated with advanced glaucomatous visual field loss were a subjective floating second image and marked variability of the prism and alternate cover measurements...
June 19, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640998/oximes-and-hydrazones-in-bioconjugation-mechanism-and-catalysis
#6
Dominik K Kölmel, Eric T Kool
The formation of oximes and hydrazones is employed in numerous scientific fields as a simple and versatile conjugation strategy. This imine-forming reaction is applied in fields as diverse as polymer chemistry, biomaterials and hydrogels, dynamic combinatorial chemistry, organic synthesis, and chemical biology. Here we outline chemical developments in this field, with special focus on the past ∼10 years of developments. Recent strategies for installing reactive carbonyl groups and α-nucleophiles into biomolecules are described...
June 22, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640840/applying-artificial-intelligence-to-disease-staging-deep-learning-for-improved-staging-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#7
Hidenori Takahashi, Hironobu Tampo, Yusuke Arai, Yuji Inoue, Hidetoshi Kawashima
PURPOSE: Disease staging involves the assessment of disease severity or progression and is used for treatment selection. In diabetic retinopathy, disease staging using a wide area is more desirable than that using a limited area. We investigated if deep learning artificial intelligence (AI) could be used to grade diabetic retinopathy and determine treatment and prognosis. METHODS: The retrospective study analyzed 9,939 posterior pole photographs of 2,740 patients with diabetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637935/a-case-of-chronic-lymphocytic-inflammation-with-pontine-perivascular-enhancement-responsive-to-steroids-clippers-with-the-largest-lesion-in-the-temporal-lobe
#8
Hiraku Matsuura, Naoki Makita, Ryotaro Ishii, Yasuko Fujita, Yuichi Furuno, Toshiki Mizuno
Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with a predilection for the hindbrain. Generally, lesions decrease in size with increasing distance from the hindbrain. We herein describe a case of CLIPPERS in a patient showing the largest lesions in the temporal lobe. A 49-year-old man consulted to our hospital with a 22-day history of a high fever and an abnormal visual field involving the left eye...
June 21, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637860/higher-order-neural-processing-tunes-motion-neurons-to-visual-ecology-in-three-species-of-hawkmoths
#9
A L Stöckl, D O'Carroll, E J Warrant
To sample information optimally, sensory systems must adapt to the ecological demands of each animal species. These adaptations can occur peripherally, in the anatomical structures of sensory organs and their receptors; and centrally, as higher-order neural processing in the brain. While a rich body of investigations has focused on peripheral adaptations, our understanding is sparse when it comes to central mechanisms. We quantified how peripheral adaptations in the eyes, and central adaptations in the wide-field motion vision system, set the trade-off between resolution and sensitivity in three species of hawkmoths active at very different light levels: nocturnal Deilephila elpenor, crepuscular Manduca sexta, and diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637659/enduring-effects-of-perinatal-nicotine-exposure-on-murine-sleep-in-adulthood
#10
Jeremy Charles Borniger, Reuben F Don, Ning Zhang, Robert Thomas Boyd, Randy J Nelson
The long-term consequences of early life nicotine exposure are poorly defined. Approximately 8-10% of women report smoking during pregnancy, and this may promote aberrant development in the offspring. To this end, we investigated potential enduring effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on murine sleep and affective behaviors in adulthood (~13-15 weeks of age) in C57Bl6j mice. Mothers received a water bottle containing 200 µg/ml nicotine bitartrate dihydrate in 2% w/v saccharin or pH-matched 2% saccharin with 0...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636261/characteristics-of-corneal-biomechanical-responses-detected-by-a-non-contact-scheimpflug-based-tonometer-in-eyes-with-glaucoma
#11
Younhea Jung, Hae-Young L Park, Hee Jung Yang, Chan Kee Park
PURPOSE: To determine the corneal biomechanical properties in eyes with glaucoma using a non-contact Scheimpflug-based tonometer. METHODS: Corneal biomechanical responses were examined using a non-contact Scheimpflug-based tonometer. The tonometer parameters of the normal control group (n = 75) were compared with those of the glaucoma group (n = 136), including an analysis of glaucoma subgroups categorized by visual field loss. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounding factors, including the intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), age and axial length, the deformation amplitude was smaller in the glaucoma group (1...
June 21, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634888/saccades-evoked-in-response-to-electrical-stimulation-of-the-posterior-bank-of-the-arcuate-sulcus
#12
E Neromyliotis, A K Moschovakis
To test the hypothesis that the premotor cortex in and behind the caudal bank of the arcuate sulcus can generate saccades, we stimulated electrically the periarcuate region of alert rhesus monkeys. We were able to produce saccades from sites of the premotor cortex that were contiguous with the frontal eye fields and extended up to 2 mm behind the smooth pursuit area. However, premotor sites often elicited saccades with ipsiversive characteristic vectors, lower peak velocities, and flatter velocity profiles when compared to saccades evoked from the frontal eye field...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633633/utilization-and-farmers-knowledge-on-pigeonpea-diversity-in-benin-west-africa
#13
Mathieu Anatole Tele Ayenan, Agyemang Danquah, Léonard Essehou Ahoton, Kwadwo Ofori
BACKGROUND: Understanding factors driving farmers' uses of crop genetic resources is a key component not only to design appropriate conservation strategies but also to promote sustainable production. However, in Benin, limited information is available on farmers' knowledge related to pigeonpea uses and conservation. This study aimed at i) identifying and investigating the different uses of pigeonpea in relation with socio-cultural factors, namely age, gender, ethnic group and respondents' residence, ii) assessing pigeonpea varieties richness at household level and iii) evaluating the extent and distribution of pigeonpea varieties...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632764/accuracy-and-reliability-of-retinal-photo-grading-for-diabetic-retinopathy-remote-graders-from-a-developing-country-and-standard-retinal-photo-grader-in-australia
#14
Fakir M Amirul Islam
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of fundus retinal photos graded by local graders in Bangladesh with those graded by an expert at the Centre for Eye Research Australia (CERA) in the context of mass scale diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening in Bangladesh. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study of 3,104 adults identified 213 (7.2%) eligible patients with diabetes of age ≥ 40 years in 2012-2013. Retinal photographs were collected using a non-mydriatic digital fundus retinal camera and a two-field imaging protocol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631315/a-two-year-study-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-concentrations-in-drivers-part-2-physiological-signs-on-drug-recognition-expert-dre-and-non-dre-examinations
#15
Kari Declues, Shelli Perez, Ariana Figueroa
Whole blood samples were examined for ∆(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) over 2 years in drivers suspected of driving under the influence. Part one of the study examined the link between [THC] and performance on field sobriety tests. This portion examined objective signs, eye examinations and physiological indicators; and their relationship to the presence of THC. Several objective signs were excellent indicators of the presence of THC: red eyes (94%), droopy eyelids (85.6%), affected speech (87.6%), tongue coating (96...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631244/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-pre-perimetric-open-angle-glaucoma
#16
Gilda Cennamo, Daniela Montorio, Nunzio Velotti, Federica Sparnelli, Michele Reibaldi, Giovanni Cennamo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography, in patients with pre-perimetric open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: Thirty-eight consecutive eyes of 26 patients with pre-perimetric open-angle glaucoma and 48 normal eyes of 32 controls were included in this prospective study. We evaluated OCT angiography, spectral-domain OCT and visual fields parameters. Differences between controls and patients and between OCT angiography parameters and traditional glaucoma measurements were evaluated...
June 19, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629787/oral-cancer-from-the-perspective-of-wide-field-optical-fluorescence-diagnosis-tumor-evolution-and-post-treatment-follow-up
#17
Sérgio Araújo Andrade, Sebastião Pratavieira, Marisa Maria Ribeiro, Vanderlei S Bagnato, Fernando de Pilla Varotti
In this communication, we present that wide-field optical fluorescence might be useful for: the screening of oral lesions that are imperceptible to the naked eye, determination of biopsy area, better definition of treatment, and previous and post-treatment follow-up.
June 16, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629420/comparison-of-the-effects-of-platelet-rich-or-growth-factor-rich-plasma-on-intestinal-anastomosis-healing-in-pigs
#18
Gessica Giusto, Cristina Vercelli, Selina Iussich, Massimiliano Tursi, Giovanni Perona, Marco Gandini
BACKGROUND: The use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) has been proposed for the treatment of several acute and chronic syndromes, such as corneal epithelial defects and dry eye syndrome, gum bleeding during oral surgery, and in orthopaedic surgery. We hypothesized that PRGF, rather than PRP, could be more effective because of its intrinsic characteristics in promoting the healing of intestinal anastomosis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effects of PRP and PRGF on various parameters of anastomotic healing in a swine model...
June 19, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629084/facilitation-of-transscleral-drug-delivery-by-drug-loaded-magnetic-polymeric-particles
#19
Zeynab Mousavikhamene, Mohammad J Abdekhodaie, Hamid Ahmadieh
A unique method was used to facilitate ocular drug delivery from periocular route by drug loaded magnetic sensitive particles. Injection of particles in periocular space along the eye axis followed by application of magnetic field in front of the eye would trigger the magnetic polymeric particles to move along the direction of magnetic force and reside against the outer surface of the sclera. This technique prevents removal of drug in the periocular space, observed in conventional transscleral drug delivery systems and hence higher amount of drug can enter the eye in a longer period of time...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626602/association-between-corneal-biomechanical-properties-with-ocular-response-analyzer-and-also-corvisst-tonometry-and-glaucomatous-visual-field-severity
#20
Kazunori Hirasawa, Masato Matsuura, Hiroshi Murata, Shunsuke Nakakura, Yoshitaka Nakao, Yoshiaki Kiuchi, Ryo Asaoka
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between corneal biomechanical properties measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) and also CorvisST (CST) tonometry, and glaucomatous visual field (VF) severity. METHODS: One hundred forty-six eyes of 91 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma who performed Humphrey Field Analyzer 30-2 or 24-2 SITA-Standard, ORA, and CST within 180 days were included in this multicentral, observational cross-sectional study. The association between ORA parameters (corneal hysteresis [CH] and corneal resistant factor [CRF]), CST parameters (A1 and A2 time, A1 and A2 length, A1 and A2 velocity, A1 and A2 deformation amplitude, highest deformation amplitude, highest concavity time, peak distance, and radius), and other basic parameters (age, intraocular pressure with Goldmann applanation tonometry, central corneal thickness, and axial length) against mean total deviation (mTD) were analyzed using a linear mixed-model and model selection with corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc)...
June 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
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