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Fangyan Yu, Shruti Sharma, Agnieszka Skowronek, Kai Sven Erdmann
A primary cilium is present on most eukaryotic cells and represents a specialized organelle dedicated to signal transduction and mechanosensing. Defects in cilia function are the cause for several human diseases called ciliopathies. The serologically defined colon cancer antigen-3 (SDCCAG3) is a recently described novel endosomal protein mainly localized at early and recycling endosomes and interacting with several components of membrane trafficking pathways. Here we describe localization of SDCCAG3 to the basal body of primary cilia...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ying Qiao, Yong Mao, Jun Wang, Ruanni Chen, Yong-Quan Su, Jia Chen, Wei-Qiang Zheng
The white-spot disease caused by marine ciliate Cryptocryon irritans hindered the sustainable development of large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea industry. Better understandings about the parasite-host interactions in the molecular level will facilitate the prevention of mass mortality of the L. crocea caused by white-spot disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNA molecules about 20-22 nucleotides which post-transcriptionally regulated many protein-coding genes and involved in many biological processes, especially in host-pathogen responses...
October 17, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Joshua B Lewis, Dallin C Milner, Adam L Lewis, Todd M Dunaway, Kaleb M Egbert, Scott C Albright, Brigham J Merrell, Troy D Monson, Dallin S Broberg, Jason R Gassman, Daniel B Thomas, Juan A Arroyo, Paul R Reynolds
It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Xiaolu Zhao, Yuanyuan Wang, Yurui Wang, Yifan Liu, Shan Gao
DNA replication elongation is tightly controlled by histone-modifying enzymes. Our previous studies showed that the histone methytransferase TXR1 (Tetrahymena Trithorax related protein 1) specifically catalyzes H3K27 monomethylation and affects DNA replication elongation in Tetrahymena thermophila. In this study, we investigated whether TXR1 has a substrate preference to the canonical H3 over the replacement variant H3.3. We demonstrated by histone mutagenesis that K27Q mutation in H3.3 further aggravated the replication stress phenotype of K27Q mutation in canonical H3, supporting H3...
October 17, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Sukhpreet Kaur, Avinash Gupta
Balantidiasis is a rare zoonotic disease in humans. Balantidium coli is the causative ciliated protozoan. We present a case of urinary balantidiasis in a patient having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who was on steroids for a long time. He has no symptoms of bowel or urinary involvement. We are reporting this case because of its rarity in human urine and also for future references.
July 2016: Journal of Cytology
Jingyi Dong, Xiaoteng Lu, Chen Shao, Jie Huang, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid
The morphology and morphogenesis of a new saline soil hypotrich, Lamtostyla salina n. sp., collected from Longfeng Wetland in Daqing, north China, were studied based on live observations and protargol stained specimens. The new species is characterized as follows: body very flexible but not contractile, lanceolate with anterior end broadly rounded, widest at about 1/3 of body length, posterior end narrowly rounded; cortical granules colourless and scattered; amphisiellid median cirral row ends ahead of mid-body, composed of 5-13 cirri; 4-20 frontoventral cirri arranged in 2-4 rows; three frontal, one buccal and 2-6 transverse cirri; usually one left and one right marginal row, composed of 17-51 and 20-51 cirri respectively; usually two dorsal kineties; two macronuclear nodules and two micronuclei...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Santosh Kumar, Daizy Bharti, Pablo Quintela-Alonso, Mann Kyoon Shin, Antonietta La Terza
The morphology and morphogenesis of two stylonychid ciliates, Stylonychia ammermanniGupta et al., 2001 and Tetmemena bifaria (Stokes, 1887) Berger, 2001, isolated from soil samples of Lombardia region, Northern Italy, and water samples from Cheonggancheon stream, South Korea, were investigated. The Italian population of S. ammermanni was found to be very similar in morphology to the Indian type population and the junior synonym S. harbinensisShi and Ammermann, 2004 since most of the morphometric data overlapped...
September 23, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Wen Liu, Lian Duan, Tijian Sun, Binsheng Yang
Ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin (EoCen) is an EF-hand calcium-binding protein closely related to the prototypical calcium sensor protein calmodulin. Four mutants (D37K, D73K, D110K and D146K) were created firstly to elucidate the importance of the first aspartic acid residues (Asp37, Asp73, Asp110 and Asp146) in the beginning of the four EF-loops of EoCen. Aromatic-sensitized Tb(3+) fluorescence indicates that the aspartic acid residues are very important for the metal-binding of EoCen, except for Asp73 (in EF-loop II)...
October 14, 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Franziska Szokoli, Michele Castelli, Elena Sabaneyeva, Martina Schrallhammer, Sascha Krenek, Thomas G Doak, Thomas U Berendonk, Giulio Petroni
In the past ten years, the number of endosymbionts described within the bacterial order Rickettsiales has constantly grown. Since 2006, 18 novel Rickettsiales genera inhabiting protists, such as ciliates and amoebae, have been described. In this work, we characterize two novel bacterial endosymbionts from Paramecium collected near Bloomington, Indiana (USA). Both endosymbiotic species inhabit the cytoplasm of the same host. The Gram-negative bacterium "Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis" occurs in clumps and is frequently associated with the host macronucleus...
October 14, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Safoura Seifi, Shabnam Sohanian, Oveis Khakbaz, Farida Abesi, Fatemeh Aliakbarpour, Arezoo Rayani
INTRODUCTION: The ectopic ciliated cyst is a rare non-odontogenic cyst which occurs as a delayed complication after maxillary sinus radical surgery; this lesion emerges due to the destruction of the sinus mucosa during the surgery and entrapment of the respiratory epithelium in the region. This lesion has been observed in very rare cases following genioplasty and bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. CASE REPORT: We reported a case of the ectopic ciliated cyst in in the mandible of a 37-year-old Iranian woman following genioplasty and Lefort 1 surgery after 2 years...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Marianna Zanatelli, Ana M G Custodio, Manoel F Biancardi, Fernanda C A Santos, Rejane M Góes, Luiz R Falleiros-Jr, Patricia S L Vilamaior, Sebastião R Taboga
The female prostate is a reproductive gland that typically presents a morphology similar to that of the male gland and is highly developed in female Mongolian gerbils. Two main cell populations compose the epithelium gland: basal and secretory luminal cells. However, during postnatal development, diverse secretory cell phenotypes are distributed among the typical ones. Prostate homeostasis is under the control of sexual hormones, such as oestrogen and progesterone. After hormonal deprivation the female gland undergoes several morphophysiological changes...
October 14, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Zhe Wang, Tong Zhou, Qingxiang Guo, Zemao Gu
Two populations of Epistylis wuhanensis n. sp., a new freshwater peritrich ciliate, were isolated from different freshwater ponds located in Hubei, China. Their morphological characteristics were investigated using live observation, protargol impregnation, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Specimens from the two populations showed identical arrangement of the infraciliature, and identical small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences. The zooids present bell-shaped, and 90-175 × 27-54 μm in vivo...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Ewa Waclawek, Ewa Joachimiak, Malgorzata Hanna Hall, Hanna Fabczak, Dorota Wloga
Katanin is a microtubule severing protein that functions as a heterodimer composed of an AAA domain catalytic subunit, p60, and a regulatory subunit, a WD40 repeat protein, p80. Katanin-dependent severing of microtubules is important for proper execution of key cellular activities including cell division, migration, and differentiation. Published data obtained in C. elegans, Xenopus and mammals indicate that katanin is regulated at multiple levels including transcription, posttranslational modifications (of both katanin and microtubules) and degradation...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Jose Luis Ortiz, Amparo Ortiz, Javier Milara, Miguel Armengot, Celia Sanz, Desamparados Compañ, Esteban Morcillo, Julio Cortijo
Different image techniques have been used to analyze mucociliary clearance (MCC) in humans, but current small animal MCC analysis using in vivo imaging has not been well defined. Bitter taste receptor (T2R) agonists increase ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and cause bronchodilation but their effects in vivo are not well understood. This work analyzes in vivo nasal and bronchial MCC in guinea pig animals using three dimension (3D) micro-CT-SPECT images and evaluates the effect of T2R agonists. Intranasal macroaggreggates of albumin-Technetium 99 metastable (MAA-Tc99m) and lung nebulized Tc99m albumin nanocolloids were used to analyze the effect of T2R agonists on nasal and bronchial MCC respectively, using 3D micro-CT-SPECT in guinea pig...
2016: PloS One
Wu-Lin Zuo, Jing Yang, Kazunori Gomi, IonWa Chao, Ronald G Crystal, Renat Shaykhiev
The airway epithelium of cigarette smokers undergoes dramatic remodeling with hyperplasia of basal cells (BC) and mucus-producing cells, squamous metaplasia, altered ciliated cell differentiation and decreased junctional barrier integrity, relevant to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. In this study, we show that EGFR ligand amphiregulin (AREG) is induced by smoking in human airway epithelium as a result of EGF-driven squamous differentiation of airway BC stem/progenitor cells. In turn, AREG induced a unique EGFR activation pattern in human airway BC, distinct from that evoked by EGF, leading to BC- and mucous hyperplasia, altered ciliated cell differentiation and impaired barrier integrity...
October 6, 2016: Stem Cells
Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Hazirah B Z Abidin, Jeremy K Brown, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Andrew W Horne, W Colin Duncan
Sialylation creates a negative charge on the cell surface that can interfere with blastocyst implantation. For example, α2,6-sialylation on terminal galactose, catalyzed by the sialyltransferase ST6GAL1, inhibits the binding of galectin-1, a β-galactoside-binding lectin. We recently reported the potential involvement of galectin-1 and -3 in the pathogenesis of tubal ectopic pregnancy; however, the precise role of galectins and their ligand glycoconjugates remain unclear. Here, we investigated the expression of the genes encoding α2,3- and α2,6-galactoside sialyltransferases (ST3GAL1 - 6 and ST6GAL1 - 2) and the localization of sialic acids in the Fallopian tube of women with or without ectopic implantation...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
John C Clamp, Tapas Chatterjee, Gregorio Fernandez-Leborans
The colonial peritrich ciliate Epistylis anastatica (Linnaeus, 1767) was discovered living as an epibiont on Mesocyclops isabellae Dussart & Fernando, 1988 collected from a pond in Andhra Pradesh state, India. This is the first report of Epistylis on this host, and a description of its morphological characteristics is provided. The biomass of colonies of E. anastatica relative to that of their hosts was relatively high, being greater than that of the host in some cases (8.11 mm<sup>3</sup> vs. 1...
September 16, 2016: Zootaxa
Yuan Zhuang, John C Clamp, Zhenzhen Yi, Daode Ji
A new peritrichous ciliate, Cothurnia salina n. sp., collected from a brine pond of a salt factory in Yantai, China, was investigated based on live observations, silver staining method and molecular phylogenetic analysis. The diagnosis for this new taxon: body elongated columnar, in vivo 80-98 × 12-19 µm; lorica barrel-shaped, with aboral part heavily thickened; stalk extremely short, with approximately ½ of its length within the lorica; macronucleus wormlike, longitudinally oriented; single contractile vacuole ventrally located; pellicle with conspicuous parallel transverse striations, 62-73 from aboral trochal band to peristome and 32-38 from aboral trochal band to scopula; infundibular polykinety 3 (P3) consisting of two ciliary rows, which are equal length, parallel to each other and terminate adstomally between P1 and P2...
September 19, 2016: Zootaxa
Kenji Kikuchi, Tomofumi Haga, Keiko Numayama-Tsuruta, Hironori Ueno, Takuji Ishikawa
Mucous flow in a tracheal lumen is generated by the beat motion of ciliated cells to provide a clearance function by discharging harmful dust particles and viruses. Due to its physiological importance, the cilia-generated flow and the rheological properties of mucus have been investigated intensively. The effects of viscosity on the cilia-generated flow, however, have not been fully clarified. In this study, we measured bulk background velocity of ciliary flow using a micro particle tracking velocimetry method under various viscosity conditions in mice...
October 3, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Benjamin Steines, David D Dickey, Jamie Bergen, Katherine J D A Excoffon, John R Weinstein, Xiaopeng Li, Ziying Yan, Mahmoud H Abou Alaiwa, Viral S Shah, Drake C Bouzek, Linda S Powers, Nicholas D Gansemer, Lynda S Ostedgaard, John F Engelhardt, David A Stoltz, Michael J Welsh, Patrick L Sinn, David V Schaffer, Joseph Zabner
The physiological components that contribute to cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease are steadily being elucidated. Gene therapy could potentially correct these defects. CFTR-null pigs provide a relevant model to test gene therapy vectors. Using an in vivo selection strategy that amplifies successful capsids by replicating their genomes with helper adenovirus coinfection, we selected an adeno-associated virus (AAV) with tropism for pig airway epithelia. The evolved capsid, termed AAV2H22, is based on AAV2 with 5 point mutations that result in a 240-fold increased infection efficiency...
September 8, 2016: JCI Insight
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