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Thomas B Kornberg
Evidence in many experimental systems supports the idea that non-uniform distributions of morphogen proteins encode positional information in developing tissues. There is also strong evidence that morphogen dispersal is mediated by cytonemes and that morphogen proteins transfer from producing to receiving cells at morphogenetic synapses that form at sites of cytoneme contacts. This essay considers some implications of this mechanism and its relevance to various contexts including large single cells such as the pre-cellular Drosophila embryo and the ciliate Stentor...
September 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
Jan Rohozinski, Conception Diaz-Arrastia, Creighton L Edwards
There is a general agreement that a large subpopulation of serous ovarian cancers arise from the fallopian tube mucosal epithelium. However, there is still some debate as to whether the cancers originate from a secretory or ciliate cell lineage. One well established method for determining the origin of a cell line is to document the expression of genes and proteins that are cell type specific. Lineage or tissue specific patterns of gene expression are evidence of direct decent from a given cell type within a tissue...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Daolu Zhan, Wei Xiang, Fengjing Guo, Yuanzheng Ma
Intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88) is protein crucial for the assembly and maintenance of primary cilia in chondrocytes. Primary cilia regulate mechanical and chemical signals in chondrocytes; however, the effects of cytokines on IFT88 expression and cilia formation and maintenance remain to be elucidated. Therefore, the role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on IFT88 expression were examined in theATDC5 murine chondrocytic line, in order to investigate the signaling pathways involved in this process...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
You-Mi Seo, Su-Jin Park, Hye-Kyung Lee, Joo-Cheol Park
Tooth development is a progressive process regulated by interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. Our previous studies showed that copine-7 (Cpne7), a dental epithelium-derived protein, is a signalling molecule that is secreted by preameloblasts and regulates the differentiation of preodontoblasts into odontoblasts. However, the mechanisms involved in the translocation of Cpne7 from preameloblasts to preodontoblasts and the functions of Cpne7 during odontogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we showed that the internalization of Cpne7 was mediated primarily by caveolae...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Feng Zhao, Sabine Filker, Thorsten Stoeck, Kuidong Xu
BACKGROUND: Benthic ciliates and the environmental factors shaping their distribution are far from being completely understood. Likewise, deep-sea systems are amongst the least understood ecosystems on Earth. In this study, using high-throughput DNA sequencing, we investigated the diversity and community composition of benthic ciliates in different sediment layers of a seamount and an adjacent abyssal plain in the tropical Western Pacific Ocean with water depths ranging between 813 m and 4566 m...
September 12, 2017: BMC Microbiology
Kalachaveedu Mangathayaru, Divya Raghavan, Srivani Telapolu, Sarah Kuruvilla, Kedike Balakrishna
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Roots of Inula racemosa are used as a cardio protective in Ayurveda in India, being prescribed as a medicine for precordial chest pain, cough and dyspnoea, both singly and as a poly herbal. AIM: Evaluation of Phytoestrogenic activity of the root extracts of Inula racemosa and compounds isolated therefrom in vivo, in silico and in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alcohol (IrA) and hexane (IrH) extracts characterized by HPTLC/GC-MS analysis respectively and processed for compound isolation were evaluated for estrogenic activity (100 &250mg/kg bw) by the Immature rat uterotrophic assay using ethinylestradiol (EE -30µg/kg bw) as standard drug...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Woolf T Walker, Claire L Jackson, Raymond N Allan, Samuel A Collins, Michael J Kelso, Ardeshir Rineh, Nageshwar R Yepuri, Ben Nicholas, Laurie Lau, David Johnston, Peter Lackie, Saul N Faust, Jane S A Lucas, Luanne Hall-Stoodley
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common pathogen in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) patients. We hypothesised that abnormal ciliary motility and low airway nitric oxide (NO) levels on airway epithelial cells from PCD patients might be permissive for NTHi colonisation and biofilm development.We used a primary epithelial cell co-culture model to investigate NTHi infection. Primary airway epithelial cells from PCD and non-PCD patients were differentiated to ciliation using an air-liquid interface culture and then co-cultured with NTHi...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Zhishuai Qu, Hongbo Pan, Xiaofeng Lin, Lifang Li, Abdullah Mohammad A Aleidan, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Thorsten Stoeck, Xiaozhong Hu
Three new cyrtophorian ciliates isolated from coastal areas of China were described based on morphological and genetic data. The Chlamydodon mnemosyne-like species Chlamydodon similis sp. n. differs from its congeners mainly by its number of somatic kineties. Chlamydodon oligochaetus sp. n. is distinguished from its congeners mainly by having fewer somatic kineties, and/or an elongated body shape. Chlamydodon crassidens sp. n. is characterized mainly by an inverted triangular body shape, a posteriorly interrupted cross-striated band (5-6 μm wide), and a large cytostome...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Takamasa Kamei, Masahiro Nonaka, Yoshiko Uemura, Yasuo Yamanouchi, Yumiko Komori, Ryoichi Iwata, Junichi Takeda, Tetsuo Hashiba, Kunikazu Yoshimura, Akio Asai
Rathke's cleft cyst is a cystic disease that occurs in the sella turcica or, occasionally, in the suprasellar area. An ectopic Rathke's cleft cyst is extremely rare, and its nature is less well understood. The authors report the case of a 14-year-old girl who presented with a growing cystic lesion in the prepontine cistern, immediately behind the dorsum sellae. Preoperative imaging and intraoperative investigation showed part of the cyst wall continuing into the dorsum sellae, to the pituitary gland. The cisternal portion of the cyst wall was totally resected via a right subtemporal approach...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Suman Choudhary, A Kumaresan, Manish Kumar, Shivani Chhillar, Hrudananda Malik, Sudarshan Kumar, Jai K Kaushik, Tirtha K Datta, Ashok K Mohanty
BACKGROUND: An oviduct- specific glycoprotein, OVGP1, is synthesized and secreted by non-ciliated epithelial cells of the mammalian oviduct which provides an essential milieu for reproductive functions. The present study reports the effects of recombinant buffalo OVGP1 that lacks post-translational modifications, and native Buffalo OVGP1 isolated from oviductal tissue, on frozen- thawed sperm functions and in vitro embryo development. RESULTS: The proportion of viable sperms was greater (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Fei Tian, Chao Tong, Chenguang Feng, Kunyuan Wanghe, Kai Zhao
Gymnocypris przewalskii is a native cyprinid in the Lake Qinghai of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. G. przewalskii is highly susceptible to the infection of a parasite, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, in the artificial propagation and breeding. To better understand the host immune reaction to I. multifiliis infection, we characterize the gene expression profiles in the spleen of healthy and I. multifiliis infected G. przewalskii by RNA-seq. Totally, the transcriptomic analysis produces 463,031,110 high quality reads, which are assembled to 213,538 genes with N50 of 1918 bp and the average length of 1205 bp...
September 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Chongnv Wang, Xuming Pan, Yawen Fan, Ying Chen, Weijie Mu
Oxytetracycline (OTC) is commonly employed in fish farms to prevent bacterial infections in China, and because of their widely and intensive use, the potential harmful effects on organisms in aquatic environment are of great concern. Ciliates play an important role in aquatic food webs as secondary producers, and Pseudocohnilembus persalinus, is one kind of them which are easily found in fish farms, surviving in polluted water. Therefore, using P. persalinus as experimental models, this study investigated the effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the growth, antioxidant system and morphological damage in pollution-resistant ciliates species...
August 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Justin A Bishop, Morgan L Cowan, Chung H Shum, William H Westra
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common salivary gland malignancy. Recent studies have shown that most MECs harbor gene fusions involving MAML2-an alteration that appears to be specific for MEC, a finding that could be diagnostically useful. While most cases of MEC are histologically straightforward, uncommon variants can cause considerable diagnostic difficulty. We present 2 variants of MEC for which MAML2 studies were crucial in establishing a diagnosis: a previously undescribed ciliated variant, and the recently described Warthin-like variant...
September 4, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Thomas Cavalier-Smith
In 1981 I established kingdom Chromista, distinguished from Plantae because of its more complex chloroplast-associated membrane topology and rigid tubular multipartite ciliary hairs. Plantae originated by converting a cyanobacterium to chloroplasts with Toc/Tic translocons; most evolved cell walls early, thereby losing phagotrophy. Chromists originated by enslaving a phagocytosed red alga, surrounding plastids by two extra membranes, placing them within the endomembrane system, necessitating novel protein import machineries...
September 5, 2017: Protoplasma
Elena N Temereva
Nervous system organization differs greatly in larvae and adults of many species, but has nevertheless been traditionally used for phylogenetic studies. In phoronids, the organization of the larval nervous system depends on the type of development. With the goal of understanding the ground plan of the nervous system in phoronid larvae, the development and organization of the larval nervous system were studied in a viviparous phoronid species. The ground plan of the phoronid larval nervous system includes an apical organ, a continuous nerve tract under the preoral and postoral ciliated bands, and two lateral nerves extending between the apical organ and the nerve tract...
July 2017: Evolution & Development
J Kosiba, W Krztoń, E Wilk-Woźniak
The increasing proliferation of cyanobacterial blooms prolongs the impact of cyanobacteria on aquatic fauna, potentially altering trophic relationships. We hypothesized that any effect of dissolved microcystins (toxins produced by cyanobacteria) on plankton assemblages would be more evident in artificial reservoirs and ponds than in natural ones. The concentrations of dissolved microcystins in the waters we studied ranged widely from 0.07 to 0.81 μg/L. We showed that the artificial ponds were subjected to more frequent and longer-lasting harmful algal blooms...
September 2, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Patricia Cavelier, Julien Cau, Nathalie Morin, Claude Delsert
While our knowledge of bivalve gametogenesis recently progressed, more molecular markers are needed in order to develop tissue imaging. Here, we identified stem cell and mitotic markers to further characterize the oyster early gametogenesis, mainly through immunofluorescence microscopy.Intense alkaline phosphatase activity, a nonspecific marker for stem cells, was detected on the outer edge of the gonad ducts at the post-spawning stage, suggesting the abundance of undifferentiated cells very early during the sexual cycle...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Peter Vďačný, Ľubomír Rajter, Shahed Uddin Ahmed Shazib, Seok Won Jang, Mann Kyoon Shin
Ciliates are a suitable microbial model to investigate trait-dependent diversification because of their comparatively complex morphology and high diversity. We examined the impact of seven intrinsic traits on speciation, extinction, and net-diversification of rhynchostomatians, a group of comparatively large, predatory ciliates with proboscis carrying a dorsal brush (sensoric structure) and toxicysts (organelles used to kill the prey). Bayesian estimates under the binary-state speciation and extinction model indicate that two types of extrusomes and two-rowed dorsal brush raise diversification through decreasing extinction...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Micah Dunthorn, Rebecca A Zufall, Jingyun Chi, Konrad Paszkiewicz, Karen Moore, Frédéric Mahé
The putatively asexual Colpodean ciliates potentially pose a problem to macro-organismic theories of evolution. They are extremely ancient (although asexuality is thought to hasten extinction), and yet there is one apparently derived sexual species (implying an unlikely regain of a complex trait). If macro-organismic theories of evolution also broadly apply to microbial eukaryotes, though, then most or all of the colpodean ciliates should merely be secretively sexual. Here we show using de novo genome sequencing, that colpodean ciliates have the meiotic genes required for sex and these genes are under functional constraint...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Song Li, William A Bourland, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Lifang Li, Xiaozhong Hu
Most species in the anaerobic ciliate family Caenomorphidae Poche, 1913 lack detailed descriptions based on modern morphologic and molecular methods. In this report, two species, Caenomorpha medusula Perty, 1852 and Sulfonecta uniserialis (Levander, 1894) Jankowski, 1978, were isolated from freshwater anaerobic sediments in Qingdao, China. Another population of C. medusula was recorded from Boise, Idaho, USA. We reinvestigated live morphology, ciliature, and the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of both species...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
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