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M Gelardi, C Cavaliere, L Jannuzzi
Nasal cytology represents a useful, inexpensive and easy-to-apply diagnostic method to better detail the phenotypic characteristics of rhinitis. In fact, it allows to detect and quantify the cell population within the nasal mucosa at a given time. The technique involves sampling, processing and microscope reading. Sampling requires the collection of cells from the surface of nasal mucosa that is usually done by a sterile disposable curette. Samples should be collected from the middle portion of the inferior turbinate where the ratio ciliate/mucinous cells is expected to be well balanced...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Damiano Zanini, Diego Giraldo, Ben Warren, Radoslaw Katana, Marta Andrés, Suneel Reddy, Stephanie Pauls, Nicola Schwedhelm-Domeyer, Bart R H Geurten, Martin C Göpfert
Animals rely on mechanosensory feedback from proprioceptors to control locomotory body movements. Unexpectedly, we found that this movement control requires visual opsins. Disrupting the Drosophila opsins NINAE or Rh6 impaired larval locomotion and body contractions, independently of light and vision. Opsins were detected in chordotonal proprioceptors along the larval body, localizing to their ciliated dendrites. Loss of opsins impaired mechanically evoked proprioceptor spiking and cilium ultrastructure. Without NINAE or Rh6, NOMPC mechanotransduction channels leaked from proprioceptor cilia and ciliary Inactive (Iav) channels partly disappeared...
March 8, 2018: Neuron
Jasper Braun, Lukas Nabergall, Rafik Neme, Laura F Landweber, Masahico Saito, Nataša Jonoska
Ciliates have two different types of nuclei per cell, with one acting as a somatic, transcriptionally active nucleus (macronucleus; abbr. MAC) and another serving as a germline nucleus (micronucleus; abbr. MIC). Furthermore, Oxytricha trifallax undergoes extensive genome rearrangements during sexual conjugation and post-zygotic development of daughter cells. These rearrangements are necessary because the precursor MIC loci are often both fragmented and scrambled, with respect to the corresponding MAC loci. Such genome architectures are remarkably tolerant of encrypted MIC loci, because RNA-guided processes during MAC development reorganize the gene fragments in the correct order to resemble the parental MAC sequence...
March 15, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
N N Rimskaya-Korsakova, N P Karaseva, E N Temereva, V V Malakhov
Ultrastructural study of the excretory tree of vestimentifera Ridgeia piscesae has shown that it consists of tubules that are blind at their distal ends. The tubules are lined with ciliated cells and have one or two multiciliated terminal cell(s) at the distal ends. In the tubule walls, there are putative ultrafiltration sites. The excretory tree tubules are interpreted as the secondary protonephridia.
January 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Calvin Chao, Vijay Vanguri, Karl Uy
First described in 2005, the Mullerian derived cyst in the mediastinum is a rare finding with few subsequent reports. We report a case of Mullerian cyst occurring in the mediastinum of a 49-year-old female that was resected by robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of robot-assisted resection of Hattori's cyst. Histopathologic analysis revealed ciliated Mullerian-type tubal epithelium positive for paired box gene 8 (PAX8), estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR), confirming Mullerian differentiation...
2018: Case Reports in Pulmonology
Swapna Upadhyay, Lena Palmberg
Air pollution leads to inhalation of several pulmonary stimulants that includes particulate matter (PM), and gaseous substances contributing significantly to the development of chronic lung diseases. However, the pathophysiological mechanism of air pollutant mediated pulmonary toxicity remains unclear. This is primarily due to the lack of efficient test systems, mimicing human inhalation exposure scenarios to air pollutants. The majority of the pulmonary in vitro-studies have been conducted using cell lines in submerged cell culture conditions and thereby overlooking the pulmonary physiology...
March 9, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Bingqing Xie, Bharathi Laxman, Somaye Hashemifar, Randi Stern, T Conrad Gilliam, Natalia Maltsev, Steven R White
Basal airway epithelial cells (AEC) constitute stem/progenitor cells within the central airways and respond to mucosal injury in an ordered sequence of spreading, migration, proliferation, and differentiation to needed cell types. However, dynamic gene transcription in the early events after mucosal injury has not been studied in AEC. We examined gene expression using microarrays following mechanical injury (MI) in primary human AEC grown in submersion culture to generate basal cells and in the air-liquid interface to generate differentiated AEC (dAEC) that include goblet and ciliated cells...
2018: PloS One
Daode Ji, Yunfeng Wang
Protargol staining is a crucial method to reveal the infraciliature of ciliates, which is the most important morphological character for species identification. In the present study, Wilbert's protocol of protargol staining was emended mainly towards the highly happened improper bleaching. Through reciprocal treatments, both insufficient and excessive bleachings were much eliminated from the protargol protocol and the tests performed with four different species of ciliates established that the stainings were considerably improved and more reliable with optimized bleaching...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Takuya Ohmura, Yukinori Nishigami, Atsushi Taniguchi, Shigenori Nonaka, Junichi Manabe, Takuji Ishikawa, Masatoshi Ichikawa
An important habit of ciliates, namely, their behavioral preference for walls, is revealed through experiments and hydrodynamic simulations. A simple mechanical response of individual ciliary beating (i.e., the beating is stalled by the cilium contacting a wall) can solely determine the sliding motion of the ciliate along the wall and result in a wall-preferring behavior. Considering ciliate ethology, this mechanosensing system is likely an advantage in the single cell's ability to locate nutrition. In other words, ciliates can skillfully use both the sliding motion to feed on a surface and the traveling motion in bulk water to locate new surfaces according to the single "swimming" mission...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lonneke Duijkers, L Ingeborgh van den Born, John Neidhardt, Nathalie M Bax, Laurence H M Pierrache, B Jeroen Klevering, Rob W J Collin, Alejandro Garanto
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a rare inherited retinal disorder affecting approximately 1:50,000 people worldwide. So far, mutations in 25 genes have been associated with LCA, with CEP290 (encoding the Centrosomal protein of 290 kDa) being the most frequently mutated gene. The most recurrent LCA-causing CEP290 mutation, c.2991+1655A>G, causes the insertion of a pseudoexon into a variable proportion of CEP290 transcripts. We previously demonstrated that antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) have a high therapeutic potential for patients homozygously harbouring this mutation, although to date, it is unclear whether rescuing one single allele is enough to restore CEP290 function...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marjan M Hashemi, Brett S Holden, Maddison F Taylor, John Wilson, Jordan Coburn, Brian Hilton, Tania Nance, Shawn Gubler, Carl Genberg, Shenglou Deng, Paul B Savage
Ceragenins were designed as non-peptide mimics of endogenous antimicrobial peptides, and they display broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activities, including the ability to eradicate established biofilms. These features of ceragenins make them attractive potential therapeutics for persistent infections in the lung, including those associated with cystic fibrosis. A characteristic of an optimal therapeutic for use in the lungs and trachea is the exertion of potent antimicrobial activities without damaging the cilia that play a critical role in these tissues...
March 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nicky O'Boyle, Erin Sutherland, Catherine C Berry, Robert L Davies
Respiratory tract infections are of significant concern in the agriculture industry. There is a requirement for the development of well-characterised in vitro epithelial cell culture models in order to dissect the diverse molecular interactions occurring at the host-pathogen interface in airway epithelia. We have analysed key factors that influence growth and differentiation of ovine tracheal epithelial cells in an air-liquid interface (ALI) culture system. Cellular differentiation was assessed at 21 days post-ALI, a time-point which we have previously shown to be sufficient for differentiation in standard growth conditions...
2018: PloS One
William H Lewis, Kacper M Sendra, T Martin Embley, Genoveva F Esteban
Many anaerobic ciliated protozoa contain organelles of mitochondrial ancestry called hydrogenosomes. These organelles generate molecular hydrogen that is consumed by methanogenic Archaea, living in endosymbiosis within many of these ciliates. Here we describe a new species of anaerobic ciliate, Trimyema finlayi n. sp., by using silver impregnation and microscopy to conduct a detailed morphometric analysis. Comparisons with previously published morphological data for this species, as well as the closely related species, Trimyema compressum , demonstrated that despite them being similar, both the mean cell size and the mean number of somatic kineties are lower for T...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sun K Kim, Siwei Zhang, Michael E Werner, Eva J Brotslaw, Jennifer W Mitchell, Mohamed M Altabbaa, Brian J Mitchell
Most epithelial cells polarize along the axis of the tissue, a feature known as planar cell polarity (PCP). The initiation of PCP requires cell-cell signaling via the noncanonical Wnt/PCP pathway. Additionally, changes in the cytoskeleton both facilitate and reflect this polarity. We have identified CLAMP/Spef1 as a novel regulator of PCP signaling. In addition to decorating microtubules (MTs) and the ciliary rootlet, a pool of CLAMP localizes at the apical cell cortex. Depletion of CLAMP leads to the loss of PCP protein asymmetry, defects in cilia polarity, and defects in the angle of cell division...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Marcel D O Pinheiro, Niels C Bols
For the first time, ciliates have been found to activate rather than inactivate a virus, chum salmon reovirus (CSV). Activation was seen as an increase in viral titre upon incubation of CSV at 22 °C with Tetrahymena canadenesis and two strains of T. thermophila: wild type (B1975) and a temperature conditional mutant for phagocytosis (NP1). The titer increase was not likely due to replication because CSV had no visible effects on the ciliates and no vertebrate virus has ever been shown unequivocally to replicate in ciliates...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
G Fichi, S Carboni, J E Bron, J Ireland, M J Leaver, G Paladini
Ciliates have been reported as pathogens of many species of economically important bivalves. Mussel protozoan X (MPX), is an uncharacterised intracellular ciliate of mussels and has been widely reported in Mytilus spp. around the world. In order to characterise this ciliate, Mytilus edulis samples were collected from a site on the West coast of Scotland, and four different fixatives for histological examination were tested. Fresh preparations of mussel digestive glands were also examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Valerio Matozzo, Carlo Ercolini, Laura Serracca, Roberta Battistini, Irene Rossini, Giulia Granato, Elisabetta Quaglieri, Alberto Perolo, Livio Finos, Giuseppe Arcangeli, Daniela Bertotto, Giuseppe Radaelli, Bruno Chollet, Isabelle Arzul, Francesco Quaglio
The Gulf of La Spezia (northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) is a commercially important area both as a shipping port and for mussel farming. Recently, there has been increased concern over environmental disturbances caused by anthropogenic activities such as ship traffic and dredging and the effects they have on the health of farmed mussels. This paper reports the results of microbiological and histological analyses, as well as of measurement of several biomarkers which were performed to assess the health status of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from four rearing sites in the Gulf of La Spezia...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Wen Song, Lun Wang, Lifang Li, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Abdullah Aleidan, Susan Smith, Xiaozhong Hu
The morphology and phylogeny of four oligotrichid ciliates, Parallelostrombidium paraellipticum sp. n., P. dragescoi sp. n., P. jankowskii (Xu et al., 2009) comb. n., and P. kahli (Xu et al., 2009) comb. n., are described or redescribed based on live observation, protargol stained material, and SSU rRNA gene sequences. The new species P. paraellipticum sp. n. is characterized by its obovoidal cell shape, adoral zone composed of 17-21 collar, 9-11 buccal, and two thigmotactic membranelles, and extrusomes attached in one row along the girdle kinety...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Jacelyn Emily Peabody, Ren-Jay Shei, Brent M Bermingham, Scott Edward Phillips, Brett Turner, Steven M Rowe, George Martin Solomon
The respiratory tract is lined with multi-ciliated epithelial cells that function to move mucus and trapped particles via the mucociliary transport apparatus. Genetic and acquired ciliopathies result in diminished mucociliary clearance, contributing to disease pathogenesis. Recent innovations in imaging technology has advanced our understanding of ciliary motion in health and disease states. Application of imaging modalities including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-speed video microscopy (HSVM), and micron-optical coherence tomography (μOCT) could improve diagnostics and be applied for precision medicine...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Sina Schorn, Heribert Cypionka
Achromatium is the largest freshwater bacterium known to date and easily recognised by conspicuous calcite bodies filling the cell volume. Members of this genus are highly abundant in diverse aquatic sediments and may account for up to 90% of the bacterial biovolume in the oxic-anoxic interfaces. The high abundance implies that Achromatium is either rapidly growing or hardly prone to predation. As Achromatium is still uncultivated and does not appear to grow fast, one could assume that the cells might escape predation by their unusual shape and composition...
February 28, 2018: Microbial Ecology
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