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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089552/plankton-resting-stages-in-recent-sediments-of-haifa-port-israel-eastern-mediterranean-distribution-viability-and-potential-environmental-consequences
#1
Fernando Rubino, Manuela Belmonte, Bella S Galil
Resting stages of plankton were sampled in the surficial sediments in the port of Haifa, Israel, on the eve of a major port enlargement project. We recorded the structure of the assemblages and examined their relationship with different environments within the port. Our findings reveal a remarkably high diversity coupled with low density and the highest number of oligotrich ciliate cyst types recorded from marine sediments. Near the eutrophic and highly polluted zone of the Kishon estuary ciliates were more abundant than elsewhere in the port, whereas dinoflagellates' abundance was reduced, and these trends held true both for full and empty cysts...
January 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087716/the-piggybac-transposon-derived-genes-tpb1-and-tpb6-mediate-essential-transposon-like-excision-during-the-developmental-rearrangement-of-key-genes-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#2
Chao-Yin Cheng, Janet M Young, Chih-Yi Gabriela Lin, Ju-Lan Chao, Harmit S Malik, Meng-Chao Yao
Ciliated protozoans perform extreme forms of programmed somatic DNA rearrangement during development. The model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila removes 34% of its germline micronuclear genome from somatic macronuclei by excising thousands of internal eliminated sequences (IESs), a process that shares features with transposon excision. Indeed, piggyBac transposon-derived genes are necessary for genome-wide IES excision in both Tetrahymena (TPB2 [Tetrahymena piggyBac-like 2] and LIA5) and Paramecium tetraurelia (PiggyMac)...
December 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074287/responses-triggered-in-chloroplast-of-chlorella-variabilis-nc64a-by-long-term-association-with-paramecium-bursaria
#3
Ekaterina Minaeva, Elena Ermilova
The unicellular green alga Chlorella variabilis NC64A is an endosymbiont of the ciliate Paramecium bursaria. The host's control, including the transfer of biochemical substrates from P. bursaria to C. variabilis, is involved in symbiotic relationships. C. variabilis NC64A that had been re-infected to P. bursaria for more than 1 year and isolated from the host showed higher chlorophyll levels compared to those in free-living cells. Unlike the host, the expression of C. variabilis NC64A heat shock 70 kDa protein was independent of establishment of endosymbiosis...
January 11, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073549/mass-entrapment-and-lysis-of-mesodinium-rubrum-cells-in-mucus-threads-observed-in-cultures-with-dinophysis
#4
K Ojamäe, P J Hansen, I Lips
The entrapment and death of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum in the mucus threads in cultures with Dinophysis is described and quantified. Feeding experiments with different concentrations and predator-prey ratios of Dinophysis acuta, Dinophysis acuminata and M. rubrum to study the motility loss and aggregate formation of the ciliates and the feeding behaviour of Dinophysis were carried out. In cultures of either Dinophysis species, the ciliates became entrapped in the mucus, which led to the formation of immobile aggregates of M...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073546/killing-potential-protist-predators-as-a-survival-strategy-of-the-newly-described-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-pohangense
#5
Ji Hye Kim, Hae Jin Jeong, An Suk Lim, Jung Rae Rho, Sang Bum Lee
Blooms caused by some species belonging to the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium are known to cause large-scale mortality of fish. Thus, the dynamics of these species is important and of concern to scientists, officials, and people in the aquaculture industry. To understand the dynamics of such species, their growth and mortality due to predation need to be assessed. The newly described dinoflagellate Alexandrium pohangense is known to grow slowly, with a maximum autotrophic growth rate of 0.1d(-1). Thus, it may not form bloom patches if its mortality due to predation is high...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073509/harmful-effects-of-dinophysis-to-the-ciliate-mesodinium-rubrum-implications-for-prey-capture
#6
Luiz L Mafra, Satoshi Nagai, Hajime Uchida, Camila P S Tavares, Bruno P Escobar, Toshiyuki Suzuki
Toxigenic Dinophysis spp. are obligate mixotrophic dinoflagellates that require a constant supply of prey-Mesodinium rubrum-to achieve long-term growth by means of kleptoplasty. Mesodinium rubrum is, however, a fast moving, jumping ciliate exhibiting an effective escape response from suspensivorous predators. In the present study, a series of laboratory experiments evaluating the motility and survival of M. rubrum in the presence of Dinophysis cells and/or substances contained in their culture medium was designed, in order to assess the mechanisms involved in prey capture by Dinophysis spp...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073503/the-fate-of-cryptophyte-cell-organelles-in-the-ciliate-mesodinium-cf-rubrum-subjected-to-starvation
#7
Seung Won Nam, Jong Woo Park, Wonho Yih, Myung Gil Park, Woongghi Shin
Mesodinium rubrum Lohmann is a mixotrophic ciliate and one of the best studied species exhibiting acquired phototrophy. To investigate the fate of cryptophyte organelles in the ciliate subjected to starvation, we conducted ultrastructural studies of a Korean strain of M. cf. rubrum during a 10 week starvation experiments. Ingested cells of the cryptophyte Teleaulax amphioxeia were first enveloped by ciliate membrane, and then prey organelles, including ejectisomes, flagella, basal bodies and flagellar roots, were digested...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073486/indication-of-spatial-variations-in-annual-cycles-of-functional-groups-of-planktonic-ciliates-to-environmental-change-in-marine-ecosystems
#8
Henglong Xu, Yong Jiang, Guangjian Xu, Alan Warren
The indication of spatial variations in annual cycles of functional groups of planktonic ciliates to environmental changes was studied in a bay, northern Yellow Sea. Samples were biweekly collected at five stations with different hydrographic conditions during a 1-year cycle. The second-stage-matrix-based multivariate approach was used to summarize the internal interactions of the ciliate functional groups among five stations during a 1-year period. The functional groups of the ciliates represented a clear spatial variation in annual cycle among five stations...
January 7, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073468/cryptophyte-gene-regulation-in-the-kleptoplastidic-karyokleptic-ciliate-mesodinium-rubrum
#9
Gwang Hoon Kim, Ji Hee Han, Bora Kim, Jong Won Han, Seung Won Nam, Woongghi Shin, Jong Woo Park, Wonho Yih
Photosynthesis in the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum is achieved using a consortium of cryptophyte algal organelles enclosed in its specialized vacuole. A time-series microarray analysis was conducted on the photosynthetic ciliate using an oligochip containing 15,654 primers designed from EST data of the cryptophyte prey, Teleaulax amphioxeia. The cryptophycean nuclei were transcriptionally active over 13 weeks and approximately 13.5% of transcripts in the ciliate came from the sequestered nuclei. The cryptophyte nuclei and chloroplasts could divide in the ciliate, which were loosely synchronized with host cell division...
February 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073453/the-use-of-a-mucus-trap-by-dinophysis-acuta-for-the-capture-of-mesodinium-rubrum-prey-under-culture-conditions
#10
Gemma Giménez Papiol, Veronica Beuzenberg, Andrew I Selwood, Lincoln MacKenzie, Michael A Packer
A capture mechanism observed in a culture of the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta when preying on the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum (also sometimes referred to as Myrionecta rubra) is described. The dinoflagellate released cohesive clumps of mucilage into the culture media. When M. rubrum cells came into contact with this mucilage, they were immediately immobilized, but remained alive for a short period of time. Observations of D. acuta cells 'visiting and probing' trapped M. rubrum cells were made and at a critical point D...
September 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073071/morphology-of-four-new-solitary-sessile-peritrich-ciliates-from-the-yellow-sea-china-with-description-of-an-unidentified-species-of-paravorticella-ciliophora-peritrichia
#11
Ping Sun, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Alan Warren, Honggang Ma
Sessile peritrichs are a large assemblage of ciliates that have a wide distribution in soil, freshwater and marine waters. Here, we document four new and one unidentified species of solitary sessile peritrichs from aquaculture ponds and coastal waters of the northern Yellow Sea, China. Based on their living morphology, infraciliature and silverline system, four of the five forms were identified as new members belonging to one of three genera, Vorticella, Pseudovorticella and Scyphidia, representing two families, Vorticellidae and Scyphidiidae...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070690/reconstruction-of-defects-of-the-trachea
#12
Margot Den Hondt, Jan Jeroen Vranckx
The trachea has a complex anatomy to fulfill its tasks. Its unique fibro-cartilaginous structure maintains an open conduit during respiration, and provides vertical elasticity for deglutition, mobility of the neck and speech. Blood vessels pierce the intercartilaginous ligaments to perfuse the ciliated epithelium, which ensures effective mucociliary clearance. Removal of a tracheal segment affected by benign or malignant disease requires airtight restoration of the continuity of the tube. When direct approximation of both tracheal ends is no longer feasible, a reconstruction is needed...
February 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068760/a-laboratory-scale-microbial-food-chain-to-study-bioaccumulation-biomagnification-and-ecotoxicity-of-cadmium-telluride-quantum-dots
#13
Govind Sharan Gupta, Ashutosh Kumar, Violet Aileen Senapati, Alok Kumar Pandey, Rishi Shanker, Alok Dhawan
The increasing applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products warrant a careful evaluation of their trophic transfer and consequent ecological impact. In the present study, a laboratory scale aquatic microbial food chain was established using bacteria (Escherichia coli) as a prey and ciliated protozoan (Paramecium caudatum) as a predator organism to determine the impact of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs). We observed that 29% of bacterivory potential of Paramecium was lost, including a ~12 h of delay in doubling time on exposure to 25 mg/L of CdTe QD (~4 nm) as compared to control...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066124/cymbomonas-tetramitiformis-a-peculiar-prasinophyte-with-a-taste-for-bacteria-sheds-light-on-plastid-evolution
#14
REVIEW
Przemysław Gagat, Paweł Mackiewicz
Cymbomonas tetramitiformis is a peculiar green alga that unites in one cell the abilities of photosynthesis and phagocytosis, which makes it a very useful model for the study of the evolution of plastid endosymbiosis. We have pondered over this issue and propose an evolutionary scenario of trophic strategies in eukaryotes, including primary and secondary plastid endosymbioses. C. tetramitiformis is a prototroph, just like the common ancestor of Archaeplastida was, and can synthesize most small organic molecules contrary to other eukaryotic phagotrophs, e...
2017: Symbiosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063240/effect-of-feeding-complete-feed-block-containing-rumen-protected-protein-non-protein-nitrogen-and-rumen-protected-fat-on-improving-body-condition-and-carcass-traits-of-cull-ewes
#15
R S Bhatt, A Sahoo
Nutrient utilization, body condition and carcass traits of cull ewes were studied in three dietary regimens based on complete feed block (CFB) feeding to control (C) with rumen protected protein (RPP), CU [RPP + urea (6 g/kg)] and CUF [RPP + urea + rumen protected fat (RPF; 40 g/kg)]. The RPP component (g/kg) in C had 1% formaldehyde-treated soy flakes 50, mustard cake 50 and sesame cake 30. The mustard and sesame cakes were replaced with urea on equivalent N basis in CU and CUF. The ewes were offered ad libitum CFB composed (g/kg) of concentrate 650, roughage 300 and molasses 50...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061817/the-rumen-microbial-metaproteome-as-revealed-by-sds-page
#16
Timothy J Snelling, R John Wallace
BACKGROUND: Ruminal digestion is carried out by large numbers of bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. Understanding the microbiota is important because ruminal fermentation dictates the efficiency of feed utilisation by the animal and is also responsible for major emissions of the greenhouse gas, methane. Recent metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies have helped to elucidate many features of the composition and activity of the microbiota. The metaproteome provides complementary information to these other -omics technologies...
January 7, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061024/beyond-the-code-a-guide-to-the-description-and-documentation-of-biodiversity-in-ciliated-protists-alveolata-ciliophora
#17
Alan Warren, David J Patterson, Micah Dunthorn, John C Clamp, Undine E M Achilles-Day, Erna Aescht, Saleh A Al-Farraj, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Khaled Al-Rasheid, Martin Carr, John G Day, Marc Dellinger, Hamed A El-Serehy, Yangbo Fan, Feng Gao, Shan Gao, Jun Gong, Renu Gupta, Xiaozhong Hu, Komal Kamra, Gaytha Langlois, Xiaofeng Lin, Diana Lipscomb, Christopher S Lobban, Pierangelo Luporini, Denis H Lynn, Honggang Ma, Miroslav Macek, Jacqueline Mackenzie-Dodds, Seema Makhija, Robert I Mansergh, Mercedes Martín-Cereceda, Nettie McMiller, David J S Montagnes, Nikolaeva Svetlana, Geoffrey Odhiambo Ong'ondo, Blanca Pérez-Uz, Jasmine Purushothaman, Pablo Quintela-Alonso, Johana Rotterová, Luciana Santoferrara, Chen Shao, Zhuo Shen, Xinlu Shi, Weibo Song, Thorsten Stoeck, Antonietta La Terza, Adriana Vallesi, Mei Wang, Thomas Weisse, Krzysztof Wiackowski, Lei Wu, Kuidong Xu, Zhenzhen Yi, Rebecca Zufall, Sabine Agatha
Recent advances in molecular technology have revolutionized research on all aspects of the biology of organisms, including ciliates, and created unprecedented opportunities for pursuing a more integrative approach to investigation of biodiversity. However, this goal is complicated by large gaps and inconsistencies that still exist in the foundation of basic information about biodiversity of ciliates. The present paper reviews issues relating to the taxonomy of ciliates and presents specific recommendations for best practice in the observation and documentation of their biodiversity...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059168/shg-specificity-of-cellular-rootletin-filaments-enables-na%C3%A3-ve-imaging-with-universal-conservation
#18
Toshihiro Akiyama, Akihito Inoko, Yuichi Kaji, Shigenobu Yonemura, Kisa Kakiguchi, Hiroki Segawa, Kei Ishitsuka, Masaki Yoshida, Osamu Numata, Philippe Leproux, Vincent Couderc, Tetsuro Oshika, Hideaki Kano
Despite growing demand for truly naïve imaging, label-free observation of cilium-related structure remains challenging, and validation of the pertinent molecules is correspondingly difficult. In this study, in retinas and cultured cells, we distinctively visualized Rootletin filaments in rootlets in the second harmonic generation (SHG) channel, integrated in custom coherent nonlinear optical microscopy (CNOM) with a simple, compact, and ultra-broadband supercontinuum light source. This SHG signal was primarily detected on rootlets of connecting cilia in the retinal photoreceptor and was validated by colocalization with anti-Rootletin staining...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058606/larval-development-of-brachiopod-coptothyris-grayi-davidson-1852-brachiopoda-rhynchonelliformea
#19
T V Kuzmina, E N Temereva, V V Malakhov
The larval development of the Brachiopod Coptothyris grayi (Davidson, 1852) from the Sea of Japan is described for the first time. Ciliated blastula proved to represent the first free-swimming stage. The blastopore is initially formed as a rounded hole stretching later along the anteroposterior axis. The larva is first divided into two lobes (the apical lobe and the trunk); the mantle lobe is formed later as two lateral folds. Two pairs of seta bundles appear in the late stage larvae. The apical larval lobe in brachiopods is supposed to match the pre-oral lobe and anterior part of the trunk with tentacles in phoronids...
November 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053272/trans-generational-function-of-tetrahymena-piwi-protein-twi8p-at-distinctive-non-coding-rna-loci
#20
Brian M Farley, Kathleen Collins
Trans-generational transmission of genome-regulatory epigenetic information can determine phenotypes in the progeny of sexual reproduction. Sequence specificity of trans-generational regulation derives from small RNAs assembled into Piwi-protein complexes. Known targets of trans-generational regulation are primarily transposons and transposon-derived sequences. Here, we extend the scope of Piwi-mediated trans-generational regulation to include unique non-coding RNA loci. Ciliates such as Tetrahymena have a phenotypically silent germline micronucleus and an expressed somatic macronucleus, which is differentiated anew from a germline genome copy in sexual reproduction...
January 4, 2017: RNA
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