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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934592/getting-nervous-an-evolutionary-overhaul-for-communication
#1
Frederique Varoqueaux, Dirk Fasshauer
The evolution of a nervous system as a control system of the body's functions is a key innovation of animals. Its fundamental units are neurons, highly specialized cells dedicated to fast cell-cell communication. Neurons pass signals to other neurons, muscle cells, or gland cells at specialized junctions, the synapses, where transmitters are released from vesicles in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion to activate receptors in the membrane of the target cell. Reconstructing the origins of neuronal communication out of a more simple process remains a central challenge in biology...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933983/addition-of-kinesio-taping-of-the-orbicularis-oris-muscles-to-speech-therapy-rapidly-improves-drooling-in-children-with-neurological-disorders
#2
Denise Lica Yoshimura Mikami, Cristina Lemos Barbosa Furia, Alexis Fonseca Welker
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Kinesio Taping (KT) of the orbicularis oris muscles as an adjunct to standard therapy for drooling. METHODS: Fifteen children with neurological disorders and drooling received speech therapy and twice-weekly KT of the orbicularis muscles over a 30-day period. Drooling was assessed by six parameters: impact on the life of the child and caregiver; severity of drooling; frequency of drooling; drooling volume (estimated by number of bibs used); salivary leak; and interlabial gap...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933715/rating-of-perceived-exertion-for-quantification-of-training-and-combat-loads-during-combat-sport-specific-activities-a-short-review
#3
Maamer Slimani, Philip Davis, Emerson Franchini, Wassim Moalla
Slimani, M, Davis, P, Franchini, E, and Moalla, W. Rating of perceived exertion for quantification of training and combat loads during combat sport-specific activities: a short review. J Strength Cond Res 31(10): 2889-2902, 2017-The aim of this short review was to summarize data pertaining to the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) methods (RPE value and session-RPE) during combat sport-specific activities (i.e., competition and training) based on many factors, including contest type (i.e., official vs. simulated vs...
October 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933712/volume-load-and-neuromuscular-fatigue-during-an-acute-bout-of-agonist-antagonist-paired-set-vs-traditional-set-training
#4
Gabriel A Paz, Daniel W Robbins, Carlos G de Oliveira, Martim Bottaro, Humberto Miranda
Paz, GA, Robbins, DW, de Oliveira, CG, Bottaro, M, and Miranda, H. Volume load and neuromuscular fatigue during an acute bout of agonist-antagonist paired-set vs. traditional-set training. J Strength Cond Res 31(10): 2777-2784, 2017-The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of performing paired-set (PS) vs. traditional-set (TS) training over 3 consecutive sets, on volume load and electromyographic fatigue parameters of the latissimus dorsi, biceps brachii, pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles...
October 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933018/-18-f-fluoromisonidazole-pet-in-rectal-cancer
#5
Tanuj Puri, Tessa A Greenhalgh, James M Wilson, Jamie Franklin, Lia Mun Wang, Victoria Strauss, Chris Cunningham, Mike Partridge, Tim Maughan
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in developing predictive biomarkers of tissue hypoxia using functional imaging for personalised radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer that are considered for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The study explores [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole ([(18)F]FMISO) positron emission tomography (PET) scans for predicting clinical response in rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant CRT. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven rectal adenocarcinoma were imaged at 0-45 min, 2 and 4 h, at baseline and after 8-10 fractions of CRT (week 2)...
September 20, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932726/comparison-of-morbidity-related-seroma-formation-following-conventional-latissimus-dorsi-flap-versus-muscle-sparing-latissimus-dorsi-flap-breast-reconstruction
#6
Yoshihiro Sowa, Toshiaki Numajiri, Katsuhiko Nakatsukasa, Koichi Sakaguchi, Tetsuya Taguchi
PURPOSE: The pedicled, descending-branch muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi (MSLD) flap has been widely used for breast reconstruction following total mastectomy. However, the superiority of the MSLD flap compared to the conventional latissimus dorsi (CLD) flap in preventing seroma formation has not been demonstrated. This study compares the morbidities related to seroma formation following pedicled MSLD flap and CLD flap breast reconstruction. METHODS: A total of 15 women who underwent partial mastectomy and immediate partial breast reconstruction with MSLD flaps were compared with 15 women under identical conditions with CLD flap breast reconstruction...
September 2017: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932697/thoracic-wall-trauma-misdiagnosed-lesions-on-radiographs-and-usefulness-of-ultrasound-multidetector-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
REVIEW
Xavier Tomas, Catherine Facenda, Nuno Vaz, Edgar Augusto Castañeda, Montserrat Del Amo, Ana Isabel Garcia-Diez, Jaime Pomes
Blunt injuries to the chest wall are an important chapter on emergency room (ER) departments, being the third most common injuries in trauma patients which ominous complications could appear. This article describes different types of traumatic events affecting the chest wall, which maybe misdiagnosed with conventional X-ray. Special emphasis has been done in computed tomography (CT) and multidetector CT (MDCT) imaging. This technique is considered the "gold-standard" for those traumatic patients, due to its fast acquisition covering the whole area of interest in axial plane, reconstructing multiplanar (2D, 3D) volume-rendered images with a superb quality and angiographic CT capabilities for evaluating vascular damage...
August 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932009/relation-between-respiratory-function-and-arterial-stiffness-assessed-using-brachial-ankle-pulse-wave-velocity-in-healthy-workers
#8
Atsushi Inomoto, Rika Fukuda, Junko Deguchi, Toshihiro Toyonaga
[Purpose] Current studies report that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may also have arteriosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between respiratory function and arterial stiffness in healthy workers using the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). [Subjects and Methods] This study included 104 male Japanese workers without COPD. We collected participant information and measured hemodynamics, body composition, and respiratory function. [Results] In the correlation analysis, baPWV showed a significant positive correlation with age, smoking index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate, and a significant negative correlation with height, fat free mass, lower limb muscle mass, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)...
September 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930777/endoscopic-delayed-breast-reconstruction-with-expanders-and-implants-via-the-axillary-incision-made-for-sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-or-lymphadenectomy
#9
José Maria Serra-Mestre, Randolfo Fernandez Peñuela, Francesco DʼAndrea, Joan Maria Viñals, José Maria Serra-Renom
BACKGROUND: Classic techniques of delayed prosthetic breast reconstruction use the mastectomy scar as an access route. As a result, the filling of the expander must be postponed until the wounds have healed. This creates an asymmetry between the breasts with the volume changes caused by the filling of the expander, which may occur over several weeks and cause considerable discomfort. METHODS: Delayed breast reconstruction was performed via the axillary incision made for sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymphadenectomy with endoscopic assistance and detachment of the pectoralis major muscle...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928384/soft-material-for-soft-actuators
#10
Aslan Miriyev, Kenneth Stack, Hod Lipson
Inspired by natural muscle, a key challenge in soft robotics is to develop self-contained electrically driven soft actuators with high strain density. Various characteristics of existing technologies, such as the high voltages required to trigger electroactive polymers ( > 1KV), low strain ( < 10%) of shape memory alloys and the need for external compressors and pressure-regulating components for hydraulic or pneumatic fluidicelastomer actuators, limit their practicality for untethered applications...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927826/developmental-plasticity-and-stability-in-the-tracheal-networks-supplying-drosophila-flight-muscle-in-response-to-rearing-oxygen-level
#11
Jon F Harrison, James S Waters, Taylor A Biddulph, Aleksandra Kovacevic, C Jaco Klok, John J Socha
While it is clear that the insect tracheal system can respond in a compensatory manner to both hypoxia and hyperoxia, there is substantial variation in how different parts of the system respond. However, the response of tracheal structures, from the tracheoles to the largest tracheal trunks, have not been studied within one species. In this study, we examined the effect of larval/pupal rearing in hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia (10, 21 or 40 kPa oxygen) on body size and the tracheal supply to the flight muscles of Drosophila melanogaster, using synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-µCT) to assess flight muscle volumes and the major tracheal trunks, and confocal microscopy to assess the tracheoles...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927806/-aging-prevention-new-surgical-techniques-and-future-options-for-facial-rejuvenation
#12
C Le Louarn
Prevention of aging is mainly obtained through appropriate health practices, modulated by the genetic causes of aging. Causes of facial structural aging include gravity, volume loss, contraction of the mimic muscles and obviously biological aging of tissues. Among the very numerous new surgical technique of facial rejuvenation, we could point out: for the frontal region, obviously we are focus on the endoscopic and non-endoscopic frontal lifts. But also, we should note the transcutaneous Brow Shaping which with a well defined, step by step technique is indeed a simple way to improve a possible difficult situation; concerning the mid-face lift, as the main risk is the secondary eyelid malposition, a high Smas or a temporo-malar lift can be performed...
September 15, 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926379/tendon-length-calf-muscle-atrophy-and-strength-deficit-after-acute-achilles-tendon-rupture-long-term-follow-up-of-patients-in-a-previous-study
#13
Juuso Heikkinen, Iikka Lantto, Juuso Piilonen, Tapio Flinkkilä, Pasi Ohtonen, Pertti Siira, Vesa Laine, Jaakko Niinimäki, Ari Pajala, Juhana Leppilahti
BACKGROUND: In this prospective study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess long-term Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and muscle fatty degeneration after surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture. METHODS: From 1998 to 2001, 60 patients at our center underwent surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture followed by early functional postoperative rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients were reexamined after a minimum duration of follow-up of 13 years (mean, 14 years), and 52 of them were included in the present study...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923108/a-low-psoas-muscle-volume-correlates-with-a-longer-hospitalization-after-radical-cystectomy
#14
Yoko Saitoh-Maeda, Takashi Kawahara, Yasuhide Miyoshi, Sohgo Tsutsumi, Daiji Takamoto, Kota Shimokihara, Yuutaro Hayashi, Taku Mochizuki, Mari Ohtaka, Manami Nakamura, Yusuke Hattori, Jun-Ichi Teranishi, Yasushi Yumura, Kimito Osaka, Hiroki Ito, Kazuhide Makiyama, Noboru Nakaigawa, Masahiro Yao, Hiroji Uemura
BACKGROUND: Recently, sarcopenia has been reported as a new predictor for patient outcomes or likelihood of post-operative complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of the psoas muscle volume with the length of hospitalization among patients undergoing radical cystectomy. METHODS: A total of 63 (80.8%) male patients and 15 (19.2%) female patients who underwent radical cystectomy for their bladder cancer in our institution from 2000 to 2015 were analyzed...
September 18, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921724/-discrete-peaks-of-excitability-and-map-overlap-reveal-task-specific-organization-of-primary-motor-cortex-for-control-of-human-forearm-muscles
#15
Hugo Massé-Alarie, Michael J G Bergin, Cyril Schneider, Siobhan Schabrun, Paul W Hodges
The primary motor cortex (M1) presents a somatotopic organization of body parts, but with overlap between muscle/movement representations. This distinct but overlapping M1 organization is believed to be important for individuated control and movement coordination, respectively. Discrete peaks of greater excitability observed within M1 might underpin organization of cortical motor control. This study aimed to examine interactions between M1 representations of synergist and antagonist forearm muscles, compare regions of greater excitability during different functional tasks, and compare characteristics of M1 representation recorded using surface and fine-wire (fw ) electrodes...
September 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921674/decline-in-effort-capacity-with-age-echocardiographic-stress-analysis-in-the-elderly
#16
Anat Milman, Gad Keren, Yan Topilsky
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to assess the underlying mechanism of decline in effort capacity seen with aging. METHODS: We analyzed 250 healthy senior patients (≥65 years) with an ejection fraction ≥60% who underwent a stress echocardiogram test. The seniors (aged 65-94) were divided into 3 equal age groups (groups 1, 2, and 3), and their echo characteristics at rest and peak exercise (measured and calculated) were compared. RESULTS: Diastolic function at rest declined significantly (E lateral, E septal, E/E', A) with age, while other rest parameters were similar...
September 17, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920539/the-effects-of-stabilization-splint-treatment-on-the-volume-of-masseter-muscle-in-sleep-bruxism-patients
#17
Suleyman Hakan Tuna, Osman Evren Celik, Onder Ozturk, Murat Golpinar, Aykut Aktas, Huseyin Avni Balcioglu, Filiz Keyf, Bunyamin Sahin
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate, quantitatively, the volumetric effects of stabilization splint therapy on the masseter muscle of sleep bruxism (SB) patients. Methods The magnetic resonance (MR) images of 16 SB patients diagnosed by polysomnography (PSG) who used stabilization splints for four months were obtained before and after the therapy. The masseter muscle volume was calculated using Cavalieri's principle on the MR images. Results After the splint therapy, the mean volume of the masseter muscle did not reduce significantly...
September 18, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#18
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918362/there-are-no-no-responders-to-low-or-high-resistance-training-volumes-among-older-women
#19
Matheus de Siqueira Mendes Barbalho, Paulo Gentil, Mikel Izquierdo, James Fisher, James Steele, Rodolfo de Azevedo Raiol
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of non-responders to different tests and to compare the effects of different resistance training (RT) volumes on muscle strength, anthropometric and functional performance of older women. METHODS: Three hundred seventy six women performed 12weeks of RT with either low or high volume (LV, 71.29±5.77years and HV 69.73±5.88years, respectively). Both groups performed the same exercises, and all parameters were held constant except for the number of sets performed per week...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915312/dce-and-dw-mri-as-early-imaging-biomarkers-of-treatment-response-in-a-preclinical-model-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#20
Stephanie L Barnes, Anna G Sorace, Jennifer G Whisenant, J Oliver McIntyre, Hakmook Kang, Thomas E Yankeelov
This work evaluates quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) parameters as early biomarkers of response in a preclinical model of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). The standard Tofts' model of DCE-MRI returns estimates of the volume transfer constant (K(trans) ) and the extravascular extracellular volume fraction (ve ). DW-MRI returns estimates of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Mice (n = 38) were injected subcutaneously with MDA-MB-231...
September 15, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
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