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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535647/-effects-of-overexpression-of-mir-17-92-gene-cluster-on-the-biological-characteristics-of-prostate-cancer-cells-and-its-mechanism
#1
P Zhou, L Ma, J Zhou, J J Xu, F Liu, F Guo
Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of over-expression of miR-17-92 gene cluster on the biological characteristics of prostate cancer cells. Methods: DU145 cells were transfected with miR-17-92 gene expression plasmid and clones with stable ectopic miR-17-92 overexpression were established. The cell viabilities of DU145-17-92 and DU145-control cells were monitored by xCELLigence system. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed by Ki-67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay...
May 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535583/molecular-testing-of-brain-tumor
#2
REVIEW
Sung-Hye Park, Jaekyung Won, Seong-Ik Kim, Yujin Lee, Chul-Kee Park, Seung-Ki Kim, Seung-Hong Choi
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors was revised in 2016 with a basis on the integrated diagnosis of molecular genetics. We herein provide the guidelines for using molecular genetic tests in routine pathological practice for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. While astrocytomas and IDH-mutant (secondary) glioblastomas are characterized by the mutational status of IDH, TP53 , and ATRX , oligodendrogliomas have a 1p/19q codeletion and mutations in IDH, CIC , FUBP1 , and the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase ( TERTp )...
May 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535459/spectra-structure-correlations-of-saturated-and-unsaturated-medium-chain-fatty-acids-near-infrared-and-anharmonic-dft-study-of-hexanoic-acid-and-sorbic-acid
#3
Justyna Grabska, Krzysztof B Beć, Mika Ishigaki, Marek J Wójcik, Yukihiro Ozaki
Quantum chemical reproduction of entire NIR spectra is a new trend, enabled by contemporary advances in the anharmonic approaches. At the same time, recent increase of the importance of NIR spectroscopy of biological samples raises high demand for gaining deeper understanding of NIR spectra of biomolecules, i.e. fatty acids. In this work we investigate saturated and unsaturated medium-chain fatty acids, hexanoic acid and sorbic acid, in the near-infrared region. By employing fully anharmonic density functional theory (DFT) calculations we reproduce the experimental NIR spectra of these systems, including the highly specific spectral features corresponding to the dimerization of fatty acids...
May 13, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535343/tuning-adsorption-duration-to-control-the-diffusion-of-a-nanoparticle-in-adsorbing-polymers
#4
Xuezheng Cao, Holger Merlitz, Chen-Xu Wu
Controlling the nanoparticle (NP) diffusion in polymers is a prerequisite to obtain polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) with desired dynamical and rheological properties, and to achieve targeted delivery of nanomedicine in biological systems. Here we determinate the suppression mechanism of direct NP-polymer attraction to hamper the NP mobility in adsorbing polymers, and then quantify the dependence of the effective viscosity \eta_{eff} felt by the NP on the adsorption duration \tau_{ads} of polymers on the NP, using scaling theory analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535292/adaptive-radiation-of-p-fluorescens-sbw25-in-experimental-microcosms-provides-an-understanding-of-the-evolutionary-ecology-and-molecular-biology-of-a-l-interface-biofilm-formation
#5
Anna Koza, Anna Kusmierska, Kimberley McLaughlin, Olena Moshynets, Andrew J Spiers
Combined experimental evolutionary and molecular biology approaches have been used to investigate the adaptive radiation of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 in static microcosms leading to the colonisation of the air-liquid interface by biofilm-forming mutants such as the Wrinkly Spreader. In these microcosms, the ecosystem engineering of the early wild-type colonists establish the niche space for subsequent WS evolution and colonisation. Random WS mutations occurring in the developing population that de-regulate diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP homeostasis result in cellulose-based biofilms at the air-liquid interface...
May 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535254/invited-commentary-cassel-s-the-contribution-of-the-social-environment-to-host-resistance-a-modern-classic
#6
Sherman A James
John Cassel's 1976 paper "The Contribution of the Social Environment to Host Resistance" (Am J Epidemiol. 1976;104(2):107-123) is widely regarded as a classic in epidemiology. He makes the compelling argument that the quality of a person's social relationships, that is, the degree to which her relationships are more stressful than supportive (or vice versa) influences her susceptibility to disease independent of genetic endowment, diet, physical activity, etc. Cassel's provocative thesis was anchored in a cogent synthesis of findings from animal experiments and observational studies on diverse human populations...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535149/quantitative-computational-models-of-molecular-self-assembly-in-systems-biology
#7
Marcus Thomas, Russell Schwartz
Molecular self-assembly is the dominant form of chemical reaction in living systems, yet efforts at systems biology modeling are only beginning to appreciate the need for and challenges to accurate quantitative modeling of self-assembly. Self-assembly reactions are essential to nearly every important process in cell and molecular biology and handling them is thus a necessary step in building comprehensive models of complex cellular systems. They present exceptional challenges, however, to standard methods for simulating complex systems...
May 23, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534872/a-light-driven-artificial-flytrap
#8
Owies M Wani, Hao Zeng, Arri Priimagi
The sophistication, complexity and intelligence of biological systems is a continuous source of inspiration for mankind. Mimicking the natural intelligence to devise tiny systems that are capable of self-regulated, autonomous action to, for example, distinguish different targets, remains among the grand challenges in biomimetic micro-robotics. Herein, we demonstrate an autonomous soft device, a light-driven flytrap, that uses optical feedback to trigger photomechanical actuation. The design is based on light-responsive liquid-crystal elastomer, fabricated onto the tip of an optical fibre, which acts as a power source and serves as a contactless probe that senses the environment...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534781/reviving-the-two-state-markov-chain-approach
#9
Andrzej Mizera, Jun Pang, Qixia Yuan
Probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs) is a well-established computational framework for modelling biological systems. The steady-state dynamics of PBNs is of crucial importance in the study of such systems. However, for large PBNs, which often arise in systems biology, obtaining the steady-state distribution poses a significant challenge. In this paper, we revive the two-state Markov chain approach to solve this problem. This paper contributes in three aspects. First, we identify a problem of generating biased results with the approach and we propose a few heuristics to avoid such a pitfall...
May 16, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534754/the-icvsie-a-general-purpose-integral-equation-method-for-bio-electromagnetic-analysis
#10
Luis J Gomez, Abdulkadir C Yucel, Eric Michielssen
An internally combined volume surface integral equation (ICVSIE) for analyzing electromagnetic (EM) interactions with biological tissue and wide ranging diagnostic, therapeutic, and research applications, is proposed. METHOD: The ICVSIE is a system of integral equations in terms of volume and surface equivalent currents in biological tissue subject to fields produced by externally or internally positioned devices. The system is created by using equivalence principles and solved numerically; the resulting current values are used to evaluate scattered and total electric fields, specific absorption rates, and related quantities...
May 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534676/applications-of-raman-spectroscopy-in-biopharmaceutical-manufacturing-a-short-review
#11
Kevin Buckley, Alan G Ryder
The production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is currently undergoing its biggest transformation in a century. The changes are based on the rapid and dramatic introduction of protein- and macromolecule-based drugs (collectively known as biopharmaceuticals) and can be traced back to the huge investment in biomedical science (in particular in genomics and proteomics) that has been ongoing since the 1970s. Biopharmaceuticals (or biologics) are manufactured using biological-expression systems (such as mammalian, bacterial, insect cells, etc...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534602/the-management-of-moderate-to-severe-chronic-plaque-psoriasis
#12
Annalisa Tonini, Salvatore Panduri, Angelo M D'Erme, Francesca Papadia, Marco Romanelli, James G Krueger, Andrea Chiricozzi
Recent approval and marketization of novel treatments have widened the range of therapeutic opportunities for moderate-to-severe psoriasis. In the next years, this panorama will be further enlarged as many other agents, both oral small molecules and biologics, have passed phase III and are expected to be approved, and subsequently marketed, shortly. In spite of this array of therapeutic possibilities, there is still an unmet need for an appropriate treatment in a large number of cases. This review was aimed to describe general principles regarding the therapeutic approach to moderate-severe plaque psoriasis, providing an updated overview of the therapeutic armamentarium that is specifically available in Italy, drug prescribility, and some peculiar limitations for reimbursement defined by our National Health Care System...
May 23, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534535/the-potential-of-organoids-in-urological-cancer-research
#13
REVIEW
Shangqian Wang, Dong Gao, Yu Chen
Technical advances in the development of organoid systems enable cell lines, primary adult cells, or stem or progenitor cells to develop into diverse, multicellular entities, which can self-renew, self-organize, and differentiate. These 3D organoid cultures have proven to be of value in increasing our understanding of the biology of disease and offer the potential of regenerative and genetic therapies. The successful application of 3D organoids derived from adult tissue into urological cancer research can further our understanding of these diseases and could also provide preclinical cancer models to realize the precision medicine paradigm by therapeutic screening of individual patient samples ex vivo...
May 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534432/gastrointestinal-microphysiological-systems
#14
Sarah E Blutt, James R Broughman, Winnie Zou, Xi-Lei Zeng, Umesh C Karandikar, Julie In, Nicholas C Zachos, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Mark Donowitz, Mary K Estes
Gastrointestinal diseases are a significant health care and economic burden. Prevention and treatment of these diseases have been limited by the available human biologic models. Microphysiological systems comprise organ-specific human cultures that recapitulate many structural, biological, and functional properties of the organ in smaller scale including aspects of flow, shear stress and chemical gradients. The development of intestinal microphysiological system platforms represents a critical component in improving our understanding, prevention, and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534292/development-and-characterization-of-a-neutralizing-anti-idiotype-antibody-against-mirvetuximab-for-analysis-of-clinical-samples
#15
Sven Loebrich, Mingfang Shen, Erika Cohen, Gillian Payne, Ying Chen, Megan Bogalhas, Yiwei Zhao
Antibody-drug-conjugates (ADCs) are an emerging class of biological therapeutics. Mirvetuximab soravtansine is a novel folate receptor alpha (FRα)-targeting ADC which represents a potential new treatment for patients with ovarian and other FRα-positive cancers. Since patient immune responses to biological therapeutics may negatively affect drug efficacy and patient safety, regulatory authorities require rigorous monitoring of patient samples. Taking advantage of the immune system's ability to generate highly specific antibodies, the field has turned to anti-idiotype antibodies as powerful tools for the development of sensitive and specific bioassays...
May 22, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534167/platforms-for-manufacturing-allogeneic-autologous-and-ipsc-cell-therapy-products-an-industry-perspective
#16
Eytan Abraham, Behnam Baghbaderani Ahmadian, Kathryn Holderness, Yonatan Levinson, Erika McAfee
As cell therapy processes mature from benchtop research protocols to industrial processes capable of manufacturing market-relevant numbers of doses, new cell manufacturing platforms are required. Here we give an overview of the platforms and technologies currently available to manufacture allogeneic cell products, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and technologies for mass production of autologous cell therapies via scale-out. These technologies include bioreactors, microcarriers, cell separation and cryopreservation equipment, molecular biology tools for iPSC generation, and single-use controlled-environment systems for autologous cell production...
May 23, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534026/how-cells-can-control-their-size-by-pumping-ions
#17
Alan R Kay
The ability of all cells to set and regulate their size is a fundamental aspect of cellular physiology. It has been known for sometime but not widely so, that size stability in animal cells is dependent upon the operation of the sodium pump, through the so-called pump-leak mechanism (Tosteson and Hoffman, 1960). Impermeant molecules in cells establish an unstable osmotic condition, the Donnan effect, which is counteracted by the operation of the sodium pump, creating an asymmetry in the distribution of Na(+) and K(+) staving off water inundation...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533904/-this-is-where-it-all-started-the-pivotal-role-of-plc%C3%AE-within-the-sophisticated-process-of-mammalian-reproduction-a-systemic-review
#18
Itai Gat, Raoul Orvieto
Mammalian reproduction is one of the most complex and fascinating biological phenomenon, which aims to transfer maternal and paternal genetic material to the next generation. At the end of oogenesis and spermatogenesis, both haploid gametes contain a single set of chromosomes ready to form the zygote, the first cell of the newly developing individual. The mature oocyte and spermatozoa remain in a quiescent state, during which the oocyte is characterized by nuclear and cytoplasmic arrest, while the spermatozoa necessitates further maturation within the epididymis and female reproductive track prior to egg fertilization...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533793/exogenous-supplementation-of-silicon-improved-the-recovery-of-hyperhydric-shoots-in-dianthus-caryophyllus-l-by-stabilizing-the-physiology-and-protein-expression
#19
Prabhakaran Soundararajan, Abinaya Manivannan, Yoon S Cho, Byoung R Jeong
Hyperhydricity is one of the major problems hindering in vitro propagation of Dianthus caryophyllus L. Silicon (Si) is a well-known beneficial element renowned for its stress amelioration properties in plants. This study has demonstrated the physiological and molecular mechanism behind the Si-mediated recovery from hyperhydricity in D. caryophyllus L. 'Green Beauty'. Four weeks old hyperhydric shoots obtained from temporary immersion system were cultured on the Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0 (control), 1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533757/multiscale-modeling-of-bone-healing-toward-a-systems-biology-approach
#20
REVIEW
Edoardo Borgiani, Georg N Duda, Sara Checa
Bone is a living part of the body that can, in most situations, heal itself after fracture. However, in some situations, healing may fail. Compromised conditions, such as large bone defects, aging, immuno-deficiency, or genetic disorders, might lead to delayed or non-unions. Treatment strategies for those conditions remain a clinical challenge, emphasizing the need to better understand the mechanisms behind endogenous bone regeneration. Bone healing is a complex process that involves the coordination of multiple events at different length and time scales...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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