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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778981/walking-the-line-the-fate-of-nanomaterials-at-biological-barriers
#1
REVIEW
Huan Meng, Wei Leong, Kam W Leong, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao
Biological systems have developed an efficient multi-tiered defense system to block foreign substances such as engineered nanomaterials (NMs) from causing damage. In a pathological scenario, the disease itself may also pose additional barriers due to the imbalance between abnormal cells and their surrounding microenvironment, and NMs could behave similarly or differently to classic foreign substances, depending on their unique characteristics. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that govern the fate of NMs against these biological barriers, including the strategies that can be used to shift their fate between access and blockage, become key information for NMs design...
May 5, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778978/tough-love-accommodating-intracellular-bacteria-through-directed-secretion-of-antimicrobial-peptides-during-the-nitrogen-fixing-symbiosis
#2
REVIEW
Christina Stonoha-Arther, Dong Wang
The symbiosis formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria with plant hosts mainly in the legume family involves a very intimate interaction. Within the symbiotic organ (the nodule) the bacteria are fully internalized by the host cell to become an intracellular organelle surrounded by a host-derived membrane. This arrangement is probably necessary for the efficient provision of energy and the sequestration of free oxygen molecules, two conditions required for sustained nitrogen fixation. Recent advances made in model legume species, such as Medicago truncatula, are beginning to uncover the genetic components allowing rhizobia to access the host cytoplasm and establish chronic intracellular infections without overt detrimental effects...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778938/effects-of-short-and-long-term-exposure-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-silver-ions-to-nitrosomonas-europaea-biofilms-and-planktonic-cells
#3
L K Barker, J R Giska, T S Radniecki, L Semprini
The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products, and their resulting influx into wastewater, may pose a threat to biological nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants. Planktonic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), which convert ammonia to nitrite in the first step of nitrification, are highly sensitive to AgNPs and their released silver ions (Ag+ ), but the sensitivity of AOB biofilms to AgNPs and Ag+ is less clear. This study demonstrated that biofilms of Nitrosomonas europaea, a model AOB, were more resistant to both short-term and long-term exposure to AgNP and Ag+ than planktonic cells...
May 4, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778711/atr-ir-study-of-skin-components-lipids-proteins-and-water-part-ii-near-infrared-radiation-effect
#4
S Olsztyńska-Janus, Z Kiełbowicz, M A Czarnecki
Near infrared (NIR) radiation has been widely used in medicine and biomedical engineering. In spite of numerous studies the molecular mechanism of NIR radiation on biological systems has not been established as yet. The objective of this work was examination of the effect of NIR irradiation on the skin components. Modifications of lipid organization after NIR exposure vs. temperature (from 20 to 90 °C) have been investigated using Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. This work is a continuation of our previous studies on the temperature effect on skin components [1]...
May 11, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778696/renal-pre-competitive-consortium-rpc-2-discovering-therapeutic-targets-together
#5
Mark Tomilo, Heather Ascani, Barbara Mirel, Maria Chiara Magnone, Carol Moreno Quinn, Anil Karihaloo, Kevin Duffin, Uptal D Patel, Matthias Kretzler
Despite significant effort, patients with kidney disease have not seen their outcomes improved significantly over the past two decades. This has motivated clinicians and researchers to consider alternative methods to identifying risk factors, disease progression markers, and effective therapies. Genome-scale data sets from patients with renal disease can be used to establish a platform to improve understanding of the molecular basis of disease; however, such studies require expertise and resources. To overcome these challenges, we formed an academic-industry consortium to share molecular target identification efforts and expertise across academia and the pharmaceutical industry...
May 17, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778686/methane-correction-factors-for-estimating-emissions-from-aerobic-wastewater-treatment-facilities-based-on-field-data-in-mexico-and-on-literature-review
#6
A Noyola, M G Paredes, L P Güereca, L T Molina, M Zavala
Wastewater treatment (WWT) may be an important source of methane (CH4 ), a greenhouse gas with significant global warming potential. Sources of CH4 emissions from WWT facilities can be found in the water and in the sludge process lines. Among the methodologies for estimating CH4 emissions inventories from WWT, the more adopted are the guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which recommends default emission factors (Tier 1) depending on WWT systems. Recent published results show that well managed treatment facilities may emit CH4 , due to dissolved CH4 in the influent wastewater; in addition, biological nutrient removal also will produce this gas in the anaerobic (or anoxic) steps...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778427/genomics-driven-approach-for-identification-of-novel-therapeutic-targets-in-salmonella-enterica
#7
Priyanka Gawade, Payel Ghosh
Salmonella enterica is a causative agent of enteric and systemic salmonellosis that affects human and many other animal species. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, available drugs against S. enterica infection are no more effective as before. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic strategies. The current study aims at prioritizing therapeutic targets by an in-silico genomics driven method. The method involves searching proteins of each Salmonella strain for essentiality, virulence and antibiotic-resistance and host-pathogen protein-protein interactions...
May 17, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778212/reactive-cysteine-persulphides-occurrence-biosynthesis-antioxidant-activity-methodologies-and-bacterial-persulphide-signalling
#8
Tomohiro Sawa, Katsuhiko Ono, Hiroyasu Tsutsuki, Tianli Zhang, Tomoaki Ida, Motohiro Nishida, Takaaki Akaike
Cysteine hydropersulphide (CysSSH) is a cysteine derivative having one additional sulphur atom bound to a cysteinyl thiol group. Recent advances in the development of analytical methods for detection and quantification of persulphides and polysulphides have revealed the biological presence, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, of hydropersulphides in diverse forms such as CysSSH, homocysteine hydropersulphide, glutathione hydropersulphide, bacillithiol hydropersulphide, coenzyme A hydropersulphide, and protein hydropersulphides...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778035/formation-of-contact-active-antimicrobial-surfaces-by-covalent-grafting-of-quaternary-ammonium-compounds
#9
REVIEW
Poverenov Elena, Klein Miri
Different synthetic strategies for the formation of contact active antimicrobial materials utilizing covalent linkage of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) were reviewed. There is a demand to find methods that will prevent bacterial fouling without the release of antimicrobial agents, because biocides cause environment pollution and promote the development of bacteria resistance mechanisms. The contact active antimicrobial surfaces may provide a useful tool for this purpose. The covalent surface grafting of QACs seems to be a feasible and promising approach for the formation of safe and effective antimicrobial materials that could be utilized for medical devices, food industry, water treatment systems and other applications...
May 16, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777944/the-post-surgical-era-of-gbm-how-molecular-biology-has-impacted-on-our-clinical-management-a-review
#10
REVIEW
M Monticelli, P Zeppa, F Zenga, R Altieri, M Mammi, L Bertero, I Castellano, P Cassoni, A Melcarne, G La Rocca, G Sabatino, A Ducati, D Garbossa
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common glioma in adults, with incidence increasing by 3% per year. According to the World Health Organization Classification of Central Nervous System Tumors, GBM is considered a grade IV tumor due to its malignant behavior. The aim of this review is to summarize the main biological aspects of GBM. In particular, we focused our attention on those alterations which have been proven to have an impact on patients' outcome, mainly in terms of overall survival (OS), or on the tumor response to therapies...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777862/revealing-a-raf-functions-through-its-interactome
#11
Xin-Yu Zhang, Hui Guo, Bing Han, Xu-Min Zhang, Ying Huang, Yang Yang, Ying Liu, Xiao-Xi Guo, Qian Hao, Su An, Tian-RuiXu
A-Raf is a member of the Raf kinase family. Unlike B-Raf and C-Raf, the functions of A-Raf remain obscure. To gain more insight into the biological functions of A-Raf, we investigated the A-Raf interactome using proteomics. We found 132 proteins that interact with A-Raf and confirmed the interaction of 12 of these proteins with A-Raf by western blotting. Our data suggested that A-Raf regulates apoptosis, RNA catabolism, GTPase activity, and cell adhesion by interacting with proteins located in different cellular compartments...
May 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777811/electrospun-chitosan-polycaprolactone-hyaluronic-acid-bilayered-scaffold-for-potential-wound-healing-applications
#12
Amit Chanda, Jaideep Adhikari, Aritri Ghosh, Sougata Roy Chowdhury, Sabu Thomas, Pallab Datta, Prosenjit Saha
Fabrication of mechanically stable, biocompatible bilayered polymeric scaffold consisting of chitosan(CS)/polycaprolactone(PCL) and hyaluronic acid(HA) using less toxic solvent system is presented in this study. Electrospinning technique to make the scaffold was used followed by morphological, physiochemical and mechanical characterizations. Average fiber diameter of CS/PCL-HA bilayered scaffold was found 362.2 ± 236 nm which is in the range of collagen fiber found in the extracellular matrices. Enhanced swelling, degradation, hydrophilicity and water vapour transmission rate were found for the bilayered scaffold compared to that of the PCL and CS-PCL scaffolds...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777802/derivation-and-characterization-of-a-ucp1-reporter-human-es-cell-line
#13
Suranjit Mukherjee, Tuo Zhang, Lauretta A Lacko, Lei Tan, Jenny Zhaoying Xiang, Jason M Butler, Shuibing Chen
Interest in human brown fat as a novel therapeutic target to tackle the growing obesity and diabetes epidemic has increased dramatically in recent years. While much insight into brown fat biology has been gained from murine cell lines and models, few resources are available to study human brown fat in vitro, which makes the need for new ways to derive and study human brown adipocytes imperative. Human ES cell based reporter systems present an excellent tool to identify, mark, and purify cell populations of choice...
April 22, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777801/computer-simulation-of-neutral-drift-among-limbal-epithelial-stem-cells-of-mosaic-mice
#14
John D West, Richard L Mort, Robert E Hill, Steven D Morley, J Martin Collinson
The use of mice that are mosaic for reporter gene expression underlies many lineage-tracing studies in stem cell biology. For example, using mosaic LacZ reporter mice, it was shown that limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) around the periphery of the cornea maintain radial sectors of the corneal epithelium and that radial stripe numbers declined with age. Originally, the corneal results were interpreted as progressive, age-related loss or irreversible inactivation of some LESC clones. In this study we used computer simulations to show that these results could also be explained by stochastic replacement of LESCs by neighbouring LESCs, leading to neutral drift of LESC populations...
May 13, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777757/stem-cell-based-retina-models
#15
Kevin Achberger, Jasmin C Haderspeck, Alexander Kleger, Stefan Liebau
From the early days of cell biological research, the eye-especially the retina-has evoked broad interest among scientists. The retina has since been thoroughly investigated and numerous models have been exploited to shed light on its development, morphology, and function. Apart from various animal models and human clinical and anatomical research, stem cell-based models of animal and human cells of origin have entered the field, especially during the last decade. Despite the observation that the retina of different species comprises endogenous stem cells, most stem cell-related research in the human retina is now based on pluripotent stem cell models...
May 16, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777721/pentraxins-crp-i-and-crp-ii-are-post-translationally-deiminated-and-differ-in-tissue-specificity-in-cod-gadus-morhua-l-ontogeny
#16
Bergljót Magnadóttir, Polly Hayes, Berglind Gísladóttir, Birkir Þór Bragason, Mariya Hristova, Anthony P Nicholas, Sigríður Guðmundsdóttir, Sigrun Lange
Pentraxins are fluid phase pattern recognition molecules that form an important part of the innate immune defence and are conserved between fish and human. In Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), two pentraxin-like proteins have been described, CRP-I and CRP-II. Here we show for the first time that these two CRP forms are post-translationally deiminated (an irreversible conversion of arginine to citrulline) and differ with respect to tissue specific localisation in cod ontogeny from 3 to 84 days post hatching. While both forms are expressed in liver, albeit at temporally differing levels, CRP-I shows a strong association with nervous tissue while CRP-II is strongly associated to mucosal tissues of gut and skin...
May 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777717/analysis-of-the-postoperative-periarticular-environment-and-influence-on-sustained-drug-delivery-from-a-gel-formulation
#17
Darren Svirskis, Waldron Martis, Prabhat Bhusal, Manisha Sharma, Renus Stowers, Simon W Young
Regional intraarticular delivery of local anaesthetics is effective in treating postoperative pain following total knee or hip replacement. Recent research efforts have been only partially successful in achieving sustained release of the analgesic agent, in part due to limited understanding of the biological environment into which these formulations are administered. This study aimed to detail the composition and properties of postoperative periarticular fluid (PO-PAF). PO-PAF was collected from 8 patients and the composition and physicochemical properties determined...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777716/probability-of-viral-labeling-of-neural-stem-cells-in-vivo
#18
Gregory W Kirschen, Shaoyu Ge, Il Memming Park
In the neuroscience field over the past several decades, viral vectors have become powerful gene delivery systems to study neural populations of interest. For neural stem cell (NSC) biology, such viruses are often used to birth-date and track NSCs over developmental time in lineage tracing experiments. Yet, the probability of successful infection of a given stem cell in vivo remains unknown. This information would be helpful to inform investigators interested in titrating their viruses to selectively target sparsely-populated clusters of cells in the nervous system...
May 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777445/a-reverse-genetics-system-for-enterovirus-d68-using-human-rna-polymerase-i
#19
Minglei Pan, Shuai Gao, Zhenwei Zhou, Keke Zhang, Sihua Liu, Zhiyun Wang, Tao Wang
Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a highly contagious virus, which causes respiratory tract infections. However, no effective vaccines are currently available for controlling EV-D68 infection. Here, we developed a reverse genetics system to recover EV-D68 minireplicons and infectious EV-D68 from transfected plasmids using the RNA polymerase I (Pol I) promoter. The EV-D68 minireplicons contained the luciferase reporter gene, which flanked by the non-coding regions of the EV-D68 RNA. The luciferase signals could be detected in cells after transfection and Pol I promoter-mediated luciferase signal was significantly stronger than that mediated by the T7 promoter...
May 17, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777296/polymersomes-as-nanoreactors-for-preparative-biocatalytic-applications-current-challenges-and-future-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Ludwig Klermund, Kathrin Castiglione
Polymersomes are hollow, spherical vesicles that are surrounded by a polymer membrane. The applied polymer must be amphiphilic to promote self-assembly in aqueous solution. At the same time, the polymer composition is highly versatile, which leads to diverse properties in terms of chemical and mechanical stability, membrane permeability and the ability to functionalize the membrane. By encapsulating chemical or biological substances within the polymersomes, drug delivery systems, cell mimetics or catalytic nanoreactors can be assembled...
May 17, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
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