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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353403/genetic-polymorphism-in-hsp90aa1-gene-is-associated-with-the-thermotolerance-in-chinese-holstein-cows
#1
T M Badri, K L Chen, M A Alsiddig, Lian Li, Yafei Cai, G L Wang
The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a copious and ubiquitous molecular chaperone which plays an essential role in many cellular biological processes. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Hsp90AA1 gene and to determine their association with heat stress traits in Chinese Holstein cattle breed. Direct sequencing was used to identify new SNPs. Luciferase reporter assay methods were used to assess g.- 87G > C and g.4172A > G loci in the promoter activity and 3'-UTR, respectively...
January 20, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353306/toxoplasma-gondii-antigen-sag2a-differentially-modulates-il-1%C3%AE-expression-in-resistant-and-susceptible-murine-peritoneal-cells
#2
Jamilly Azevedo Leal-Sena, Jane Lima Dos Santos, Thaise Anne Rocha Dos Santos, Edson Mário de Andrade, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Juliano Oliveira Santana, Tiago Wilson Patriarca Mineo, José Roberto Mineo, Jair Pereira da Cunha-Júnior, Carlos Priminho Pirovani
The cell surface of Toxoplasma gondii is covered by antigens (SAGs) from the SRS family anchored by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) and includes antigens from the SAG2 family. Among these, the SAG2A surface antigen shows great potential in activating humoral responses and has been used in characterizing the acute phase of infection and in the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate rSAG2A-induced proteins in BALB/c and C57BL/c mice macrophages and to evaluate the phenotypic polarization induced in the process...
January 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353285/laser-scanning-microscopic-investigations-of-the-decontamination-of-soot-nanoparticles-from-the-skin
#3
Jürgen Lademann, Fanny Knorr, Alexa Patzelt, Martina C Meinke, Heike Richter, Jean Krutmann, Eckart Rühl, Olivier Doucet
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Airborne pollutants, such as nano-sized soot particles, are increasingly being released into the environment as a result of growing population densities and industrialization. They can absorb organic and metal compounds with potential biological activity, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and airborne pollen allergens. Local and systemic toxicities may be induced in the skin if the particulates release their harmful components upon dermal contact. METHODS: In the present study, skin pretreatments with serum and/or shield as barrier formulations prior to exposure and washing with a cleanser subsequent to exposure were evaluated as a protection and decontamination strategy using laser scanning microscopy...
January 20, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353012/fabrication-of-poly-ethylene-glycol-coated-mesoporous-nanocomposite-zno-fe2o3-for-methotrexate-delivery-an-integrated-nanoplatform-for-dual-mode-cancer-therapy
#4
Azam S Alavi, Azadeh Meshkini
Although chemotherapy is an effective strategy for treatment of tumor cells, the non-specific distribution of chemotherapy drugs and their poor aqueous solubility result in impaired treatment and cause serious side effects in patients. In this study, mesoporous ZnO@Fe2O3 nanocomposite was fabricated and used as a platform for drug delivery. ZnO@Fe2O3 nanocomposite showed a high capacity for the adsorption of chemotherapy drug, methotrexate (MTX). Drug-loaded nanoparticle was coated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), leading to the enhanced colloidal stability and good cytocompatibility...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352962/improved-systemic-metabolism-and-adipocyte-biology-in-mir-150-knockout-mice
#5
Minsung Kang, Xiaobing Liu, Yuchang Fu, W Timothy Garvey
INTRODUCTION: Short non-coding micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional factors that directly regulate protein expression by degrading or inhibiting target mRNAs; however, the role of miRNAs in obesity and cardiometabolic disease remains unclarified. Based on our earlier study demonstrating that miR-150 influences lipid metabolism, we have studied effects of miR-150 on systemic metabolism and adipocyte biology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Metabolic phenotypes including body weight, food intake, body composition, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were assessed in WT and global miR-150 KO male mice fed a high-fat diet...
January 15, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352607/integrated-lung-tissue-mechanics-one-piece-at-a-time-computational-modeling-across-the-scales-of-biology
#6
REVIEW
Kelly S Burrowes, Amin Iravani, Wendy Kang
The lung is a delicately balanced and highly integrated mechanical system. Lung tissue is continuously exposed to the environment via the air we breathe, making it susceptible to damage. As a consequence, respiratory diseases present a huge burden on society and their prevalence continues to rise. Emergent function is produced not only by the sum of the function of its individual components but also by the complex feedback and interactions occurring across the biological scales - from genes to proteins, cells, tissue and whole organ - and back again...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352322/qportal-a-platform-for-data-driven-biomedical-research
#7
Christopher Mohr, Andreas Friedrich, David Wojnar, Erhan Kenar, Aydin Can Polatkan, Marius Cosmin Codrea, Stefan Czemmel, Oliver Kohlbacher, Sven Nahnsen
Modern biomedical research aims at drawing biological conclusions from large, highly complex biological datasets. It has become common practice to make extensive use of high-throughput technologies that produce big amounts of heterogeneous data. In addition to the ever-improving accuracy, methods are getting faster and cheaper, resulting in a steadily increasing need for scalable data management and easily accessible means of analysis. We present qPortal, a platform providing users with an intuitive way to manage and analyze quantitative biological data...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352283/using-a-model-comparison-approach-to-describe-the-assembly-pathway-for-histone-h1
#8
Carlos Contreras, Minaya Villasana, Michael J Hendzel, Gustavo Carrero
Histones H1 or linker histones are highly dynamic proteins that diffuse throughout the cell nucleus and associate with chromatin (DNA and associated proteins). This binding interaction of histone H1 with the chromatin is thought to regulate chromatin organization and DNA accessibility to transcription factors and has been proven to involve a kinetic process characterized by a population that associates weakly with chromatin and rapidly dissociates and another population that resides at a binding site for up to several minutes before dissociating...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352252/towards-an-experimental-classification-system-for-membrane-active-peptides
#9
G D Brand, M H S Ramada, T C Genaro-Mattos, C Bloch
Mature proteins can act as potential sources of encrypted bioactive peptides that, once released from their parent proteins, might interact with diverse biomolecular targets. In recent work we introduced a systematic methodology to uncover encrypted intragenic antimicrobial peptides (IAPs) within large protein sequence libraries. Given that such peptides may interact with membranes in different ways, resulting in distinct observable outcomes, it is desirable to develop a predictive methodology to categorize membrane active peptides and establish a link to their physicochemical properties...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352201/cross-species-transcriptional-analysis-reveals-conserved-and-host-specific-neoplastic-processes-in-mammalian-glioma
#10
Nina P Connolly, Amol C Shetty, Jesse A Stokum, Ina Hoeschele, Marni B Siegel, C Ryan Miller, Anthony J Kim, Cheng-Ying Ho, Eduardo Davila, J Marc Simard, Scott E Devine, John H Rossmeisl, Eric C Holland, Jeffrey A Winkles, Graeme F Woodworth
Glioma is a unique neoplastic disease that develops exclusively in the central nervous system (CNS) and rarely metastasizes to other tissues. This feature strongly implicates the tumor-host CNS microenvironment in gliomagenesis and tumor progression. We investigated the differences and similarities in glioma biology as conveyed by transcriptomic patterns across four mammalian hosts: rats, mice, dogs, and humans. Given the inherent intra-tumoral molecular heterogeneity of human glioma, we focused this study on tumors with upregulation of the platelet-derived growth factor signaling axis, a common and early alteration in human gliomagenesis...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352116/the-chemical-fluctuation-theorem-governing-gene-expression
#11
Seong Jun Park, Sanggeun Song, Gil-Suk Yang, Philip M Kim, Sangwoon Yoon, Ji-Hyun Kim, Jaeyoung Sung
Gene expression is a complex stochastic process composed of numerous enzymatic reactions with rates coupled to hidden cell-state variables. Despite advances in single-cell technologies, the lack of a theory accurately describing the gene expression process has restricted a robust, quantitative understanding of gene expression variability among cells. Here we present the Chemical Fluctuation Theorem (CFT), providing an accurate relationship between the environment-coupled chemical dynamics of gene expression and gene expression variability...
January 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352030/the-daunting-polygenicity-of-mental-illness-making-a-new-map
#12
REVIEW
Steven E Hyman
An epochal opportunity to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of psychiatric disorders has emerged from advances in genomic technology, new computational tools and the growth of international consortia committed to data sharing. The resulting large-scale, unbiased genetic studies have begun to yield new biological insights and with them the hope that a half century of stasis in psychiatric therapeutics will come to an end. Yet a sobering picture is coming into view; it reveals daunting genetic and phenotypic complexity portending enormous challenges for neurobiology...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351998/detection-of-experimental-and-clinical-immune-complexes-by-measuring-ship-1-recruitment-to-the-inhibitory-fc%C3%AE-riib
#13
Richard J Stopforth, Robert J Oldham, Alison L Tutt, Patrick Duriez, H T Claude Chan, Brock F Binkowski, Chad Zimprich, Dun Li, Philip G Hargreaves, Mei Cong, Venkat Reddy, Maria J Leandro, Geraldine Cambridge, Anja Lux, Falk Nimmerjahn, Mark S Cragg
Fc γ receptors (FcγR) are involved in multiple aspects of immune cell regulation, are central to the success of mAb therapeutics, and underpin the pathology of several autoimmune diseases. However, reliable assays capable of accurately measuring FcγR interactions with their physiological ligands, IgG immune complexes (IC), are limited. A method to study and detect IC interactions with FcγRs was therefore developed. This method, designed to model the signaling pathway of the inhibitory FcγRIIB (CD32B), used NanoLuc Binary Interaction Technology to measure recruitment of the Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase 1 to the ITIM of this receptor...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351846/dual-strategies-for-argonaute2-mediated-biogenesis-of-erythroid-mirnas-underlie-conserved-requirements-for-slicing-in-mammals
#14
David Jee, Jr-Shiuan Yang, Sun-Mi Park, D'Juan T Farmer, Jiayu Wen, Timothy Chou, Arthur Chow, Michael T McManus, Michael G Kharas, Eric C Lai
While Slicer activity of Argonaute is central to RNAi, conserved roles of slicing in endogenous regulatory biology are less clear, especially in mammals. Biogenesis of erythroid Dicer-independent mir-451 involves Ago2 catalysis, but mir-451-KO mice do not phenocopy Ago2 catalytic-dead (Ago2-CD) mice, suggesting other needs for slicing. Here, we reveal mir-486 as another dominant erythroid miRNA with atypical biogenesis. While it is Dicer dependent, it requires slicing to eliminate its star strand. Thus, in Ago2-CD conditions, miR-486-5p is functionally inactive due to duplex arrest...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351842/maintaining-a-healthy-proteome-during-oxidative-stress
#15
REVIEW
Dana Reichmann, Wilhelm Voth, Ursula Jakob
Some of the most challenging stress conditions that organisms encounter during their lifetime involve the transient accumulation of reactive oxygen and chlorine species. Extremely reactive to amino acid side chains, these oxidants cause widespread protein unfolding and aggregation. It is therefore not surprising that cells draw on a variety of different strategies to counteract the damage and maintain a healthy proteome. Orchestrated largely by direct changes in the thiol oxidation status of key proteins, the response strategies involve all layers of protein protection...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351810/identify-down-syndrome-transcriptome-associations-using-integrative-analysis-of-microarray-database-and-correlation-interaction-network
#16
Min Chen, Jiayan Wang, Yingjun Luo, Kailing Huang, Xiaoshun Shi, Yanhui Liu, Jin Li, Zhengfei Lai, Shuya Xue, Haimei Gao, Allen Chen, Dunjin Chen
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have previously been emerged as key players in a series of biological processes. Dysregulation of lncRNA is correlated to human diseases including neurological disorders. Here, we developed a multi-step bioinformatics analysis to study the functions of a particular Down syndrome-associated gene DSCR9 including the lncRNAs. The method is named correlation-interaction-network (COIN), based on which a pipeline is implemented. Co-expression gene network analysis and biological network analysis results are presented...
January 19, 2018: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351706/micrornas-and-target-genes-in-pituitary-adenomas
#17
Yajuan Feng, Zhi-Gang Mao, Xin Wang, Qiu Du, Mengyao Jian, Dimin Zhu, Zheng Xiao, Hai-Jun Wang, Yong-Hong Zhu
Pituitary adenomas account for the top three primary intracranial tumors in terms of total incidence rates. The clinical symptoms presented by the disease are often characterized by a series of systemic endocrine disorders, severe occupational lesions, and even some malignant features, and therefore early diagnosis and predicting recurrence would be instructive for clinical treatment of pituitary adenomas. An increasing number of specific microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures have been identified in pituitary, and miRNAs are related with the pituitary tumorigenesis, dysfunction, neurodegeneration, and metastatic non-functioning pituitary carcinoma...
January 19, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351567/whole-thorax-irradiation-of-non-human-primates-induces-persistent-nuclear-damage-and-gene-expression-changes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#18
Shanaz A Ghandhi, Helen C Turner, Igor Shuryak, Gregory O Dugan, J Daniel Bourland, John D Olson, Janet A Tooze, Shad R Morton, Ines Batinic-Haberle, J Mark Cline, Sally A Amundson
We investigated the cytogenetic and gene expression responses of peripheral blood cells of non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta) that were whole-thorax irradiated with a single dose of 10 Gy. In this model, partial irradiation of NHPs in the thoracic region (Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation, WTLI) allows the study of late radiation-induced lung injury, while avoiding acute radiation syndromes related to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injury. A transient drop in circulating lymphocytes and platelets was seen by 9 days, followed by elevations in respiratory rate, circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes at 60-100 days, corresponding to computed tomography (CT) and histologic evidence of pneumonitis, and elective euthanasia of four animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351514/the-ace2-angiotensin-1-7-mas-axis-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-focus-on-angiotensin-1-7
#19
Robson Augusto Souza Santos, Walkyria Oliveira Sampaio, Andreia C Alzamora, Daisy Motta-Santos, Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader, Maria Jose Campagnole-Santos
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key player in the control of the cardiovascular system and hydroelectrolyte balance, with an influence on organs and functions throughout the body. The classical view of this system saw it as a sequence of many enzymatic steps that culminate in the production of a single biologically active metabolite, the octapeptide angiotensin (ANG) II, by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). The past two decades have revealed new functions for some of the intermediate products, beyond their roles as substrates along the classical route...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351513/neuroimmune-interactions-from-the-brain-to-the-immune-system-and-vice-versa
#20
Robert Dantzer
Because of the compartmentalization of disciplines that shaped the academic landscape of biology and biomedical sciences in the past, physiological systems have long been studied in isolation from each other. This has particularly been the case for the immune system. As a consequence of its ties with pathology and microbiology, immunology as a discipline has largely grown independently of physiology. Accordingly, it has taken a long time for immunologists to accept the concept that the immune system is not self-regulated but functions in close association with the nervous system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
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