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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107672/a-computational-model-of-conditioning-inspired-by-drosophila-olfactory-system
#1
Faramarz Faghihi, Ahmed A Moustafa, Ralf Heinrich, Florentin Wörgötter
Recent studies have demonstrated that Drosophila melanogaster (briefly Drosophila) can successfully perform higher cognitive processes including second order olfactory conditioning. Understanding the neural mechanism of this behavior can help neuroscientists to unravel the principles of information processing in complex neural systems (e.g. the human brain) and to create efficient and robust robotic systems. In this work, we have developed a biologically-inspired spiking neural network which is able to execute both first and second order conditioning...
November 23, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107544/cutaneous-hpv8-and-mmupv1-e6-proteins-target-the-notch-and-tgf-%C3%AE-tumor-suppressors-to-inhibit-differentiation-and-sustain-keratinocyte-proliferation
#2
Jordan M Meyers, Aayushi Uberoi, Miranda Grace, Paul F Lambert, Karl Munger
Cutaneous beta-papillomaviruses are associated with non-melanoma skin cancers that arise in patients who suffer from a rare genetic disorder, Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) or after immunosuppression following organ transplantation. Recent studies have shown that the E6 proteins of the cancer associated beta human papillomavirus (HPV) 5 and HPV8 inhibit NOTCH and TGF-β signaling. However, it is unclear whether disruption of these pathways may contribute to cutaneous HPV pathogenesis and carcinogenesis...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107539/towards-cost-effective-operational-monitoring-systems-for-complex-waters-analyzing-small-scale-coastal-processes-with-optical-transmissometry
#3
Marta Ramírez-Pérez, Rafael Gonçalves-Araujo, Sonja Wiegmann, Elena Torrecilla, Raul Bardaji, Rüdiger Röttgers, Astrid Bracher, Jaume Piera
The detection and prediction of changes in coastal ecosystems require a better understanding of the complex physical, chemical and biological interactions, which involves that observations should be performed continuously. For this reason, there is an increasing demand for small, simple and cost-effective in situ sensors to analyze complex coastal waters at a broad range of scales. In this context, this study seeks to explore the potential of beam attenuation spectra, c(λ), measured in situ with an advanced-technology optical transmissometer, for assessing temporal and spatial patterns in the complex estuarine waters of Alfacs Bay (NW Mediterranean) as a test site...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107482/a-circulating-microrna-signature-predicts-age-based-development-of-lymphoma
#4
Afshin Beheshti, Charles Vanderburg, J Tyson McDonald, Charusheila Ramkumar, Tatenda Kadungure, Hong Zhang, Ronald B Gartenhaus, Andrew M Evens
Extensive epidemiological data have demonstrated an exponential rise in the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that is associated with increasing age. The molecular etiology of this remains largely unknown, which impacts the effectiveness of treatment for patients. We proposed that age-dependent circulating microRNA (miRNA) signatures in the host influence diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) development. Our objective was to examine tumor development in an age-based DLBCL system using an inventive systems biology approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107392/upon-accounting-for-the-impact-of-isoenzyme-loss-gene-deletion-costs-anticorrelate-with-their-evolutionary-rates
#5
Christopher Jacobs, Luke Lambourne, Yu Xia, Daniel Segrè
System-level metabolic network models enable the computation of growth and metabolic phenotypes from an organism's genome. In particular, flux balance approaches have been used to estimate the contribution of individual metabolic genes to organismal fitness, offering the opportunity to test whether such contributions carry information about the evolutionary pressure on the corresponding genes. Previous failure to identify the expected negative correlation between such computed gene-loss cost and sequence-derived evolutionary rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been ascribed to a real biological gap between a gene's fitness contribution to an organism "here and now" and the same gene's historical importance as evidenced by its accumulated mutations over millions of years of evolution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107368/multi-channel-optical-coherence-elastography-using-relative-and-absolute-shear-wave-time-of-flight
#6
Eli Elyas, Alex Grimwood, Janine T Erler, Simon P Robinson, Thomas R Cox, Daniel Woods, Peter Clowes, Ramona De Luca, Franco Marinozzi, Jérémie Fromageau, Jeffrey C Bamber
Elastography, the imaging of elastic properties of soft tissues, is well developed for macroscopic clinical imaging of soft tissues and can provide useful information about various pathological processes which is complementary to that provided by the original modality. Scaling down of this technique should ply the field of cellular biology with valuable information with regard to elastic properties of cells and their environment. This paper evaluates the potential to develop such a tool by modifying a commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) device to measure the speed of shear waves propagating in a three-dimensional (3D) medium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107365/parenclitic-network-analysis-of-methylation-data-for-cancer-identification
#7
Alexander Karsakov, Thomas Bartlett, Artem Ryblov, Iosif Meyerov, Mikhail Ivanchenko, Alexey Zaikin
We make use of ideas from the theory of complex networks to implement a machine learning classification of human DNA methylation data, that carry signatures of cancer development. The data were obtained from patients with various kinds of cancers and represented as parenclictic networks, wherein nodes correspond to genes, and edges are weighted according to pairwise variation from control group subjects. We demonstrate that for the 10 types of cancer under study, it is possible to obtain a high performance of binary classification between cancer-positive and negative samples based on network measures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107341/complex-dynamics-of-virus-spread-from-low-infection-multiplicities-implications-for-the-spread-of-oncolytic-viruses
#8
Ignacio A Rodriguez-Brenes, Andrew Hofacre, Hung Fan, Dominik Wodarz
While virus growth dynamics have been well-characterized in several infections, data are typically collected once the virus population becomes easily detectable. Earlier dynamics, however, remain less understood. We recently reported unusual early dynamics in an experimental system using adenovirus infection of human embryonic kidney (293) cells. Under identical experimental conditions, inoculation at low infection multiplicities resulted in either robust spread, or in limited spread that eventually stalled, with both outcomes occurring with approximately equal frequencies...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107174/biological-bases-of-human-musicality
#9
Carla Perrone-Capano, Floriana Volpicelli, Umberto di Porzio
Music is a universal language, present in all human societies. It pervades the lives of most human beings and can recall memories and feelings of the past, can exert positive effects on our mood, can be strongly evocative and ignite intense emotions, and can establish or strengthen social bonds. In this review, we summarize the research and recent progress on the origins and neural substrates of human musicality as well as the changes in brain plasticity elicited by listening or performing music. Indeed, music improves performance in a number of cognitive tasks and may have beneficial effects on diseased brains...
January 20, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106896/the-2016-bowman-lecture-conjunctival-curses-scarring-conjunctivitis-30-years-on
#10
J K Dart
This review is in two sections. The first section summarises 35 conditions, both common and infrequent, causing cicatrising conjunctivitis. Guidelines for making a diagnosis are given together with the use of diagnostic tests, including direct and indirect immunofluorescence, and their interpretation. The second section evaluates our knowledge of ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid, which is the commonest cause of cicatrizing conjunctivitis in most developed countries. The clinical characteristics, demographics, and clinical signs of the disease are described...
January 20, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106852/tumor-derived-tissue-factor-aberrantly-activates-complement-and-facilitates-lung-tumor-progression-via-recruitment-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#11
Xiao Han, Haoran Zha, Fei Yang, Bo Guo, Bo Zhu
The initiator of extrinsic coagulation, tissue factor (TF), and its non-coagulant isoform alternatively spliced TF (asTF) are closely associated with tumor development. In the tumor microenvironment, the role of TF-induced coagulation in tumor progression remains to be fully elucidated. Using TF-knockdown lung tumor cells, we showed that TF is the dominant component of procoagulant activity but is dispensable in the cellular biology of tumor cells. In a xenograft model, using immunohistochemical analysis and flow cytometry analysis of the tumor microenvironment, we demonstrated that TF-induced fibrin deposition, which is correlated with complement activation and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) recruitment, is positively associated with tumor progression...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106830/-188-re-v-nitrido-radiopharmaceuticals-for-radionuclide-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Alessandra Boschi, Petra Martini, Licia Uccelli
The favorable nuclear properties of rhenium-188 for therapeutic application are described, together with new methods for the preparation of high yield and stable (188)Re radiopharmaceuticals characterized by the presence of the nitride rhenium core in their final chemical structure. (188)Re is readily available from an (188)W/(188)Re generator system and a parallelism between the general synthetic procedures applied for the preparation of nitride technetium-99m and rhenium-188 theranostics radiopharmaceuticals is reported...
January 19, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106744/oligonucleotide-therapy-for-obstructive-and-restrictive-respiratory-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Wupeng Liao, Jinrui Dong, Hong Yong Peh, Lay Hong Tan, Kah Suan Lim, Li Li, Wai-Shiu Fred Wong
Inhaled oligonucleotide is an emerging therapeutic modality for various common respiratory diseases, including obstructive airway diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and restrictive airway diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The advantage of direct accessibility for oligonucleotide molecules to the lung target sites, bypassing systemic administration, makes this therapeutic approach promising with minimized potential systemic side effects. Asthma, COPD, and IPF are common chronic respiratory diseases, characterized by persistent airway inflammation and dysregulated tissue repair and remodeling, although each individual disease has its unique etiology...
January 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106294/balancing-between-aging-and-cancer-molecular-genetics-meets-traditional-chinese-medicine
#14
Jing Liu, Lei Peng, Wenhui Huang, Zhiming Li, Jun Pan, Lei Sang, Siqian Lu, Jihong Zhang, Wanyi Li, Ying Luo
The biological consequences of cellular senescence and immortalization in aging and cancer are in conflict. Organisms have developed common cellular signaling pathways and surveillance mechanisms to control the processing of aging against tumorigenesis. The imbalance of any signals involved in this process may result in either premature aging or tumorigenesis and reduce the life span of the organism. In contrast, the balance between aging and tumorigenesis at a higher level (homeostatic-balance) may benefit the organism with tumor-free longevity...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106223/next-generation-of-network-medicine-interdisciplinary-signaling-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Tamas Korcsmaros, Maria Victoria Schneider, Giulio Superti-Furga
In the last decade, network approaches have transformed our understanding of biological systems. Network analyses and visualizations have allowed us to identify essential molecules and modules in biological systems, and improved our understanding of how changes in cellular processes can lead to complex diseases, such as cancer, infectious and neurodegenerative diseases. "Network medicine" involves unbiased large-scale network-based analyses of diverse data describing interactions between genes, diseases, phenotypes, drug targets, drug transport, drug side-effects, disease trajectories and more...
January 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106159/temporal-variations-in-presynaptic-release-probability-in-the-lateral-habenula
#16
Hoyong Park, Myunghyun Cheon, Sungmin Kim, ChiHye Chung
Rhythmicity plays an important role in a number of biological systems. The habenular complex is reported to contain an intrinsic molecular clock and to show rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes and proteins including per2/PER2. In this study, we observed that there is a temporal rhythmicity in the presynaptic efficacy of the lateral habenula (LHb) neurons. We collected a substantial number of recordings at different time points of the day during the light phase. The frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory transmission were increased in the afternoon compared to recordings performed in the morning...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106010/models-of-life-epigenetics-diversity-cycles
#17
Kim Sneppen
This review emphasize aspects of biology that can be understood through repeated applications of simple causal rules. The selected topics include perspectives on gene regulation, phage lambda development, epigenetics, microbial ecology, as well as model approaches to diversity and punctuated equilibrium in evolution. Two outstanding features are repeatedly described. One is minimal rules to sustain specific states of a complex systems for a long time. The other is the collapse of such states and the subsequent dynamical cycle of situations that later return to new metastable states...
January 20, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106003/large-scale-self-assembly-of-uniform-submicron-silver-sulfide-material-driven-by-precise-pressure-control
#18
Juanjuan Qi, Ke Chen, Shuhao Zhang, Yun Yang, Lin Guo, Shihe Yang
The controllable self-assembly of nanosized building blocks into larger specific structures can provide an efficient method of synthesizing novel materials with excellent properties. The self-assembly of nanocrystals (NCs) by assisted means is becoming an extremely active area of research, because it provides a method of producing large-scale advanced functional materials with potential applications in the areas of energy, electronics, optics, and biologics. In this study, we applied an efficient strategy, namely, the use of ���pressure control��� to the assembly of silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanospheres (NSs) with a diameter of approximately 33 nm into large-scale, uniform Ag2S sub-microspheres (SMs) with a size of about 0...
January 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105946/a-physarum-inspired-prize-collecting-steiner-tree-approach-to-identify-subnetworks-for-drug-repositioning
#19
Yahui Sun, Pathima Nusrath Hameed, Karin Verspoor, Saman Halgamuge
BACKGROUND: Drug repositioning can reduce the time, costs and risks of drug development by identifying new therapeutic effects for known drugs. It is challenging to reposition drugs as pharmacological data is large and complex. Subnetwork identification has already been used to simplify the visualization and interpretation of biological data, but it has not been applied to drug repositioning so far. In this paper, we fill this gap by proposing a new Physarum-inspired Prize-Collecting Steiner Tree algorithm to identify subnetworks for drug repositioning...
December 5, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105936/pathways-of-aging-comparative-analysis-of-gene-signatures-in-replicative-senescence-and-stress-induced-premature-senescence
#20
Kamil C Kural, Neetu Tandon, Mikhail Skoblov, Olga V Kel-Margoulis, Ancha V Baranova
BACKGROUND: In culturing normal diploid cells, senescence may either happen naturally, in the form of replicative senescence, or it may be a consequence of external challenges such as oxidative stress. Here we present a comparative analysis aimed at reconstruction of molecular cascades specific for replicative (RS) and stressinduced senescence (SIPS) in human fibroblasts. RESULTS: An involvement of caspase-3/keratin-18 pathway and serine/threonine kinase Aurora A/ MDM2 pathway was shared between RS and SIPS...
December 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
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