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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100018/conversion-of-amazon-rainforest-to-agriculture-alters-community-traits-of-methane-cycling-organisms
#1
Kyle M Meyer, Ann M Klein, Jorge L M Rodrigues, Klaus Nüsslein, Susannah G Tringe, Babur S Mirza, James M Tiedje, Brendan J M Bohannan
Land use change is one of the greatest environmental impacts worldwide, especially to tropical forests. The Amazon rainforest has been subject to particularly high rates of land use change, primarily to cattle pasture. A commonly observed response to cattle pasture establishment in the Amazon is the conversion of soil from a methane sink in rainforest, to a methane source in pasture. However, it is not known how the microorganisms that mediate methane flux are altered by land use change. Here we use the deepest metagenomic sequencing of Amazonian soil to date to investigate differences in methane-cycling microorganisms and their traits across rainforest and cattle pasture soils...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098428/the-self-sufficient-p450-rhf-expressed-in-a-whole-cell-system-selectively-catalyses-the-5-hydroxylation-of-diclofenac
#2
Jan M Klenk, Bernd A Nebel, Joanne L Porter, Justyna K Kulig, Shaneela A Hussain, Sven M Richter, Michele Tavanti, Nicholas J Turner, Martin A Hayes, Bernhard Hauer, Sabine L Flitsch
P450 monooxygenases are able to catalyse the highly regio- and stereoselective oxidations of many organic molecules. However, the scale-up of such bio-oxidations remains challenging due to the often-low activity, level of expression and stability of P450 biocatalysts. Despite these challenges they are increasingly desirable as recombinant biocatalysts, particularly for the production of drug metabolites. Diclofenac is a widely used anti-inflammatory drug that is persistent in the environment along with the 4'- and 5-hydroxy metabolites...
January 18, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098172/structural-diversity-of-anti-pancreatic-cancer-capsimycins-identified-in-mangrove-derived-streptomyces-xiamenensis-318-and-post-modification-via-a-novel-cytochrome-p450-monooxygenase
#3
He-Lin Yu, Shu-Heng Jiang, Xu-Liang Bu, Jia-Hua Wang, Jing-Yi Weng, Xiao-Mei Yang, Kun-Yan He, Zhi-Gang Zhang, Ping Ao, Jun Xu, Min-Juan Xu
Polycyclic tetramate macrolactams (PTMs) were identified as distinct secondary metabolites of the mangrove-derived Streptomyces xiamenensis 318. Together with three known compounds-ikarugamycin (1), capsimycin (2) and capsimycin B (3)-two new compounds, capsimycin C (4) with trans-diols and capsimycin D (5) with trans-configurations at C-13/C-14, have been identified. The absolute configurations of the tert/tert-diols moiety was determined in 4 by NMR spectroscopic analysis, CD spectral comparisons and semi-synthetic method...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075512/alkyl-formate-ester-synthesis-by-a-fungal-baeyer-villiger-monooxygenase
#4
Felix Martin Ferroni, Carmien Tolmie, Martha Sophia Smit, Diederik Johannes Opperman
Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) mediated synthesis of alkyl formate esters, important flavour and fragrance products, was investigated. A recombinant fungal BVMO from Aspergillus flavus was found to transform a selection of aliphatic aldehydes to alkyl formates with high regioselectivity. Near complete conversion of 10 mM octanal was achieved within 8 h with a regiomeric excess of ~80%. Substrate concentration was found to affect specific activity and regioselectivity of the BVMO as well as the rate of product autohydrolysis to the primary alcohol...
January 11, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074222/regulation-of-membrane-fixation-and-energy-production-conversion-for-adaptation-and-recovery-of-zno-nanoparticle-impacted-nitrosomonas-europaea
#5
Junkang Wu, Huijie Lu, Guangcan Zhu, Lianghui Chen, Yan Chang, Ran Yu
The ZnO nanoparticle (NP) effects on typical ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea in a chemostat bioreactor, and the cells' toxicity adaptation and recovery potentials were explored. Hardly any inhibition was observed when the NP concentration was high up to 10 mg/L. The cells exposed to 50 mg/L ZnO NPs displayed time-dependent impairment and recovery potentials in terms of cell density, membrane integrity, nitrite production rate, and ammonia monooxygenase activity. The 6-h NP stress impaired cells were nearly completely restored during a 12-h recovery incubation, while the longer exposure time would cause irretrievable cell damage...
January 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073960/ligand-characterization-of-cyp4b1-isoforms-modified-for-high-level-expression-in-escherichia-coli-and-hepg2-cells
#6
Katharina Roellecke, Vera D Jäger, Veselin H Gyurov, John P Kowalski, Stephanie Mielke, Allan E Rettie, Helmut Hanenberg, Constanze Wiek, Marco Girhard
Human CYP4B1, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase predominantly expressed in the lung, inefficiently metabolizes classical CYP4B1 substrates, such as the naturally occurring furan pro-toxin 4-ipomeanol (4-IPO). Highly active animal forms of the enzyme convert 4-IPO to reactive alkylating metabolite(s) that bind(s) to cellular macromolecules. By substitution of 13 amino acids, we restored the enzymatic activity of human CYP4B1 toward 4-IPO and this modified cDNA is potentially valuable as a suicide gene for adoptive T-cell therapies...
January 10, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073698/ectopic-expression-of-an-apple-cytochrome-p450-gene-mdcypm1-negatively-regulates-plant-photomorphogenesis-and-stress-response-in-arabidopsis
#7
Jian-Ping An, Rui Li, Feng-Jia Qu, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
Cytochrome P450s play an important role in plant growth and are involved in multiple stresses response. However, little is known about the functions of cytochrome P450s in apple. Here, a Malus × domestica cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 1 gene, MdCYPM1, was identified and subsequently cloned from apple 'Gala' (Malus × domestica). To verify the functions of MdCYPM1, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the apple MdCYPM1 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter...
January 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072829/predicting-the-metabolic-sites-by-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-on-drug-molecules-using-svm-classification-on-computed-quantum-mechanics-and-circular-fingerprints-molecular-descriptors
#8
Chien-Wei Fu, Thy-Hou Lin
As an important enzyme in Phase I drug metabolism, the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) also metabolizes some xenobiotics with soft nucleophiles. The site of metabolism (SOM) on a molecule is the site where the metabolic reaction is exerted by an enzyme. Accurate prediction of SOMs on drug molecules will assist the search for drug leads during the optimization process. Here, some quantum mechanics features such as the condensed Fukui function and attributes from circular fingerprints (called Molprint2D) are computed and classified using the support vector machine (SVM) for predicting some potential SOMs on a series of drugs that can be metabolized by FMO enzymes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072419/an-acid-tolerant-ammonia-oxidizing-%C3%AE-proteobacterium-from-soil
#9
Masahito Hayatsu, Kanako Tago, Ikuo Uchiyama, Atsushi Toyoda, Yong Wang, Yumi Shimomura, Takashi Okubo, Futoshi Kurisu, Yuhei Hirono, Kunihiko Nonaka, Hiroko Akiyama, Takehiko Itoh, Hideto Takami
Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, occurs in a wide range of acidic soils. However, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) that have been isolated from soil to date are acid-sensitive. Here we report the isolation and characterization of an acid-adapted AOB from an acidic agricultural soil. The isolated AOB, strain TAO100, is classified within the Gammaproteobacteria based on phylogenetic characteristics. TAO100 can grow in the pH range of 5-7.5 and survive in highly acidic conditions until pH 2 by forming cell aggregates...
January 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071716/lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases-disrupt-the-cellulose-fibers-structure
#10
Ana Villares, Céline Moreau, Chloé Bennati-Granier, Sona Garajova, Loïc Foucat, Xavier Falourd, Bodo Saake, Jean-Guy Berrin, Bernard Cathala
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a class of powerful oxidative enzymes that breakdown recalcitrant polysaccharides such as cellulose. Here we investigate the action of LPMOs on cellulose fibers. After enzymatic treatment and dispersion, LPMO-treated fibers show intense fibrillation. Cellulose structure modifications visualized at different scales indicate that LPMO creates nicking points that trigger the disintegration of the cellulose fibrillar structure with rupture of chains and release of elementary nanofibrils...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069934/steroid-signaling-in-mature-follicles-is-important-for-drosophila-ovulation
#11
Elizabeth Knapp, Jianjun Sun
Although ecdysteroid signaling regulates multiple steps in oogenesis, it is not known whether it regulates Drosophila ovulation, a process involving a matrix metalloproteinase-dependent follicle rupture. In this study, we demonstrated that ecdysteroid signaling is operating in mature follicle cells to control ovulation. Moreover, knocking down shade (shd), encoding the monooxygenase that converts ecdysone (E) to the more active 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), specifically in mature follicle cells, blocked follicle rupture, which was rescued by ectopic expression of shd or exogenous 20E...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063296/biodegradation-of-the-artificial-sweetener-acesulfame-in-biological-wastewater-treatment-and-sandfilters
#12
Sandro Castronovo, Arne Wick, Marco Scheurer, Karsten Nödler, Manoj Schulz, Thomas A Ternes
A considerable removal of the artificial sweetener acesulfame (ACE) was observed during activated sludge processes at 13 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in a full-scale sand filter of a water works. A long-term sampling campaign over a period of almost two years revealed that ACE removal in WWTPs can be highly variable over time. Nitrifying/denitrifying sequencing batch reactors (SBR) as well as aerobic batch experiments with activated sludge and filter sand from a water works confirmed that both activated sludge as well as filter sand can efficiently remove ACE and that the removal can be attributed to biologically mediated degradation processes...
November 17, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060494/copper-complexes-as-bioinspired-models-for-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases
#13
Alda Lisa Concia, Maria Rosa Beccia, Maylis Orio, Francine Terra Ferre, Marciela Scarpellini, Frédéric Biaso, Bruno Guigliarelli, Marius Réglier, A Jalila Simaan
We report here two copper complexes as first functional models for lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases, mononuclear copper-containing enzymes involved in recalcitrant polysaccharide breakdown. These complexes feature structural and spectroscopic properties similar to those of the enzyme. In addition, they catalyze oxidative cleavage of the model substrate p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside. More importantly, a particularly stable copper(II) hydroperoxide intermediate is detected in the reaction conditions.
January 6, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056803/de-novo-transcriptome-and-expression-profile-analyses-of-the-asian-corn-borer-ostrinia-furnacalis-reveals-relevant-flubendiamide-response-genes
#14
Li Cui, Changhui Rui, Daibin Yang, Zhenying Wang, Huizhu Yuan
BACKGROUND: The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has become the most damaging insect pest of corn in Asia. However, the lack of genome or transcriptome information heavily hinders our further understanding of ACB in every aspect at a molecular level and on a genome-wide scale. Here, we used the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) Sequencer to explore the ACB transcriptome and to identify relevant genes in response to flubendiamide, showing high selective activity against ACB...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054175/directed-accumulation-of-less-toxic-pimaricin-derivatives-by-improving-the-efficiency-of-a-polyketide-synthase-dehydratase-domain
#15
Zhen Qi, Yucong Zhou, Qianjin Kang, Chunyan Jiang, Jianting Zheng, Linquan Bai
Pimaricin is an important polyene antifungal antibiotic that binds ergosterol and extracts it from fungal membranes. In previous work, two pimaricin derivatives (1 and 2) with improved pharmacological activities and another derivative (3) that showed no antifungal activity were produced by the mutant strain of Streptomyces chattanoogensis, in which the P450 monooxygenase gene scnG has been inactivated. Furthermore, inactivation of the DH12 dehydratase domain of the pimaricin polyketide synthases (PKSs) resulted in specific accumulation of the undesired metabolite 3, suggesting that improvement of the corresponding dehydratase activity may reduce or eliminate the accumulation of 3...
January 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049838/insights-into-the-lifestyle-of-uncultured-bacterial-natural-product-factories-associated-with-marine-sponges
#16
Gerald Lackner, Eike Edzard Peters, Eric J N Helfrich, Jörn Piel
The as-yet uncultured filamentous bacteria "Candidatus Entotheonella factor" and "Candidatus Entotheonella gemina" live associated with the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei Y, the source of numerous unusual bioactive natural products. Belonging to the proposed candidate phylum "Tectomicrobia," Candidatus Entotheonella members are only distantly related to any cultivated organism. The Ca E. factor has been identified as the source of almost all polyketide and modified peptides families reported from the sponge host, and both Ca Entotheonella phylotypes contain numerous additional genes for as-yet unknown metabolites...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045386/learning-from-oligosaccharide-soaks-of-crystals-of-an-aa13-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenase-crystal-packing-ligand-binding-and-active-site-disorder
#17
Kristian E H Frandsen, Jens Christian Navarro Poulsen, Morten Tovborg, Katja S Johansen, Leila Lo Leggio
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a class of copper-dependent enzymes discovered within the last ten years. They oxidatively cleave polysaccharides (chitin, lignocellulose, hemicellulose and starch-derived), presumably making recalcitrant substrates accessible to glycoside hydrolases. Recently, the first crystal structure of an LPMO-substrate complex was reported, giving insights into the interaction of LPMOs with β-linked substrates (Frandsen et al., 2016). The LPMOs acting on α-linked glycosidic bonds (family AA13) display binding surfaces that are quite different from those of LPMOs that act on β-linked glycosidic bonds (families AA9-AA11), as revealed from the first determined structure (Lo Leggio et al...
January 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043376/disorders-in-barrier-protein-mrna-expression-and-placenta-secretory-activity-under-the-influence-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in%C3%A2-vitro
#18
A Wojciechowska, J Mlynarczuk, J Kotwica
Pregnancy disorders are often correlated with the presence of organic pollutants in the tissues of living bodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects (over 24 and 48 hours) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 153, 126, and 77 at doses of 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL on barrier function and secretory activity in cow placentome sections collected during the second trimester of pregnancy. None of the PCBs affected the viability of the sections (P > 0.05). Polychlorinated biphenyl 153 decreased (P < 0...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032016/rapid-naked-eye-discrimination-of-cytochrome-p450-genetic-polymorphism-through-non-crosslinking-aggregation-of-dna-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles
#19
Yoshitsugu Akiyama, Guoqing Wang, Shota Shiraishi, Naoki Kanayama, Tohru Takarada, Mizuo Maeda
Involvement of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping in healthcare should allow for more effective use of pharmacogenomics. However, user-friendly assays without the requirement of a special instrument still remain unavailable. This study describes naked-eye SNP discrimination in exon 5 of the human cytochrome P450 2C19 monooxygenase gene, CYP2C19*1 (the wild-type allele) and CYP2C19*2 (the variant allele with G681A point mutation). The present assay is composed of allele-specific single-base primer extension and salt-induced aggregation of DNA-modified gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs)...
December 2016: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032015/rapid-naked-eye-discrimination-of-cytochrome-p450-genetic-polymorphism-through-non-crosslinking-aggregation-of-dna-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles
#20
Yoshitsugu Akiyama, Guoqing Wang, Shota Shiraishi, Naoki Kanayama, Tohru Takarada, Mizuo Maeda
The front cover artwork is provided by the group of Tohru Takarada at RIKEN (Japan). The image shows a colorimetric single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method that uses spontaneous aggregation of DNA-modified gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs) for the simple and rapid SNP genotyping of the human cytochrome P450 2C19 monooxygenase gene. For more details, read the full text of the Full Paper at p. 508.
December 2016: ChemistryOpen
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