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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223501/biosynthetic-pathway-of-aliphatic-formates-via-a-baeyer-villiger-oxidation-in-mechanism-present-in-astigmatid-mites
#1
Nobuhiro Shimizu, Daisuke Sakata, Eric A Schmelz, Naoki Mori, Yasumasa Kuwahara
Astigmatid mites depend on bioactive glandular secretions, pheromones, and defensive agents to mediate intra- and interspecies interactions. Aliphatic formates, such as (Z,Z)-8,11-heptadecadienyl formate (8,11-F17) and (Z)-8-heptadecenyl formate (8-F17), are rarely encountered natural products that are abundant in Sancassania sp. Sasagawa (Acari: Acaridae) mite secretions. Linoleic acid and oleic acid are predicted as key intermediates in the synthesis of the closely related aliphatic formates. To gain insight in this biosynthetic pathway, acarid mite feeding experiments were conducted using (13)C-labeled precursors to precisely track incorporation...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219736/development-of-minimal-enzyme-cocktails-for-hydrolysis-of-sulfite-pulped-lignocellulosic-biomass
#2
Piotr Chylenski, Zarah Forsberg, Jerry Ståhlberg, Anikó Várnai, Martin Lersch, Oskar Bengtsson, Solve Sæbø, Svein Jarle Horn, Vincent G H Eijsink
Despite recent progress, saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass is still a major cost driver in biorefining. In this study, we present the development of minimal enzyme cocktails for hydrolysis of Norway spruce and sugarcane bagasse, which were pretreated using the so-called BALI™ process, which is based on sulfite pulping technology. Minimal enzyme cocktails were composed using several glycoside hydrolases purified from the industrially relevant filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei and a purified commercial β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206744/alkane-oxidation-methane-monooxygenases-related-enzymes-and-their-biomimetics
#3
Vincent C-C Wang, Suman Maji, Peter P-Y Chen, Hung Kay Lee, Steve S-F Yu, Sunney I Chan
Methane monooxygenases (MMOs) mediate the facile conversion of methane into methanol in methanotrophic bacteria with high efficiency under ambient conditions. Because the selective oxidation of methane is extremely challenging, there is considerable interest in understanding how these enzymes carry out this difficult chemistry. The impetus of these efforts is to learn from the microbes to develop a biomimetic catalyst to accomplish the same chemical transformation. Here, we review the progress made over the past two to three decades toward delineating the structures and functions of the catalytic sites in two MMOs: soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO)...
February 16, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205250/crystal-structure-of-dibenzothiophene-sulfone-monooxygenase-bdsa-from-bacillus-subtilis-wu-s2b
#4
Masahiko Okai, Woo Cheol Lee, Li-Jun Guan, Takashi Ohshiro, Yoshikazu Izumi, Masaru Tanokura
The dibenzothiophene (DBT) sulfone monooxygenase BdsA from Bacillus subtilis WU-S2B catalyzes the conversion of DBT sulfone to 2'-hydroxybiphenyl 2-sulfinate (HBPS). We report the crystal structures of BdsA at a resolution of 2.80 Å. BdsA exists as a homotetramer with a dimer-of-dimers configuration in the crystal, and the interaction between E288 and R296 in BdsA is important for tetramer formation. A structural comparison with homologous proteins shows that the orientation and location of the α9-α12 helices in BdsA are closer to those of the closed form than those of the open form in the EDTA monooxygenase EmoA...
February 16, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205176/determining-the-topology-of-membrane-bound-proteins-using-pegylation
#5
Vicky Howe, Andrew J Brown
Biochemical methods can help elucidate the membrane topology of hydrophobic membrane proteins where X-ray crystallography is difficult or impractical, providing important structural data. Here, we describe the method of PEGylation, which uses a cysteine-reactive molecule, maleimide polyethylene glycol (mPEG), to determine the cytosolic accessibility of introduced cysteine residues. This accessibility is visualized using Western blotting to detect a band shift that indicates cysteine labeling by mPEG. Using scanning cysteine mutagenesis, followed by PEGylation, one can map the accessibility of the introduced cysteines, hence inferring the membrane topology of the protein...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198893/elucidating-light-induced-charge-accumulation-in-an-artificial-analogue-of-methane-monooxygenase-enzymes-using-time-resolved-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy
#6
Dooshaye Moonshiram, Antonio Picón, Alvaro Vazquez-Mayagoitia, Xiaoyi Zhang, Ming-Feng Tu, Pablo Garrido-Barros, Jean-Pierre Mahy, Frédéric Avenier, Ally Aukauloo
We report the use of time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the ns-μs time scale to track the light induced two electron transfer processes in a multi-component photocatalytic system, consisting of [Ru(bpy)3](2+)/ a diiron(iii,iii) model/triethylamine. EXAFS analysis with DFT calculations confirms the structural configurations of the diiron(iii,iii) and reduced diiron(ii,ii) states.
February 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195739/substrate-and-lewis-acid-coordination-promote-o-o-bond-cleavage-of-an-unreactive-l2cu-ii-2-o2-2-species-to-form-l2cu-iii-2-o-2-cores-with-enhanced-oxidative-reactivity
#7
Isaac Garcia-Bosch, Ryan E Cowley, Daniel E Díaz, Ryan L Peterson, Edward I Solomon, Kenneth D Karlin
Copper-dependent metalloenzymes are widespread throughout metabolic pathways, coupling the reduction of O2 with the oxidation of organic substrates. Small-molecule synthetic analogs are useful platforms to generate L/Cu/O2 species that reproduce the structural, spectroscopic, and reactive properties of some copper-/O2-dependent enzymes. Landmark studies have shown that the conversion between dicopper(II)-peroxo species (L2Cu(II)2(O2(2-)) either side-on peroxo, (S)P, or end-on trans-peroxo, (T)P) and dicopper(III)-bis(μ-oxo) (L2Cu(III)2(O(2-))2: O) can be controlled through ligand design, reaction conditions (temperature, solvent, and counteranion), or substrate coordination...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194155/functional-characterization-of-cyp716-family-p450-enzymes-in-triterpenoid-biosynthesis-in-tomato
#8
Shuhei Yasumoto, Hikaru Seki, Yuko Shimizu, Ery O Fukushima, Toshiya Muranaka
Triterpenoids are a group of structurally diverse specialized metabolites that frequently show useful bioactivities. These chemicals are biosynthesized from the common precursor 2,3-oxidosqualene in plants. The carbon skeletons produced by oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) are usually modified by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) and UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases. These biosynthetic enzymes contribute to the structural diversification of plant triterpenoids. Until now, many P450 enzymes have been characterized as triterpenoid oxidases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194147/freshwater-recirculating-aquaculture-system-operations-drive-biofilter-bacterial-community-shifts-around-a-stable-nitrifying-consortium-of-ammonia-oxidizing-archaea-and-comammox-nitrospira
#9
Ryan P Bartelme, Sandra L McLellan, Ryan J Newton
Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are unique engineered ecosystems that minimize environmental perturbation by reducing nutrient pollution discharge. RAS typically employ a biofilter to control ammonia levels produced as a byproduct of fish protein catabolism. Nitrosomonas (ammonia-oxidizing), Nitrospira, and Nitrobacter (nitrite-oxidizing) species are thought to be the primary nitrifiers present in RAS biofilters. We explored this assertion by characterizing the biofilter bacterial and archaeal community of a commercial scale freshwater RAS that has been in operation for >15 years...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193870/disruption-of-quercetin-metabolism-by-fungicide-affects-energy-production-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#10
Wenfu Mao, Mary A Schuler, May R Berenbaum
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, detoxify phytochemicals in honey and pollen. The flavonol quercetin is found ubiquitously and abundantly in pollen and frequently at lower concentrations in honey. Worker jelly consumed during the first 3 d of larval development typically contains flavonols at very low levels, however. RNA-Seq analysis of gene expression in neonates reared for three days on diets with and without quercetin revealed that, in addition to up-regulating multiple detoxifying P450 genes, quercetin is a negative transcriptional regulator of mitochondrion-related nuclear genes and genes encoding subunits of complexes I, III, IV, and V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191843/production-of-stealthin-c-involves-an-s-n-type-smiles-rearrangement
#11
Peng Wang, Gloria J Hong, Matthew R Wilson, Emily P Balskus
The kinamycin family of aromatic polyketide natural products contains an atypical angucycline ring system substituted with a diazo group. The enzymatic chemistry involved in constructing both of these structural features has been largely unexplored. Here we report the in vivo and in vitro production of seongomycin, a shunt product from this pathway, and stealthin C, a proposed biosynthetic precursor to the kinamycins. We show that a single enzyme, the flavin-dependent monooxygenase AlpJ, can generate these metabolites from N-acetyl-l-cysteine and l-cysteine, respectively, and that the synthesis of stealthin C likely proceeds via a nonenzymatic S-N-type Smiles rearrangement...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188936/cultivation-of-podospora-anserina-on-soybean-hulls-results-in-an-efficient-enzyme-cocktail-for-plant-biomass-hydrolysis
#12
Miia R Mäkelä, Ourdia Bouzid, Diogo Robl, Harm Post, Mao Peng, Albert Heck, Maarten Altelaar, Ronald P de Vries
The coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina was cultivated on three different plant biomasses, i.e. cotton seed hulls (CSH), soybean hulls (SBH) and acid-pretreated wheat straw (WS) for four days, and the potential of the produced enzyme mixtures was compared in the enzymatic saccharification of the corresponding lignocellulose feedstocks. The enzyme cocktail P. anserina produced after three days of growth on SBH showed superior capacity to release reducing sugars from all tested plant biomass feedstocks compared to the enzyme mixtures from CSH and WS cultures...
February 7, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187857/adaptive-and-behavioral-changes-in-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-knockout-mice-relevance-to-psychotic-disorders
#13
Sophie Erhardt, Ana Pocivavsek, Mariaelena Repici, Xi-Cong Liu, Sophie Imbeault, Daniel C Maddison, Marian A R Thomas, Joshua L Smalley, Markus K Larsson, Paul J Muchowski, Flaviano Giorgini, Robert Schwarcz
BACKGROUND: Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase converts kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and its inhibition shunts the kynurenine pathway-which is implicated as dysfunctional in various psychiatric disorders-toward enhanced synthesis of kynurenic acid, an antagonist of both α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Possibly as a result of reduced kynurenine 3-monooxygenase activity, elevated central nervous system levels of kynurenic acid have been found in patients with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia...
December 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187834/pyrethroid-resistance-in-iranian-field-populations-of-rhipicephalus-boophilus-annulatus
#14
Seyyed Payman Ziapour, Sadegh Kheiri, Mahmoud Fazeli-Dinan, Farzaneh Sahraei-Rostami, Reza Ali Mohammadpour, Mohsen Aarabi, Seyed Hassan Nikookar, Mohammad Sarafrazi, Fatemeh Asgarian, Ahmadali Enayati, Janet Hemingway
Resistance to acaricides in ticks is becoming increasingly widespread throughout the world; therefore, tick control requires resistance monitoring for each tick species. The aims of this study were to monitor the susceptibility status of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae), against pyrethroid acaricides from Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, and where resistance was evident, and establish the possible underlying mechanisms. Fully engorged adult R. (B.) annulatus females collected on cattle from Mazandaran Province...
March 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187826/metabolic-resistance-in-nilaparvata-lugens-to-etofenprox-a-non-ester-pyrethroid-insecticide
#15
Huahua Sun, Baojun Yang, Yixi Zhang, Zewen Liu
Etofenprox, a non-ester pyrethroid insecticide, will be registered to control rice pests such as the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål) in mainland China. Insecticide resistance is always a problem to the effective control of N. lugens by chemical insecticides. An etofenprox resistance selection of N. lugens was performed in order to understand the related mechanisms. Through successive selection by etofenprox for 16 generations in the laboratory, an etofenprox-resistant strain (G16) with the resistance ratio (RR) of 422...
March 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185662/alphab-crystallin-expression-correlates-with-aging-deficits-in-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#16
Erin-Mai F Lim, Alim Musa, Ariana Frederick, Shalina S Ousman
In an effort to identify factors that contribute to age-related deficits in the undamaged and injured peripheral nervous system (PNS), we noted that Brady and colleagues found that mice null for a small heat shock protein called alphaB-crystallin (αBC) developed abnormalities early in life that are reminiscent of aging pathologies. Because of our observation that αBC protein levels markedly reduce as wild-type mice age, we investigated whether the crystallin plays a role in modulating age-related deficits in the uninjured and damaged PNS...
January 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177316/crystallization-of-a-fungal-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenase-expressed-from-glycoengineered-pichia-pastoris-for-x-ray-and-neutron-diffraction
#17
William B O'Dell, Paul D Swartz, Kevin L Weiss, Flora Meilleur
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are carbohydrate-disrupting enzymes secreted by bacteria and fungi that break glycosidic bonds via an oxidative mechanism. Fungal LPMOs typically act on cellulose and can enhance the efficiency of cellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes that release soluble sugars for bioethanol production or other industrial uses. The enzyme PMO-2 from Neurospora crassa (NcPMO-2) was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris to facilitate crystallographic studies of the fungal LPMO mechanism...
February 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173653/-coenzyme-q-10-treatment-for-one-child-with-coq6-gene-mutation-induced-nephrotic-syndrome-and-literature-review
#18
Q Cao, G M Li, H Xu, Q Shen, L Sun, X Y Fang, H M Liu, W Guo, Y H Zhai, B B Wu
Objective: To summarize the clinical manifestation and molecular characteristics of COQ6 mutation induced nephrotic syndrome, and to evaluate efficacy of CoQ(10) therapy. Method: Clinical data of the case with infantile nephrotic syndrome was summarized, including clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and family investigation. The patient received CoQ(10) 30 mg/(kg·d) therapy. Urine protein/creatinine ratio, serum albumin and creatinine were detected to assess the efficacy of the therapy. Result: (1) The 10 months old boy was presented with nephrotic level proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia...
February 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163821/the-role-of-cyp2e1-in-the-drug-metabolism-or-bioactivation-in-the-brain
#19
REVIEW
W A García-Suástegui, L A Ramos-Chávez, M Rubio-Osornio, M Calvillo-Velasco, J A Atzin-Méndez, J Guevara, D Silva-Adaya
Organisms have metabolic pathways that are responsible for removing toxic agents. We always associate the liver as the major organ responsible for detoxification of the body; however this process occurs in many tissues. In the same way, as in the liver, the brain expresses metabolic pathways associated with the elimination of xenobiotics. Besides the detoxifying role of CYP2E1 for compounds such as electrophilic agents, reactive oxygen species, free radical products, and the bioactivation of xenobiotics, CYP2E1 is also related in several diseases and pathophysiological conditions...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161858/wheat-drought-responsive-wxpl-transcription-factors-regulate-cuticle-biosynthesis-genes
#20
Huihui Bi, Sukanya Luang, Yuan Li, Natalia Bazanova, Nikolai Borisjuk, Maria Hrmova, Sergiy Lopato
The cuticle forms a hydrophobic waxy layer that covers plant organs and provides protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcription of genes responsible for cuticle formation is regulated by several types of transcription factors (TFs). Five orthologous to WAX PRODUCTION (WXP1 and WXP2) genes from Medicago truncatula were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from flag leaves and spikes of drought tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum, breeding line RAC875) and designated TaWXP-like (TaWXPL) genes. Tissue-specific and drought-responsive expression of TaWXPL1D and TaWXPL2B was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR in two Australian wheat genotypes, RAC875 and Kukri, with contrasting glaucousness and drought tolerance...
February 4, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
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