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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544522/metagenomic-potential-for-and-diversity-of-n-cycle-driving-microorganisms-in-the-bothnian-sea-sediment
#1
Olivia Rasigraf, Julia Schmitt, Mike S M Jetten, Claudia Lüke
The biological nitrogen cycle is driven by a plethora of reactions transforming nitrogen compounds between various redox states. Here, we investigated the metagenomic potential for nitrogen cycle of the in situ microbial community in an oligotrophic, brackish environment of the Bothnian Sea sediment. Total DNA from three sediment depths was isolated and sequenced. The characterization of the total community was performed based on 16S rRNA gene inventory using SILVA database as reference. The diversity of diagnostic functional genes coding for nitrate reductases (napA;narG), nitrite:nitrate oxidoreductase (nxrA), nitrite reductases (nirK;nirS;nrfA), nitric oxide reductase (nor), nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ), hydrazine synthase (hzsA), ammonia monooxygenase (amoA), hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (hao), and nitrogenase (nifH) was analyzed by blastx against curated reference databases...
May 23, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542723/spectroscopic-evidence-for-the-presence-of-a-high-valent-fe-iv-species-in-the-ferroxidase-reaction-of-an-archaeal-ferritin
#2
Kourosh Honarmand Ebrahimi, Eckhard Bill, Peter-Leon Hagedoorn, Wilfred R Hagen
A high-valent Fe(IV) species is proposed to be generated from the decay of a peroxodiferric intermediate in the catalytic cycle at the di-iron cofactor center of dioxygen activating enzymes such as methane monooxygenase. However, it is believed that this intermediate is not formed in the di-iron substrate site of ferritin, where oxidation of Fe(II) substrate to Fe(III) (ferroxidase reaction) occurs also via a peroxodiferric intermediate. In opposition to this generally accepted view, here we present evidence for the occurrence of a high-valent Fe(IV) in the ferroxidase reaction of an archaeal ferritin, which is based on trapped intermediates obtained with the freeze-quench technique and combination of spectroscopic characterization...
May 25, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536060/continuous-supply-of-glucose-and-glycerol-enhances-biotransformation-of-ricinoleic-acid-to-e-11-heptanoyloxy-undec-9-enoic-acid-in-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#3
Yong-Han Cho, Soo-Jung Kim, Hyun-Woo Kim, Ji Young Kim, Jun Seok Gwak, Donghwa Chung, Kyoung Heon Kim, Kyungmoon Park, Yong-Cheol Park
This study aimed at the development of biotransformation strategies with feeding of energy sources for bioconversion of ricinoleic acid to (E)-11-(heptanoyloxy) undec-9-enoic acid (11-HOUA), a key intermediate of brassylic acid, by recombinant Escherichia coli overexpressing an alcohol dehydrogenase from Micrococcus luteus and a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Feeding of glucose or glycerol facilitated both the preparation of high-density cell biocatalyst and supply of the NAD(+) and NADPH cofactors...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535872/fungal-secretomics-to-probe-the-biological-functions-of-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases
#4
Jean-Guy Berrin, Marie-Noëlle Rosso, Maher Abou Hachem
Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass is of growing interest for the development of a sustainable bio-based industry. Filamentous fungi, which degrade complex and recalcitrant plant polymers, are proficient secretors of enzymes acting on the lignocellulose composite of plant cell walls in addition to starch, the main carbon storage reservoir. In this review, we focus on the identification of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) and their redox partners in fungal secretomes to highlight the biological functions of these remarkable enzyme systems and we discuss future trends related to LPMO-potentiated bioconversion...
May 17, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535598/antarctic-seals-molecular-biomarkers-as-indicators-for-pollutant-exposure-health-effects-and-diet
#5
K Lehnert, L Weirup, K C Harding, T Härkönen, O Karlsson, J Teilmann
Weddell (Leptonychotes weddellii), Ross (Ommatophoca rossii) and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga) are phocid seals with a circumpolar distribution around Antarctica. As long-lived and large top predators, they bioaccumulate contaminants and are considered as sentinels of ecosystem health. Antarctic seals are increasingly exposed to climate change, pollution, shipping and fisheries. To reveal and understand possible anthropogenic impacts on their immune and health status, this study investigates sensitive biomarkers of the xenobiotic metabolism and immune system in relation to mercury (Hg) burden...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534121/organic-anion-transporters-oat1-and-oat3-are-crucial-biopterin-transporters-involved-in-bodily-distribution-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-and-exclusion-of-its-excess
#6
Akiko Ohashi, Kaori Mamada, Tomonori Harada, Masako Naito, Tomihisa Takahashi, Shin Aizawa, Hiroyuki Hasegawa
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a common coenzyme of phenylalanine-, tyrosine-, and tryptophan hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and NO synthases (NOS). Synthetic BH4 is used medicinally for BH4-responsive phenylketonuria and inherited BH4 deficiency. BH4 supplementation has also drawn attention as a therapy for various NOS-related cardio-vascular diseases, but its use has met with limited success in decreasing BH2, the oxidized form of BH4. An increase in the BH2/BH4 ratio leads to NOS dysfunction. Previous studies revealed that BH4 supplementation caused a rapid urinary loss of BH4 accompanied by an increase in the blood BH2/BH4 ratio and an involvement of probenecid-sensitive but unknown transporters was strongly suggested in these processes...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529725/the-catalytic-function-of-cytochrome-p450-is-entwined-with-its-membrane-bound-nature
#7
REVIEW
Carlo Barnaba, Katherine Gentry, Nirupama Sumangala, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy
Cytochrome P450, a family of monooxygenase enzymes, is organized as a catalytic metabolon, which requires enzymatic partners as well as environmental factors that tune its complex dynamic. P450 and its reducing counterparts-cytochrome P450-reductase and cytochrome b 5 -are membrane-bound proteins located in the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to dynamically associate to form functional complexes. Increasing experimental evidence signifies the role(s) played by both protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in P450 catalytic function and efficiency...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529072/rescue-of-il-1%C3%AE-induced-reduction-of-human-neurogenesis-by-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-antidepressants
#8
Alessandra Borsini, Silvia Alboni, Mark A Horowitz, Luis M Tojo, Giuseppe Cannazza, Kuan-Pin Su, Carmine M Pariante, Patricia A Zunszain
Both increased inflammation and reduced neurogenesis have been associated with the pathophysiology of major depression. We have previously described how interleukin-1 (IL-1) β,a pro-inflammatory cytokine increased in depressed patients, decreases neurogenesis in human hippocampal progenitor cells. Here, using the same human in vitro model, we show how omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and conventional antidepressants reverse this reduction in neurogenesis, while differentially affecting the kynurenine pathway...
May 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525288/inference-of-the-genetic-polymorphisms-of-cyp2d6-in-six-subtribes-of-the-malaysian-orang-asli-from-whole-genome-sequencing-data
#9
Choo Yee Yu, Geik Yong Ang, Vinothini Subramaniam, Richard Johari James, Aminuddin Ahmad, Thuhairah Abdul Rahman, Fadzilah Mohd Nor, Syahrul Azlin Shaari, Lay Kek Teh, Mohd Zaki Salleh
AIMS: CYP2D6 is one of the major enzymes in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system. It metabolizes ∼25% of prescribed drugs and hence, the genetic diversity of CYP2D6 gene has continued to be of great interest to the medical and pharmaceutical industries. This study aims to perform a systematic analysis of the CYP2D6 gene in six subtribes of the Malaysian Orang Asli. METHODS: Genomic DNAs were extracted from the blood samples followed by whole-genome sequencing...
May 19, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522197/identification-of-the-upstream-4-chlorophenol-biodegradation-pathway-using-a-recombinant-monooxygenase-from-arthrobacter-chlorophenolicus-a6
#10
Su Yeon Cho, Oh Sung Kwean, Jun Won Yang, Wooyoun Cho, Seonyeong Kwak, Sungyoon Park, Yejee Lim, Han S Kim
This study aimed to clarify the initial 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) biodegradation pathway promoted by a two-component flavin-diffusible monooxygenase (TC-FDM) consisting of CphC-I and CphB contained in Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 and the decomposition function of CphC-I. The TC-FDM genes were cloned from A. chlorophenolicus A6, and the corresponding enzymes were overexpressed. Since CphB was expressed in an insoluble form, Fre, a flavin reductase obtained from Escherichia coli, was used. These enzymes were purified using Ni(2+)-NTA resin...
May 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520936/impacts-of-amino-acid-substitutions-in-fungal-cytochrome-p450-monooxygenase-cyp57b3-on-the-effective-production-of-3-hydroxygenistein
#11
Mayumi Hatakeyama, Takuya Kitaoka, Hirofumi Ichinose
Aspergillus oryzae cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP57B3) is capable of catalyzing hydroxylation of genistein to produce 3΄-hydroxygenistein. Because hydroxylated derivatives of genistein, including 3΄-hydroxygenistein, exhibit various pharmacological activities, CYP57B3 would potentially be useful as a biocatalyst in the pharmaceutical field. We therefore performed random mutagenesis of CYP57B3 to improve its catalytic activities for genistein. Random mutations were introduced by error-prone PCR into CYP57B3, resulting in construction of a library of mutants...
May 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515785/recombinant-expression-of-thermostable-processive-mteg5-endoglucanase-and-its-synergism-with-mtlpmo-from-myceliophthora-thermophila-during-the-hydrolysis-of-lignocellulosic-substrates
#12
Anthi Karnaouri, Madhu Nair Muraleedharan, Maria Dimarogona, Evangelos Topakas, Ulrika Rova, Mats Sandgren, Paul Christakopoulos
BACKGROUND: Filamentous fungi are among the most powerful cellulolytic organisms in terrestrial ecosystems. To perform the degradation of lignocellulosic substrates, these microorganisms employ both hydrolytic and oxidative mechanisms that involve the secretion and synergism of a wide variety of enzymes. Interactions between these enzymes occur on the level of saccharification, i.e., the release of neutral and oxidized products, but sometimes also reflected in the substrate liquefaction...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515321/flavin-containing-monooxygenases-in-aging-and-disease-emerging-roles-for-ancient-enzymes
#13
Ryan Rossner, Matt Kaeberlein, Scott F Leiser
Flavin- containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are primarily studied as xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes with a prominent role in drug metabolism. In contrast, endogenous functions and substrates of FMOs are less well understood. A growing body of recent evidence, however, implicates FMOs in aging, several diseases, and metabolic pathways. The evidence suggests an important role for these well- conserved proteins in multiple processes and raises questions about the endogenous substrate(s) and regulation of FMOs. Here, we present an overview of evidence for FMOs' involvement in aging and disease, discussing the biological context and arguing for increased investigation into the function of these enzymes...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513435/a-bioactive-peptide-amidating-enzyme-is-required-for-ciliogenesis
#14
Dhivya Kumar, Daniela Strenkert, Ramila S Patel-King, Michael T Leonard, Sabeeha S Merchant, Richard E Mains, Stephen M King, Betty A Eipper
The pathways controlling cilium biogenesis in different cell types have not been fully elucidated. We recently identified peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an enzyme required for generating amidated bioactive signaling peptides, in Chlamydomonas and mammalian cilia. Here, we show that PAM is required for the normal assembly of motile and primary cilia in Chlamydomonas, planaria and mice. Chlamydomonas PAM knockdown lines failed to assemble cilia beyond the transition zone, had abnormal Golgi architecture and altered levels of cilia assembly components...
May 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511293/enterobacter-aerogenes-zdy01-attenuates-choline-induced-trimethylamine-n-oxide-levels-via-remodeling-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#15
Liang Qiu, Dong Yang, Xueying Tao, Jun Yu, Hua Xiong, Hua Wei
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is transformed from trimethylamine (TMA) through hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenases, can promote atherosclerosis. TMA is produced from dietary carnitine, phosphatidylcholine, and choline via the gut microbes. Previous works have shown that some small molecules, such as allicin, resveratrol, and 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol, are used to reduce circulating TMAO levels. However, the use of bacteria as an effective therapy to reduce TMAO levels has not been reported. In the present study, 82 isolates were screened from healthy Chinese fecal samples on a basal salt medium supplemented with TMA as sole carbon source...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507519/vasorelaxing-action-of-the-kynurenine-metabolite-xanthurenic-acid-the-missing-link-in-endotoxin-induced-hypotension
#16
Francesco Fazio, Albino Carrizzo, Luana Lionetto, Antonio Damato, Luca Capocci, Mariateresa Ambrosio, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria Bruno, Michele Madonna, Maurizio Simmaco, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Carmine Vecchione
The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism is activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. L-kynurenine, an upstream metabolite of the pathway, acts as a putative endothelium-derived relaxing factor, and has been hypothesized to play a causative role in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced hypotension. Here, we show that xanthurenic acid (XA), the transamination product of 3-hydroxykynurenine, is more efficacious than L-kynurenine in causing relaxation of a resistance artery, but fails to relax pre-contracted aortic rings...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507116/toxic-electrophiles-induce-expression-of-the-multi-drug-efflux-pump-mexef-oprn-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-through-a-novel-transcriptional-regulator-cmra
#17
Paulo Juarez, Katy Jeannot, Patrick Plésiat, Catherine Llanes
The multidrug efflux system MexEF-OprN is produced at low levels in wild-type strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, mutational alteration of gene mexS results in constitutive overexpression of the pump along with an increased resistance of the bacterium to chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim. In this study, analysis of in vitro selected chloramphenicol-resistant clones of strain PA14 led to the identification of a new class of mutants (called nfxC2) exhibiting alterations in a so far uncharacterized gene, PA14_38040 (homolog of PA2047 in strain PAO1)...
May 15, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504873/controlling-the-regioselectivity-of-baeyer-villiger-monooxygenases-by-mutation-of-active-site-residues
#18
Kathleen Balke, Marcus Bäumgen, Uwe Bornscheuer
Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) mediated regiodivergent conversions of asymmetric ketones can lead to the formation of "normal" or "abnormal" lactones. In a previous study we were able to change the regioselectivity of a BVMO by mutation of active site residues to smaller amino acids and thus creating more space. In this study we demonstrate, that this method can be used for other BVMO/substrate combinations as well. We investigated the regioselectivity of 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-CoA monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida (OTEMO) for cis-bicyclo[3...
May 15, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498623/interplay-of-electronic-cooperativity-and-exchange-coupling-in-regulating-the-reactivity-of-diiron-iv-oxo-complexes-towards-c-h-and-o-h-bond-activation
#19
Gopalan Rajaraman, Azaj Ansari, Asmita Singha, Mursaleem Ansari
Activation of inert C-H bonds such as those of methane are extremely challenging for chemists but in the nature, soluble methane monooxygenase enzyme readily oxidize methane to methanol using a diiron(IV) species. This has prompted chemists to look for similar model systems. Recently a (μ-oxo)bis(μ-carboxamido)diiron(IV) ([Fe(IV)2O(L)2]2+ L= N,N-bis-(3',5'-dimethyl-4'-methoxypyridyl-2'-methyl)-N'-acetyl- 1,2-diaminoethane) complex has been generated via bulk electrolysis and this species activates an inert C-H bond almost 1000 times faster compared to mononuclear Fe(IV)=O species and at the same time selectively activates O-H bonds of alcohols...
May 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496100/structure-and-function-of-a-broad-specificity-chitin-deacetylase-from-aspergillus-nidulans-fgsc-a4
#20
Zhanliang Liu, Laurie M Gay, Tina R Tuveng, Jane W Agger, Bjørge Westereng, Geir Mathiesen, Svein J Horn, Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad, Daan M F van Aalten, Vincent G H Eijsink
Enzymatic conversion of chitin, a β-1,4 linked polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is of major interest in areas varying from the biorefining of chitin-rich waste streams to understanding how medically relevant fungi remodel their chitin-containing cell walls. Although numerous chitinolytic enzymes have been studied in detail, relatively little is known about enzymes capable of deacetylating chitin. We describe the structural and functional characterization of a 237 residue deacetylase (AnCDA) from Aspergillus nidulans FGSC A4...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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