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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339985/effects-of-dietary-rapeseed-meal-supplementation-on-cecal-microbiota-in-laying-hens-with-different-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-genotypes
#1
C Long, J Wang, H J Zhang, S G Wu, G H Qi
To evaluate the effect of dietary rapeseed meal (RM) supplementation on cecal trimethylamine and bacteria in laying hens with different flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) genotypes, a 3 × 2 2-factorial arrangement was employed using FMO3 genotypes (AA, AT, and TT) and dietary RM (0 and 14% of diet) as the main effects. At 50 wk of age, 36 hens of AT genotype and 36 hens of TT genotype were randomly allotted to one of the 2 dietary treatments, and each dietary treatment consisted of 3 replicates with 6 birds each...
March 4, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327162/biological-effects-of-carbon-black-nanoparticles-are-changed-by-surface-coating-with-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#2
Karina Lindner, Michael Ströbele, Sandra Schlick, Sina Webering, André Jenckel, Johannes Kopf, Olga Danov, Katherina Sewald, Christian Buj, Otto Creutzenberg, Thomas Tillmann, Gerhard Pohlmann, Heinrich Ernst, Christina Ziemann, Gereon Hüttmann, Holger Heine, Henning Bockhorn, Tanja Hansen, Peter König, Heinz Fehrenbach
BACKGROUND: Carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP) are mainly composed of carbon, with a small amount of other elements (including hydrogen and oxygen). The toxicity of CBNP has been attributed to their large surface area, and through adsorbing intrinsically toxic substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It is not clear whether a PAH surface coating changes the toxicological properties of CBNP by influencing their physicochemical properties, through the specific toxicity of the surface-bound PAH, or by a combination of both...
March 21, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321650/the-small-auxin-up-rna-ossaur45-affects-auxin-synthesis-and-transport-in-rice
#3
Yan-Xia Xu, Meng-Zhu Xiao, Yan Liu, Jun-Liang Fu, Yi He, De-An Jiang
This research is the first to demonstrate that OsSAUR45 is involved in plant growth though affecting auxin synthesis and transport by repressing OsYUCCA and OsPIN gene expression in rice. Small auxin-up RNAs (SAURs) comprise a large multigene family and are rapidly activated as part of the primary auxin response in plants. However, little is known about the role of SAURs in plant growth and development, especially in monocots. Here, we report the biological function of OsSAUR45 in the model plant rice (Oryza sativa)...
March 20, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321646/selective-bio-oxidation-of-propane-to-acetone-using-methane-oxidizing-methylomonas-sp-%C3%A2-dh-1
#4
Dong Hoon Hur, Thu Thi Nguyen, Donghyuk Kim, Eun Yeol Lee
Propane is the major component of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Nowadays, the use of LPG is decreasing, and thus utilization of propane as a chemical feedstock is in need of development. An efficient biological conversion of propane to acetone using a methanotrophic whole cell as the biocatalyst was proposed and investigated. A bio-oxidation pathway of propane to acetone in Methylomonas sp. DH-1 was analyzed by gene expression profiling via RNA sequencing. Propane was oxidized to 2-propanol by particulate methane monooxygenase and subsequently to acetone by methanol dehydrogenases...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319697/genetic-variants-of-the-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-and-postpartum-depressive-symptoms-after-cesarean-section-in-chinese-women
#5
Sai-Ying Wang, Kai-Ming Duan, Xiao-Fang Tan, Ji-Ye Yin, Xiao-Yuan Mao, Wei Zheng, Chun-Yan Wang, Mi Yang, Cheng Peng, Hong-Hao Zhou, Zhao-Qian Liu
BACKGROUND: New conceptualizations of depression have emphasized the role of the kynurenine pathway (KP) in the pathogenesis of postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS). Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a rate-limiting enzyme of the KP, where it catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine (KYN) to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK). Previous work indicates that KMO is closely linked to the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether variations in the KMO gene affect PDS development after cesarean section...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314892/abnormal-kynurenine-pathway-of-tryptophan-catabolism-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Ping Song, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Huan Wang, Ming-Hui Zou
Kynurenine pathway (KP) is the primary path of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism in most mammalian cells. The KP generates several bioactive catabolites, such as kynurenine (Kyn), kynurenic acid (KA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), xanthurenic acid (XA), and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA). Increased catabolite concentrations in serum are associated with several cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart disease, atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction, as well as their risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and aging...
March 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304370/identification-of-dimethylamine-monooxygenase-in-marine-bacteria-reveals-a-metabolic-bottleneck-in-the-methylated-amine-degradation-pathway
#7
Ian Lidbury, Michaela A Mausz, David J Scanlan, Yin Chen
Methylated amines (MAs) are ubiquitous in the marine environment and their subsequent flux into the atmosphere can result in the formation of aerosols and ultimately cloud condensation nuclei. Therefore, these compounds have a potentially important role in climate regulation. Using Ruegeria pomeroyi as a model, we identified the genes encoding dimethylamine (DMA) monooxygenase (dmmABC) and demonstrate that this enzyme degrades DMA to monomethylamine (MMA). Although only dmmABC are required for enzyme activity in recombinant Escherichia coli, we found that an additional gene, dmmD, was required for the growth of R...
March 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303144/the-cytochrome-p450-gene-cscyp85a1-is-a-putative-candidate-for-super-compact-1-scp-1-plant-architecture-mutation-in-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l
#8
Hui Wang, Wanqing Li, Yaguang Qin, Yupeng Pan, Xiaofeng Wang, Yiqun Weng, Peng Chen, Yuhong Li
The dwarf or compact plant architecture is an important trait in plant breeding. A number of genes controlling plant height have been cloned and functionally characterized which often involve in biosynthesis or signaling of plant hormones such as brassinosteroids (BRs). No genes for plant height or vine length have been cloned in cucurbit crops (family Cucurbitaceae). From an EMS-induced mutagenesis population, we identified a super compact (SCP) mutant C257 which was extremely dwarf due to practically no internode elongation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302400/substrate-and-inhibitor-specificity-of-kynurenine-monooxygenase-from-cytophaga-hutchinsonii
#9
Robert S Phillips, Andrew D Anderson, Harvey G Gentry, Osman F Güner, J Phillip Bowen
Kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) is a potential drug target for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases. We have evaluated substituted kynurenines as substrates or inhibitors of KMO from Cytophaga hutchinsonii. Kynurenines substituted with a halogen at the 5-position are excellent substrates, with values of kcat and kcat/Km comparable to or higher than kynurenine. However, kynurenines substituted in the 3-position are competitive inhibitors, with KI values lower than the Km for kynurenine...
March 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302276/rp-uhplc-uv-esi-ms-ms-analysis-of-lpmo-generated-c4-oxidized-gluco-oligosaccharides-after-non-reductive-labeling-with-2-aminobenzamide
#10
Matthias Frommhagen, Gijs van Erven, Mark Sanders, Willem J H van Berkel, Mirjam A Kabel, Harry Gruppen
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are able to cleave recalcitrant polysaccharides, such as cellulose, by oxidizing the C1 and/or C4 atoms. The analysis of the resulting products requires a variety of analytical techniques. Up to now, these techniques mainly focused on the identification of non-oxidized and C1-oxidized oligosaccharides. The analysis of C4-oxidized gluco-oligosaccharides is mostly performed by using high pressure anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC). However, the alkaline conditions used during HPAEC analysis lead to tautomerization of C4-oxidized gluco-oligosaccharides, which limits the use of this technique...
March 6, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296081/functional-characterization-of-cytochrome-p450-monooxygenases-in-the-cereal-head-blight-fungus-fusarium-graminearum
#11
Ji Young Shin, Duc-Cuong Bui, Yoonji Lee, Hyejin Nam, Soyun Jung, Miao Fang, Jin-Cheol Kim, Theresa Lee, Hun Kim, Gyung Ja Choi, Hokyoung Son, Yin-Won Lee
Fusarium graminearum is a prominent plant pathogenic fungus causing Fusarium head blight in major cereal crops worldwide. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying fungal development and virulence, large collections of F. graminearum mutants have been constructed. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are widely distributed in organisms and are involved in a diverse array of molecular/metabolic processes; however, no systematic functional analysis of P450s has been attempted in filamentous fungi. In this study, we constructed a genome-wide deletion mutant set covering 102 P450s and analyzed these mutants for changes in 38 phenotypic categories, including fungal development, stress responses, and responses to several xenobiotics, to build a comprehensive phenotypic dataset...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294248/enzymatic-site-selectivity-enabled-by-structure-guided-directed-evolution
#12
Jian-Bo Wang, Guangyue Li, Manfred T Reetz
Biocatalytic site-selective (regioselective) organic transformations have been practiced for decades, but the traditional limitations of enzymes regarding narrow substrate acceptance and the often observed insufficient degree of selectivity have persisted until recently. With the advent of directed evolution, it is possible to engineer site-selectivity to suit the needs of organic chemists. This review features recent progress in this exciting research area, selected examples involving P450 monooxygenases, halogenases and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases being featured for illustrative purposes...
March 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293807/spatial-abundance-diversity-and-activity-of-ammonia-oxidizing-bacteria-in-coastal-sediments-of-the-liaohe-estuary
#13
Yongkai Chang, Jingfeng Fan, Jie Su, Hongxia Ming, Wen Zhao, Yan Shi, Fengyun Ji, Limei Guo, Shuaijun Zan, Bochao Li, Hao Guo, Daoming Guan
Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play an important role in nitrification in estuaries. The aim of this study was to examine the spatial abundance, diversity, and activity of AOB in coastal sediments of the Liaohe Estuary using quantitative PCR, high-throughput sequencing of the amoA gene coding the ammonia monooxygenase enzyme active subunit, and sediment slurry incubation experiments. AOB abundance ranged from 8.54 × 10(4) to 5.85 × 10(6) copies g(-1) of wet sediment weight and exhibited an increasing trend from the Liaohe Estuary to the open coastal zone...
March 14, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293293/the-podospora-anserina-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenase-palpmo9h-catalyzes-oxidative-cleavage-of-diverse-plant-cell-wall-matrix-glycans
#14
Mathieu Fanuel, Sona Garajova, David Ropartz, Nicholas McGregor, Harry Brumer, Hélène Rogniaux, Jean-Guy Berrin
BACKGROUND: The enzymatic conversion of plant biomass has been recently revolutionized by the discovery of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO) that catalyze oxidative cleavage of polysaccharides. These powerful enzymes are secreted by a large number of fungal saprotrophs and are important components of commercial enzyme cocktails used for industrial biomass conversion. Among the 33 AA9 LPMOs encoded by the genome of Podospora anserina, the PaLPMO9H enzyme catalyzes mixed C1/C4 oxidative cleavage of cellulose and cello-oligosaccharides...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291519/structural-studies-of-neurospora-crassa-lpmo9d-and-redox-partner-cdhiia-using-neutron-crystallography-and-small-angle-scattering
#15
Annette M Bodenheimer, William B O'Dell, Christopher B Stanley, Flora Meilleur
Sensitivity to hydrogen/deuterium and lack of observable radiation damage makes cold neutrons an ideal probe the structural studies of proteins with highly photosensitive groups such as the copper center of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and heme redox cofactors of cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs). Here, neutron crystallography and small-angle neutron scattering are used to investigate Neurospora crassa LPMO9D (NcLPMO9D) and CDHIIA (NcCDHIIA), respectively...
March 4, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291518/a-novel-expression-system-for-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases
#16
Gaston Courtade, Simone Balzer Le, Gerd Inger Sætrom, Trygve Brautaset, Finn L Aachmann
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are key enzymatic players of lignocellulosic biomass degradation processes. As such, they have been introduced in cellulolytic cocktails for more efficient and less expensive lignocellulose saccharification. The recombinant production of LPMOs in bacteria for scientific investigations using vectors typically based on the T7 and lacUV5 promoters has been hampered by low yields. Reasons for this have been catabolite repression when producing the proteins in defined media with glucose as the sole carbon source, as well as the lack of an inducible expression system that allows controlled production of LPMOs that are correctly processed during translocation to the periplasmic space...
February 14, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291036/potential-mechanisms-of-hematological-adverse-drug-reactions-in-patients-receiving-clozapine-in-combination-with-proton-pump-inhibitors
#17
Michał Wiciński, Mateusz M Węclewicz, Mateusz Miętkiewicz, Bartosz Malinowski, Elżbieta Grześk, Joanna Klonowska
Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic which has proven efficacy in treating the symptoms of schizophrenia. Although clozapine therapy is associated with a number of adverse drug reactions, it is frequently used. One of the most common adverse drug reactions is gastroesophageal reflux disease which is an indication for treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Coadministration of clozapine and PPIs increases the risk of hematological adverse drug reactions, including neutropenia and agranulocytosis...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290528/nicotine-dependence-is-associated-with-functional-variation-in-fmo3-an-enzyme-that-metabolizes-nicotine-in-the-brain
#18
A M Teitelbaum, S E Murphy, G Akk, T B Baker, A Germann, L B von Weymarn, L J Bierut, A Goate, E D Kharasch, A J Bloom
A common haplotype of the flavin-containing monooxygenase gene FMO3 is associated with aberrant mRNA splicing, a twofold reduction in in vivo nicotine N-oxidation and reduced nicotine dependence. Tobacco remains the largest cause of preventable mortality worldwide. CYP2A6, the primary hepatic nicotine metabolism gene, is robustly associated with cigarette consumption but other enzymes contribute to nicotine metabolism. We determined the effects of common variants in FMO3 on plasma levels of nicotine-N-oxide in 170 European Americans administered deuterated nicotine...
March 14, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271098/a-dinuclear-biomimetic-cu-complex-derived-from-l-histidine-synthesis-and-stereoselective-oxidations
#19
Maria L Perrone, Elena Salvadeo, Eliana Lo Presti, Luca Pasotti, Enrico Monzani, Laura Santagostini, Luigi Casella
A dinuclear copper(ii) complex derived from the chiral N6 ligand (2S,2'S)-N,N'-(ethane-1,2-diyl)bis(2-((1-methyl-1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-amino)-3-(1-trityl-1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanamide) (EHI) was synthesized and studied as a catalyst in stereoselective oxidation reactions. The ligand contains two sets of tridentate binding units, each of them giving rise to a coordination set consisting of a pair of 5- and 6-membered chelate rings, connected by an ethanediamide linker. Stereoselectivity effects were studied in the oxidations of a series of chiral l/d biogenic catechols and the pair of l/d-tyrosine methyl esters, in this case as their phenolate salts...
March 8, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267798/physiological-basis-for-isoxadifen-ethyl-induction-of-nicosulfuron-detoxification-in-maize-hybrids
#20
Lanlan Sun, Renhai Wu, Wangcang Su, Zenggui Gao, Chuantao Lu
Isoxadifen-ethyl can effectively alleviate nicosulfuron injury in the maize. However, the effects of safener isoxadifen-ethyl on detoxifying enzymes in maize is unknown. The individual and combined effects of the sulfonylurea herbicide nicosulfuron and the safener isoxadifen-ethyl on the growth and selected physiological processes of maize were evaluated. Bioassays showed that the EC50 values of nicosulfuron and nicosulfuron plus isoxadifen-ethyl for maize cultivar Zhengdan958 were 18.87 and 249.28 mg kg-1, respectively, and were 24...
2017: PloS One
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