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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350562/enzymes-in-lipid-modification
#1
Uwe T Bornscheuer
This article reviews the application of enzymes in lipid modification. Lipases are the most established biocatalysts used for the synthesis of structured triacylglycerols, fats, and margarine for the release of flavoring fatty acids for food applications. In addition, the various enzymes, such as P450 monooxygenases, hydratases, lipoxygenases, and certain lyases, used for oxyfunctionalization and the phospholipases used for degumming are covered. Basic aspects of enzyme catalysis and the modern tools used for their discovery and improvement by protein engineering provide insight into how suitable biocatalysts can be identified and optimized for an application...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350313/immobilization-of-methylosinus-trichosporium-ob3b-for-methanol-production
#2
Anne Taylor, Paige Molzahn, Tanner Bushnell, Clint Cheney, Monique LaJeunesse, Mohamad Azizian, Lewis Semprini
Due to the natural gas boom in North America, there is renewed interest in the production of other chemical products from methane. We investigated the feasibility of immobilizing the obligate methanotrophic bacterium Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b in alginate beads, and selectively inactivating methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) with cyclopropane to produce methanol. In batch cultures and in semi-continuous flow columns, the exposure of alginate-immobilized cells to cyclopropane or cyclopropanol resulted in the loss of the majority of MDH activity (> 80%), allowing methanol to accumulate to significant concentrations while retaining all of M...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349579/malaria-infectivity-of-xanthurenic-acid-deficient-anopheline-mosquitoes-produced-by-talen-mediated-targeted-mutagenesis
#3
Daisuke S Yamamoto, Megumi Sumitani, Masatsugu Hatakeyama, Hiroyuki Matsuoka
Anopheline mosquitoes are major vectors of malaria parasites. When the gametocytes of the malaria parasite are transferred from a vertebrate to mosquitoes, they differentiate into gametes, and are fertilized in the midguts of mosquitoes. Xanthurenic acid (XA), a waste product of the ommochrome synthesis pathway, has been shown to induce exflagellation during microgametogenesis in vitro; however, it currently remains unclear whether endogenous XA affects the infectivity of anopheline mosquitoes to malaria parasites in vivo due to the lack of appropriate experimental systems such as a XA-deficient line...
January 18, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348125/metabolism-and-disposition-of-a-novel-selective-%C3%AE-7-neuronal-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-abt-126-in-humans-characterization-of-the-major-roles-for-flavin-containing-monooxygenases-and-udp-glucuronosyl-transferase-1a4-and-2b10-in-catalysis
#4
Hong Liu, David M Stresser, Melissa J Michmerhuizen, XIaofeng Li, Ahmed A Othman, Aimee D Reed, Michael R Schrimpf, Jens Sydor, Anthony J Lee
Mass balance, metabolism and excretion of ABT-126, an α7 nAChRs agonist, were characterized in healthy male subjects (n=4) following a single 100 mg (100 μCi) oral dose. The total recovery of the administered radioactivity was 94.0% (±2.09%) with 81.5% (± 10.2%) in urine and 12.4% (± 9.3%) in feces. Metabolite profiling indicated that ABT-126 had been extensively metabolized with 6.6% of the dose remaining as unchanged parent drug in urine. Parent drug accounted for 12.2% of the administered radioactivity in feces...
January 18, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343643/pyridoxal-5-phosphate-as-an-oxygenase-cofactor-discovery-of-a-carboxamide-forming-%C3%AE-amino-acid-monooxygenase-decarboxylase
#5
Ying Huang, Xiaodong Liu, Zheng Cui, Daniel Wiegmann, Giuliana Niro, Christian Ducho, Yuan Song, Zhaoyong Yang, Steven G Van Lanen
Capuramycins are antimycobacterial antibiotics that consist of a modified nucleoside named uridine-5'-carboxamide (CarU). Previous biochemical studies have revealed that CarU is derived from UMP, which is first converted to uridine-5'-aldehyde in a reaction catalyzed by the dioxygenase CapA and subsequently to 5'-C-glycyluridine (GlyU), an unusual β-hydroxy-α-amino acid, in a reaction catalyzed by the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent transaldolase CapH. The remaining steps that are necessary to furnish CarU include decarboxylation, O atom insertion, and oxidation...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343612/structural-and-functional-characterisation-of-the-cytochrome-p450-enzyme-cyp268a2-from-mycobacterium-marinum
#6
Stella A Child, Elise F Naumann, John B Bruning, Stephen G Bell
Members of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase family CYP268 are found across a broad range of Mycobacterium species including the pathogens Mycobacterium avium, M. colombiense,M. kansasii and Mmarinum CYP268A2, from M. marinum , which is the first member of this family to be studied, was purified and characterised. CYP268A2 was found to bind a variety of substrates with high affinity, including branched and straight-chain fatty acids (C10-C12), acetate esters, and aromatic compounds. The enzyme was also found to bind phenylimidazole inhibitors but not larger azoles, such as ketoconazole...
January 17, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339611/mechanism-of-1-4-dioxane-microbial-degradation-revealed-by-16s-rrna-and-metatranscriptomic-analyses
#7
Xiangyu Guan, Fei Liu, Jing Wang, Caoxiang Li, Xiaoxuan Zheng
1,4-Dioxane (dioxane), a probable human carcinogen, often exists in industrial wastewater and domestic sewage. In this study, we applied 16S rRNA and metatranscriptomic methods to analyze the dioxane biodegradation mechanism by activated sludge. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) was added as an essential co-metabolite to promote the degradation of dioxane. We found the dioxane removal ratio increased with increasing THF concentrations. When the THF concentration increased from 60.0 to 200.0 mg/L, the dioxane degradation rate was stable...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330355/fatty-acids-and-related-lipid-mediators-in-the-regulation-of-cutaneous-inflammation
#8
REVIEW
Magdalena Kiezel-Tsugunova, Alexandra C Kendall, Anna Nicolaou
Human skin has a distinct profile of fatty acids and related bioactive lipid mediators that regulate many aspects of epidermal and dermal homeostasis, including immune and inflammatory reactions. Sebum lipids act as effective antimicrobial agents, shape immune cell communications and contribute to the epidermal lipidome. The essential fatty acid linoleic acid is crucial for the structure of the epidermal barrier, while polyunsaturated fatty acids act as precursors to eicosanoids, octadecanoids and docosanoids through cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated reactions, and endocannabinoids and N-acyl ethanolamines...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327817/ketonization-of-proline-residues-in-the-peptide-chains-of-actinomycins-by-a-4-oxoproline-synthase
#9
Siamak Semsary, Ivana Crnovčić, Ronja Driller, Joachim Vater, Bernhard Loll, Ullrich Keller
X-type actinomycins (Acms) contain 4-hydroxyproline (Acm X0) or 4-oxoproline (Acm X2) in their ß-pentapeptide lactone rings whereas their α-ring contains proline. We demonstrate that these Acms are formed through asymmetric condensation of Acm half molecules (Acm halves) containing proline with 4-hydroxyproline- or 4-oxo-proline-containing Acm halves. In turn we show - using an artificial Acm half analogue (PPL 1) with proline in its peptide chain - its conversion into the 4-hydroxyproline and 4-oxoproline-containing Acm halves, PPL 0 and PPL 2, in mycelial suspensions of Streptomyces antibioticus...
January 12, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324288/description-of-an-orthologous-cluster-of-ochratoxin-a-biosynthetic-genes-in-aspergillus-and-penicillium-species-a-comparative-analysis
#10
Jessica Gil-Serna, Marta García-Díaz, María Teresa González-Jaén, Covadonga Vázquez, Belén Patiño
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most important mycotoxins due to its toxic properties and worldwide distribution which is produced by several Aspergillus and Penicillium species. The knowledge of OTA biosynthetic genes and understanding of the mechanisms involved in their regulation are essential. In this work, we obtained a clear picture of biosynthetic genes organization in the main OTA-producing Aspergillus and Penicillium species (A. steynii, A. westerdijkiae, A. niger, A. carbonarius and P. nordicum) using complete genome sequences obtained in this work or previously available on databases...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323892/same-substrate-many-reactions-oxygen-activation-in-flavoenzymes
#11
Elvira Romero, J Rubén Gómez Castellanos, Giovanni Gadda, Marco W Fraaije, Andrea Mattevi
Over time, organisms have evolved strategies to cope with the abundance of dioxygen on Earth. Oxygen-utilizing enzymes tightly control the reactions involving O2 mostly by modulating the reactivity of their cofactors. Flavins are extremely versatile cofactors that are capable of undergoing redox reactions by accepting either one electron or two electrons, alternating between the oxidized and the reduced states. The physical and chemical principles of flavin-based chemistry have been investigated widely. In the following pages we summarize the state of the art on a key area of research in flavin enzymology: the molecular basis for the activation of O2 by flavin-dependent oxidases and monooxygenases...
January 11, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320982/global-identification-structural-analysis-and-expression-characterization-of-cytochrome-p450-monooxygenase-superfamily-in-rice
#12
Kaifa Wei, Huiqin Chen
BACKGROUND: The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450, CYP, P450) catalyze numerous monooxygenation/hydroxylation reactions in biochemical pathways. Although CYP superfamily has been systematically studied in a few species, the genome-scale research about it in rice has not been done. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 355 CYPs encoded by 326 genes were identified in japonica genome. The OsCYP genes are classified into 10 clans including 45 families according to phylogenetic analysis...
January 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318252/spatial-requirement-for-pamo-for-transformation-of-non-native-linear-substrates
#13
Alexandra T P Carvalho, Daniel F A R Dourado, Timofey Skvortsov, Miguel de Abreu, Lyndsey J Ferguson, Derek J Quinn, Thomas S Moody, Meilan Huang
Phenylacetone monooxygenase is the most stable and thermo-tolerant member of the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases family, and therefore it is an ideal candidate for the synthesis of industrially relevant ester or lactone compounds. However, its limited substrate scope has largely limited its industrial applications. Linear substrates are interesting from an industrial point of view, it is thus necessary to identify the essential spatial requirement for achieving high conversions for non-native linear substrates...
January 10, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317471/gene-identification-of-pheromone-gland-genes-involved-in-type-ii-sex-pheromone-biosynthesis-and-transportation-in-female-tea-pest-ectropis-grisescens
#14
Zhao-Qun Li, Long Ma, Qian Yin, Xiao-Ming Cai, Zong-Xiu Luo, Lei Bian, Zhao-Jun Xin, Peng He, Zong-Mao Chen
Moths can biosynthesize sex pheromones in the female sex pheromone glands (PGs) and can distinguish species-specific sex pheromones using their antennae. However, the biosynthesis and transportation mechanism for Type II sex pheromone components has rarely been documented in moths. In this study, we constructed a massive PG transcriptome database (14.72 giga bases) from a moth species, Ectropisgrisescens, which uses Type II sex pheromones and is a major tea pest in China. We further identified the putative sex pheromone biosynthesis and transportation related genes: 111 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s, CYPs), 25 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), and 20 chemosensory proteins (CSPs)...
January 9, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316220/interactive-effects-of-hypoxia-and-pcb-co-exposure-on-expression-of-cyp1a-and-its-potential-regulators-in-atlantic-croaker-liver
#15
Md Saydur Rahman, Peter Thomas
Although marine and coastal environments which are contaminated with xenobiotic organic compounds often become hypoxic during the summer, the interactive effects of hypoxia and xenobiotic exposure on marine species such as teleost fishes remain poorly understood. The expression and activity of monooxygenase enzyme cytochrome P450-1A (CYP1A) in fishes are upregulated by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), whereas they are down-regulated during hypoxia exposure. We investigated the interactive effects of hypoxia and PCB co-exposure on hepatic CYP1A expression in Atlantic croaker and on potential regulators of CYP1A...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315710/an-improved-design-to-capture-magnetic-microparticles-for-capillary-electrophoresis-based-immobilized-microenzyme-reactors
#16
Pranov Ramana, Jan Schejbal, Kristof Houthoofd, Johan Martens, Erwin Adams, Patrick Augustijns, Zdenĕk Glatz, Ann Van Schepdael
In this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a new 3D printed magnet holder that enables capture of magnetic microparticles in commercially available capillary electrophoresis equipment with a liquid or air based coolant system. The design as well as the method to capture magnetic microparticles inside the capillary are discussed. This setup was tested at temperature and pH values suitable for performing enzymatic reactions. To demonstrate its applicability in CE- immobilized microenzyme reactors (IMER) development, human flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 and bovine serum albumin were immobilized on amino functionalized magnetic microparticles using glutaraldehyde...
January 5, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314604/unravelling-the-identity-metabolic-potential-and-global-biogeography-of-the-atmospheric-methane-oxidising-upland-soil-cluster-%C3%AE
#17
Jennifer Pratscher, John Vollmers, Sandra Wiegand, Marc G Dumont, Anne-Kristin Kaster
Understanding of global methane sources and sinks is a prerequisite for the design of strategies to counteract global warming. Microbial methane oxidation in soils represents the largest biological sink for atmospheric methane. However, still very little is known about the identity, metabolic properties, and distribution of the microbial group proposed to be responsible for most of this uptake, the uncultivated upland soil cluster α (USCα). Here, we reconstructed a draft genome of USCα from a combination of targeted cell sorting and metagenomes from forest soil, providing the first insights into its metabolic potential and environmental adaptation strategies...
January 3, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306813/rhodococcus-wratislaviensis-strain-9-an-efficient-p-nitrophenol-degrader-with-a-great-potential-for-bioremediation
#18
Suresh R Subashchandrabose, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Kannan Krishnan, Ravi Naidu, Robin Lockington, Mallavarapu Megharaj
A Gram-positive bacterium, Rhodococcus wratislaviensis strain 9, was isolated from groundwater contaminated with nitrophenolics and trichloroethene following enrichment culture technique. The cells of strain 9 grown on LB broth (uninduced) degraded 720 μM p-nitrophenol (PNP) within 12 h, and utilized as a source of carbon and energy. Orthogonal experimental design analysis to determine optimal conditions for biodegradation of PNP showed that pH had a significant positive effect (P ≤ .05) on bacterial degradation of PNP, while glucose, di- and tri-nitrophenols exhibited significant negative effect...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305514/metals-and-methanotrophy
#19
Jeremy D Semrau, Alan A DiSpirito, Wenyu Gu, Sukhwan Yoon
Aerobic methanotrophs have long been known to play a critical role in the global carbon cycle, capable of converting methane to biomass and carbon dioxide. Interestingly, these microbes exhibit great sensitivity to copper and rare earth elements, with expression of key genes involved in the central pathway of methane oxidation controlled by the availability of these metals. That is, these microbes have a "copper-switch" that controls expression of alternative methane monooxygenases and a "rare earth element-switch" that controls expression of alternative methanol dehydrogenases...
January 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305508/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-the-mechanism-underlying-3-5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoate-catabolism-via-a-new-oxidative-decarboxylation-pathway
#20
Kai Chen, Yang Mu, Shanshan Jian, Xiaoxia Zang, Qing Chen, Weibin Jia, Zhuang Ke, Yanzheng Gao, Jiandong Jiang
The compound 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoate (DBHB) is both anthropogenically released into and naturally produced in the environment, and its environmental fate is of great concern. Aerobic and anaerobic reductive dehalogenations are the only two reported pathways for DBHB catabolism. In this study, a new oxidative-decarboxylation pathway for DBHB catabolism was identified in a DBHB-utilizing strain of Pigmentiphaga sp. H8. The genetic determinants underlying this pathway were elucidated based on comparative transcriptome analysis and subsequent experimental validation...
January 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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