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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750348/a-comparative-study-on-the-activity-of-fungal-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases-for-the-depolymerization-of-cellulose-in-soybean-spent-flakes
#1
Brian C Pierce, Jane Wittrup Agger, Zhenghong Zhang, Jesper Wichmann, Anne S Meyer
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-dependent enzymes capable of the oxidative breakdown of polysaccharides. They are of industrial interest due to their ability to enhance the enzymatic depolymerization of recalcitrant substrates by glycoside hydrolases. In this paper, twenty-four lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) expressed in Trichoderma reesei were evaluated for their ability to oxidize the complex polysaccharides in soybean spent flakes, an abundant and industrially relevant substrate...
July 18, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748226/peripheral-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-deficiency-as-a-potential-risk-factor-for-metabolic-syndrome-in-schizophrenia-patients
#2
Gregory Oxenkrug, Marieke van der Hart, Julien Roeser, Paul Summergrad
Increased predisposition of schizophrenia patients (SP) to development of obesity and insulin resistance suggested common signaling pathway between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and schizophrenia. Deficiency of kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), enzyme catalyzing formation of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) from kynurenine (Kyn), a tryptophan (Trp) metabolite, might contribute to development of MetS as suggested by non-expression of KMO genes in human fat tissue and elevated serum concentrations of Kyn and its metabolites, kynurenic (KYNA) and anthranilic (ANA) acids, in diabetic patients and Zucker fatty rats (ZFR)...
2017: Integr Clin Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745401/trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-breathe-new-life
#3
REVIEW
Saravanan Subramaniam, Craig Fletcher
Associations between an elevated level of systemic trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and an increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events have been proposed in recent years. Increasing experimental studies suggest a possible impact of TMAO in cardiovascular diseases. TMAO, the oxygenated product of TMA, is belonging to the class of amine oxides. Most of TMA derived from the bacterial metabolism of choline and L-carnitine is absorbed into the bloodstream, and then TMA is rapidly oxidized to TMAO by flavin-containing monooxygenase-3 (FMO3), a hepatic enzyme...
July 26, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744683/sources-and-toxicities-of-phenolic-polychlorinated-biphenyls-oh-pcbs
#4
Kiran Dhakal, Gopi S Gadupudi, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Gabriele Ludewig, Michael W Duffel, Larry W Robertson
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a group of 209 congeners that differ in the number and position of chlorines on the biphenyl ring, are anthropogenic chemicals that belong to the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). For many years, PCBs have been a topic of interest because of their biomagnification in the food chain and their environmental persistence. PCBs with fewer chlorine atoms, however, are less persistent and more susceptible to metabolic attack, giving rise to chemicals characterized by the addition of one or more hydroxyl groups to the chlorinated biphenyl skeleton, collectively known as hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs)...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739446/crystallographic-insights-into-a-cobalt-iii-sepulchrate-based-alternative-cofactor-system-of-p450-bm3-monooxygenase
#5
Saravanan Panneerselvam, Aamir Shehzad, Jochen Mueller-Dieckmann, Matthias Wilmanns, Marco Bocola, Mehdi D Davari, Ulrich Schwaneberg
P450 BM3 is a multi-domain heme-containing soluble bacterial monooxygenase. P450 BM3 and variants are known to oxidize structurally diverse substrates. Crystal structures of individual domains of P450 BM3 are available. However, the spatial organization of the full-length protein is unknown. In this study, crystal structures of the P450 BM3 M7 heme domain variant with and without cobalt (III) sepulchrate are reported. Cobalt (III) sepulchrate acts as an electron shuttle in an alternative cofactor system employing zinc dust as the electron source...
July 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733287/identification-of-the-hcb-gene-operon-involved-in-catalyzing-aerobic-hexachlorobenzene-dechlorination-in-nocardioides-sp-strain-pd653
#6
Koji Ito, Kazuhiro Takagi, Akio Iwasaki, Naoto Tanaka, Yu Kanesaki, Fabrice Martin-Laurent, Shizunobu Igimi
Nocardioides sp. strain PD653 was the first aerobic bacterium capable of mineralizing hexachlorobenzene (HCB) that was identified. In this study, strain PD653-B2, which was unexpectedly isolated from a subculture of strain PD653, was found to lack the ability to transform HCB or pentachloronitrobenzene into pentachlorophenol. Comparative genome analysis of the two strains revealed that genetic rearrangement had occurred in strain PD653-B2, with a genomic region present in strain PD653 being deleted. In silico analysis allowed three open reading frames within this region to be identified as candidate genes involved in HCB dechlorination...
July 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730410/engineering-of-the-cytochrome-p450-monooxygenase-system-for-benzyl-maltol-hydroxylation
#7
Iori Kozono, Kousuke Mihara, Kazuyuki Minagawa, Makoto Hibi, Jun Ogawa
Maltol derivatives are utilized in a variety of fields due to their metal-chelating abilities, and modification of the 2-methyl side chain is known to effectively expand their functional diversity. In the present study, microbial enzymes were screened for hydroxylating activity towards the 2-methyl group in a maltol derivative, 3-benzyloxy-2-methyl-4-pyrone (BMAL). Novosphingobium sp. SB32149 was found to have the ability to convert BMAL into 3-benzyloxy-2-hydroxymethyl-4-pyrone (BMAL-OH). The enzymes responsible, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450nov), a ferredoxin (FDXnov), and a ferredoxin reductase (FDRnov), were identified in the SB32149 strain...
July 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727453/formation-of-developmentally-toxic-phenanthrene-metabolite-mixtures-by-mycobacterium-sp-elw1
#8
Jill E Schrlau, Amber L Kramer, Anna Chlebowski, Lisa Truong, Robert L Tanguay, Staci L Massey Simonich, Lewis Semprini
Mycobacterium sp. ELW1 co-metabolically degraded up to 1.8 μmol of phenanthrene (PHE) in ∼48 h, and hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPHE) metabolites, including 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OHPHE), 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OHPHE), 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (4-OHPHE), 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (9-OHPHE), 9,10-dihydroxyphenanthrene (1,9-OHPHE), and trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (trans-9,10-OHPHE), were identified and quantified over time. The monooxygenase responsible for co-metabolic transformation of PHE was inhibited by 1-octyne...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726704/simultaneous-heterotrophic-nitrification-and-aerobic-denitrification-at-high-concentrations-of-nacl-and-ammonia-nitrogen-by-halomonas-bacteria
#9
Te Wang, Jian Li, Ling Hua Zhang, Ying Yu, Yi Min Zhu
To improve the efficiency of simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification (SND) at high concentrations of NaCl and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), we investigated the SND characteristics of Halomonas bacteria with the ability to synthesize the compatible solute ectoine. Halomonas sp. strain B01, which was isolated, screened and identified in this study, could simultaneously remove nitrogen (N) by SND and synthesize ectoine under high NaCl conditions. Gene cloning and sequencing analysis indicated that this bacterial genome contains ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) and nitrate reductase (narH) genes...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724646/association-between-microbiota-dependent-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-type-2-diabetes
#10
Zhilei Shan, Taoping Sun, Hao Huang, Sijing Chen, Liangkai Chen, Cheng Luo, Wei Yang, Xuefeng Yang, Ping Yao, Jinquan Cheng, Frank B Hu, Liegang Liu
Background: The association of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbiota-dependent metabolite from dietary choline and carnitine, with type 2 diabetes was inconsistent.Objective: We evaluated the association of plasma TMAO with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and the potential modification of TMAO-generating enzyme flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) polymorphisms.Design: This was an age- and sex-matched case-control study of 2694 participants: 1346 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes and 1348 controls. Concentrations of plasma TMAO were measured, and FMO3 E158K polymorphisms (rs2266782) were genotyped...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724407/characterization-of-the-cytochrome-p450-monooxygenase-genes-p450ome-from-the-carotenogenic-yeast-xanthophyllomyces-dendrorhous
#11
Pamela Córdova, Ana-María Gonzalez, David R Nelson, María-Soledad Gutiérrez, Marcelo Baeza, Víctor Cifuentes, Jennifer Alcaíno
BACKGROUND: The cytochromes P450 (P450s) are a large superfamily of heme-containing monooxygenases involved in the oxidative metabolism of an enormous diversity of substrates. These enzymes require electrons for their activity, and the electrons are supplied by NAD(P)H through a P450 electron donor system, which is generally a cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous has evolved an exclusive P450-CPR system that specializes in the synthesis of astaxanthin, a carotenoid with commercial potential...
July 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722408/formally-copper-iii-alkylperoxo-complexes-as-models-of-possible-intermediates-in-monooxygenase-enzymes
#12
Benjamin D Neisen, Nicole L Gagnon, Debanjan Dhar, Andrew D Spaeth, William B Tolman
Reaction of [NBu4][LCu(II)OH] with excess ROOH (R = cumyl or tBu) yielded [NBu4][LCu(II)OOR], the reversible one-electron oxidation of which generated novel species with [CuOOR](2+) cores (formally Cu(III)OOR), identified by spectroscopy and theory for the case R = cumyl. This species reacts with weak O-H bonds in TEMPO-H and 4-dimethylaminophenol ((NMe2)PhOH), the latter yielding LCu(OPh(NMe2)), which was also prepared independently. With the identification of [CuOOR](2+) complexes, the first precedent for this core in enzymes is provided, with implications for copper monooxygenase mechanisms...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721585/cyp701a26-is-characterized-as-an-ent-kaurene-oxidase-with-putative-involvement-in-maize-gibberellin-biosynthesis
#13
Hongjie Mao, Qinqin Shen, Qiang Wang
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) involved in maize (Zea mays) gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. RESULTS: Two putative KO genes were identified in maize based on the homologous alignment. Biochemical characterization indicated that one of them encoded a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) CYP701A26, which reacted with ent-kaurene to form ent-kaurenoic acid, the key intermediate of GA biosynthesis. CYP701A26 showed constitutive expression in active growing tissues and no inducible expression, which led to putative designation of CYP701A26 as the ZmKO...
July 18, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715991/trimethylamine-n-oxide-the-microbiome-and-heart-and-kidney-disease
#14
Steven H Zeisel, Manya Warrier
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biologically active molecule and is a putative promoter of chronic diseases including atherosclerosis in humans. Host intestinal bacteria produce its precursor trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, choline, or choline-containing compounds. Most of the TMA produced is passively absorbed into portal circulation, and hepatic flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) efficiently oxidize TMA to TMAO. Both observational and experimental studies suggest a strong positive correlation between increased plasma TMAO concentrations and adverse cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and death...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713363/geographic-distribution-of-ammonia-oxidizing-archaea-along-the-kuril-islands-in-the-western-subarctic-pacific
#15
Hongmei Jing, Shunyan Cheung, Xiaomin Xia, Koji Suzuki, Jun Nishioka, Hongbin Liu
Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands) were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712648/elucidating-biochemical-features-and-biological-roles-of-streptomyces-proteins-recognizing-crystalline-chitin-and-cellulose-types-and-their-soluble-derivatives
#16
Hildgund Schrempf
Pioneering biochemical, immunological, physiological and microscopic studies in combination with gene cloning allowed uncovering previously unknown genes encoding proteins of streptomycetes to target crystalline chitin and cellulose as well as their soluble degradation-compounds via binding protein dependent transporters. Complementary analyses provoked an understanding of novel regulators governing transcription of selected genes. These discoveries induced detecting close and distant homologues of former orphan proteins encoded by genes from different bacteria...
June 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709913/upregulation-of-neuronal-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-mediates-depression-like-behavior-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#17
Geoffroy Laumet, Wenjun Zhou, Robert Dantzer, Jules D Edralin, XiaoJiao Huo, David P Budac, Jason C O'Connor, Anna W Lee, Cobi J Heijnen, Annemieke Kavelaars
Pain and depression often co-occur, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, we used the spared nerve injury (SNI) model in mice to induce both neuropathic pain and depression-like behavior. We investigated whether brain IL-1 signaling and activity of kynurenine 3-monoxygenase (KMO), a key enzyme for metabolism of kynurenine into the neurotoxic NMDA receptor agonist quinolinic acid, are necessary for comorbid neuropathic pain and depression-like behavior. SNI mice showed increased expression levels of Il1b and Kmo mRNA in the contralateral side of the brain...
July 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709722/involvement-of-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-in-the-neuroendocrine-immune-regulatory-network-of-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#18
Winton Cheng, Ya-Wen Ka, Chin-Chyuan Chang
In shrimp, the biosynthesis of catecholamines, including dopamine and norepinephrine, is required for physiological and immunological responses against stress. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), a copper-containing monooxygenase enzyme that plays an important role in catecholamine synthesis of the neuroendocrine regulatory network, was identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. In the present study, the potential role of DBH in the immunocompetence of L. vannamei was further estimated by depleting DBH by pharmaceutical inhibition of disulfiram and a gene silencing technique of L...
July 11, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705965/draft-genome-sequences-of-three-actinobacteria-strains-presenting-new-candidate-organisms-with-high-potentials-for-specific-p450-cytochromes
#19
Christian Grumaz, Yevhen Vainshtein, Philipp Kirstahler, Stephan Luetz, Matthias Kittelmann, Kirsten Schroer, Fabian K Eggimann, Rico Czaja, Andreas Vogel, Thomas Hilberath, Anne Worsch, Marco Girhard, Vlada B Urlacher, Marcel Sandberg, Kai Sohn
The three Actinobacteria strains Streptomyces platensis DSM 40041, Pseudonocardia autotrophica DSM 535, and Streptomyces fradiae DSM 40063 were described to selectively oxyfunctionalize several drugs. Here, we present their draft genomes to unravel their gene sets encoding promising cytochrome P450 monooxygenases associated with the generation of drug metabolites.
July 13, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702082/enzymatic-degradation-of-sulfite-pulped-softwoods-and-the-role-of-lpmos
#20
Piotr Chylenski, Dejan M Petrović, Gerdt Müller, Marie Dahlström, Oskar Bengtsson, Martin Lersch, Matti Siika-Aho, Svein Jarle Horn, Vincent G H Eijsink
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the development of enzyme cocktails for degradation of lignocellulosic biomass, especially the discovery of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs), have opened new perspectives for process design and optimization. Softwood biomass is an abundant resource in many parts of the world, including Scandinavia, but efficient pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of softwoods are challenging. Sulfite pulping-based pretreatments, such as in the BALI™ process, yield substrates that are relatively easy to degrade...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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