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Surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933559/-contribution-of-nested-pcr-in-the-diagnosis-of-imported-malaria-in-southern-algeria
#1
L Bouiba, B Gassen, M Gasmi, D Hammadi, Z Harrat
The nested PCR was used to estimate its inputs in malaria diagnosis and in the performance of the microscope operators involved in the surveillance of malaria in remote areas of South Algeria. For the period 2010 to 2015, 112 patients (93 febrile and 19 asymptomatic) coming from sub-Saharan Africa were tested for malaria in the hospital of Tamanrasset. One part of the blood taken from fingertip was used for blood smears and the second part was absorbed in filter paper for molecular diagnosis. Overall, the infection was detected by nested PCR in 63 samples versus 53 by direct examination...
December 8, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933451/association-between-adjuvant-chemotherapy-and-risk-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-elderly-women-diagnosed-with-early-stage-breast-cancer
#2
Shuling Li, Jiannong Liu, Beth A Virnig, Allan J Collins
PURPOSE: We studied elderly Medicare enrollees newly diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer to examine the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: Using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study including women diagnosed with stages I-III breast cancer at ages 66-89 years between 1992 and 2007. We performed one-to-one matching on time-dependent propensity score on the day of adjuvant chemotherapy initiation within 6 months after the first cancer-directed surgery based on the estimated probability of chemotherapy initiation at each day for each patient, using a Cox proportional hazards model...
December 8, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933204/risk-factors-for-developing-colorectal-cancer-in-japanese-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-a-retrospective-observational-study-capital-cohort-and-practice-for-ibd-total-management-in-kyoto-shiga-links-study-i
#3
Takuya Yoshino, Hiroshi Nakase, Tomohisa Takagi, Shigeki Bamba, Yusuke Okuyama, Takuji Kawamura, Teruki Oki, Hirozumi Obata, Chiharu Kawanami, Shinji Katsushima, Toshihiro Kusaka, Tomoyuki Tsujikawa, Yuji Naito, Akira Andoh, Takafumi Kogawa
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC), despite the development of new therapeutic agents. Stratification of the individual UC-patient's risk would be helpful to validate the risk factors for CRC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for the development of CRC in a large cohort of patients with UC. METHODS: Data were obtained from 12 hospitals in the Kyoto-Shiga region during 2003-2013...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933152/ensuring-availability-of-in-date-and-fit-for-purpose-emergency-guidelines-in-all-anaesthetic-areas-throughout-the-south-east-scotland-deanery
#4
Elise Hindle
Our aim was to institute a system whereby emergency anaesthetic guidelines are available in >90% of appropriate clinical areas throughout each of the acute hospital sites in three health board administrative regions, and whereby >90% of available guidelines are deemed to be in date and fit for purpose. Our objective was to achieve these targets within 6 months. Using quality improvement methodology, we inventoried available emergency anaesthetic guidelines in 132 locations throughout seven acute care hospitals...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932794/last-parasite-standing
#5
Gavin G Rutledge, Thomas D Otto
This month's Genome Watch describes how whole-genome sequencing used for surveillance purposes has enabled the identification of new drug resistance markers in the malaria parasite.
December 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932786/state-medicaid-expansion-tobacco-cessation-coverage-and-number-of-adult-smokers-enrolled-in-expansion-coverage-united-states-2016
#6
Anne DiGiulio, Meredith Haddix, Zach Jump, Stephen Babb, Anna Schecter, Kisha-Ann S Williams, Kat Asman, Brian S Armour
In 2015, 27.8% of adult Medicaid enrollees were current cigarette smokers, compared with 11.1% of adults with private health insurance, placing Medicaid enrollees at increased risk for smoking-related disease and death (1). In addition, smoking-related diseases are a major contributor to Medicaid costs, accounting for about 15% (>$39 billion) of annual Medicaid spending during 2006-2010 (2). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications are effective treatments for helping tobacco users quit (3)...
December 9, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932781/influenza-vaccination-coverage-during-pregnancy-selected-sites-united-states-2005-06-through-2013-14-influenza-vaccine-seasons
#7
Stephen Kerr, Carla M Van Bennekom, Allen A Mitchell
Seasonal influenza vaccine is recommended for all pregnant women because of their increased risk for influenza-associated complications. In addition, receipt of influenza vaccine by women during pregnancy has been shown to protect their infants for several months after birth (1). As part of its case-control surveillance study of medications and birth defects, the Birth Defects Study of the Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University has recorded data on vaccinations received during pregnancy since the 2005-06 influenza vaccination season...
December 9, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932454/inducible-colonic-m-cells-are-dependent-on-tnfr2-but-not-lt%C3%AE-r-identifying-distinct-signaling-requirements-for-constitutive-versus-inducible-m-cells
#8
Erinn A Parnell, Erin M Walch, David D Lo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: M cells associated with organized lymphoid tissues such as intestinal Peyer's patches provide surveillance of the intestinal lumen. Inflammation or infection in the colon can induce an M cell population associated with lymphoid infiltrates; paradoxically, induction is dependent on the inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α. Anti-TNFα blockade is an important therapeutic in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, so understanding the effects of TNFα signaling is important in refining therapeutics...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932193/associations-between-built-environment-and-physical-activity-of-7-8-year-old-children-cross-sectional-results-from-the-lithuanian-cosi-study
#9
Vilma Žaltauskė, Aušra Petrauskienė
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Research shows that regular engagement in physical activity in childhood is associated with multiple physical and psychosocial health benefits. The data on associations between children physical activity level and built environment in Lithuania are limited. The built environment is one of many variables thought to affect children physical activity level. But consequently there is growing interest in how physical environment influences physical activity of school age children...
November 21, 2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932168/spindle-cell-lipoma-in-an-end-stage-renal-allograft-case-report
#10
Z Zhao, S Selvarajan, A L S Tiong, T H Lim, L Y Khor
BACKGROUND: Spindle cell lipoma is an uncommon variant of lipoma and usually occurs as a solitary, subcutaneous, and well circumscribed lesion in the posterior neck, shoulders, and back of older men. Primary renal lipomas are rarely reported. Spindle cell lipoma in the kidney has not been previously described in the literature. CASE REPORT: A 60-year-old Chinese man suffered graft failure 10 years after living related donor kidney transplantation. During cancer surveillance, he was found to have a mass in the renal allograft, which increased in size and was suspicious for renal cell carcinoma on computerized tomographic scan...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931993/age-period-cohort-analyses-of-obesity-prevalence-in-us-adults
#11
R An, X Xiang
OBJECTIVES: Age-period-cohort analysis is a stream of methodologies that decompose the temporal trends for disease risk into three time scales-age, calendar year (period) and year of birth (cohort). This study conducted age-period-cohort analyses of obesity prevalence in US adults. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis. METHODS: We constructed regression models based on anthropometric data from the 1999-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to correct for the self-reported height/weight in the 1984-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)...
December 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931935/behaviour-of-european-badgers-and-non-target-species-towards-candidate-baits-for-oral-delivery-of-a-tuberculosis-vaccine
#12
Andrew Robertson, Richard J Delahay, Robbie A McDonald, Paul Aylett, Ray Henderson, Sonya Gowtage, Mark A Chambers, Stephen P Carter
In the UK and the Republic of Ireland, the European badger (Meles meles) is a maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis, and may transmit the infection to cattle causing bovine tuberculosis (TB). Vaccination of badgers using an injectable Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is undertaken in some areas of the UK with the intention of interrupting this transmission, and vaccination research is underway in Ireland. An oral badger TB vaccine is also under development. We investigated the behaviour of badgers and non-target wildlife species towards three candidate baits being considered for delivering BCG to badgers orally...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931923/assessing-the-sensitivity-of-european-surveillance-for-detecting-bse-in-cattle-according-to-international-standards
#13
Amie Adkin, Robin Simons, Mark Arnold
European surveillance for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), initiated in 2001, has shown a steady exponential decline in the number of infected cattle, demonstrating that control measures have been effective. In 2016 23 European countries out of 28 demonstrated negligible risk status for the disease. The international standard setting body, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), prescribes that for countries where there is a non-negligible BSE risk, surveillance should allow the detection of one case per 100,000 in the adult cattle population with 95% confidence (Type A surveillance)...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931921/risk-factors-for-taenia-saginata-cysticercus-infection-in-cattle-in-the-united-kingdom-a-farm-level-case-control-study-and-assessment-of-the-role-of-movement-history-age-and-sex
#14
L R Marshall, B Chengat Prakashbabu, J Pinto Ferreira, S N Buzdugan, K D C Stärk, J Guitian
Bovine cysticercosis is caused by Taenia saginata cysticercus, the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Recent European initiatives have highlighted the poor sensitivity of current surveillance for this parasite in cattle at slaughter; calling for more targeted, risk based and cost effective methods of T. saginata cysticercus detection. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that could inform such improved meat inspection activities in the United Kingdom (UK). The study included three components: (i) a farm-level case control study; (ii) the characterization of the network of movements of T...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931680/reactivation-or-reinfection-in-adult-tuberculosis-is-that-the-question
#15
Pere-Joan Cardona
Looking at the chapter on "natural history" in any tuberculosis (TB) reference book, there is a kind of certainty regarding TB in adults. That is the concept of "post-primary" TB described as the reactivation of dormant bacilli hidden in an old lesion developed during infancy due to a type of local immunosuppression. Intriguingly, this concept involves at least two major uncertainties: how can dormant bacilli remain for such a long period, almost a lifetime, in an old lesion, taking into account granuloma dynamism; and what sort of local immunosuppression is the one that facilitates reactivation? The controversy between reactivation and exogenous reinfection as the cause of active TB started very soon in TB research...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931679/extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-among-females-in-south-asia-gap-analysis
#16
Jaishri Mehraj, Zain Yar Khan, Dania Khalid Saeed, Sadia Shakoor, Rumina Hasan
The percentage of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) among new and relapse tuberculosis cases in South Asia (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh) ranged from 19% to 23% in 2014. While tuberculosis was reportedly more prevalent in males, a higher preponderance of EPTB was observed in females. National tuberculosis control programs are highly focused on pulmonary tuberculosis. This creates gaps in the surveillance, diagnosis, and study of EPTB among females, which is especially pronounced in the South Asian setting...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931396/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-environment
#17
Maggie R Williams, Robert D Stedtfeld, Xueping Guo, Syed A Hashsham
This review summarizes important publications from 2015 pertaining to the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment. Emphasis is placed on sources of antibiotic resistance in the aquatic environment including wastewater treatment plants, hospitals, and agriculture, treatment and mitigation techniques, and surveillance and analysis methodologies for characterizing abundance data. As such, this review is organized into the following sections: i) occurrence of AMR in the environment, including surface waters, aquaculture, and wastewater ii) treatment technologies, and iii) technologies for rapid surveillance of AMR, iv) transmission between matrices, v) databases and analysis methods, and vi) gaps in AMR understanding...
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931241/surveillance-of-nosocomial-infections-in-the-yaounde-university-teaching-hospital-cameroon
#18
Julienne Stéphanie Nouetchognou, Jérôme Ateudjieu, Bonaventure Jemea, Edmond Nzene Mesumbe, Dora Mbanya
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections (NI) represent a real public health problem in developing countries. Their surveillance is recommended to provide needed information for better control. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and distribution of NI in the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital (YUTH). METHODS: It was a longitudinal and descriptive study targeting hospitalized patients in the intensive care, gynaecological, surgical and neonatal units...
December 8, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931229/a-national-health-facility-survey-of-malaria-infection-among-febrile-patients-in-kenya-2014
#19
Sophie Githinji, Abdisalan M Noor, Josephine Malinga, Peter M Macharia, Rebecca Kiptui, Ahmeddin Omar, Kiambo Njagi, Ejersa Waqo, Robert W Snow
BACKGROUND: The use of malaria infection prevalence among febrile patients at clinics has a potential to be a valuable epidemiological surveillance tool. However, routine data are incomplete and not all fevers are tested. This study was designed to screen all fevers for malaria infection in Kenya to explore the epidemiology of fever test positivity rates. METHODS: Random sampling was used within five malaria epidemiological zones of Kenya (i.e., high lake endemic, moderate coast endemic, highland epidemic, seasonal low transmission and low risk zones)...
December 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931204/web-based-infectious-disease-surveillance-systems-and-public-health-perspectives-a-systematic-review
#20
Jihye Choi, Youngtae Cho, Eunyoung Shim, Hyekyung Woo
BACKGROUND: Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a significant public health concern, and early detection and immediate response is crucial for disease control. These challenges have led to the need for new approaches and technologies to reinforce the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging infectious diseases. In the last few years, the availability of novel web-based data sources has contributed substantially to infectious disease surveillance...
December 8, 2016: BMC Public Health
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