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Microsaccades

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203826/blink-associated-resetting-eye-movements-barms-are-functionally-complementary-to-microsaccades-in-correcting-for-fixation-errors
#1
Mohammad Farhan Khazali, Joern K Pomper, Peter Thier
Blinks do not only protect the eye, but they do also correct for torsional eye position deviations by blink-associated resetting eye movements (BARMs). Although BARMs are functionally distinct from other eye movements in the torsional dimension, it has remained open if BARMs observed in the horizontal and vertical dimensions (fixational BARMs) are not simply microsaccades coinciding with blinks. We show here that fixational BARMs are functionally distinct and complementary to microsaccades in the following way: First, they compensate for large fixational error more efficiently than microsaccades, secondly, their probability to be executed in eccentric eye positions is higher, and thirdly, they reset the eyes into a position zone that is broader as compared to microsaccades...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184104/dynamic-modulation-of-the-perceptual-load-on-microsaccades-during-a-selective-spatial-attention-task
#2
Linyan Xue, Dan Huang, Tong Wang, Qiyi Hu, Xinyu Chai, Liming Li, Yao Chen
Selective spatial attention enhances task performance at restricted regions within the visual field. The magnitude of this effect depends on the level of attentional load, which determines the efficiency of distractor rejection. Mechanisms of attentional load include perceptual selection and/or cognitive control involving working memory. Recent studies have provided evidence that microsaccades are influenced by spatial attention. Therefore, microsaccade activities may be exploited to help understand the dynamic control of selective attention under different load levels...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157407/oculomotor-measures-reveal-the-temporal-dynamics-of-preparing-for-search
#3
Katya Olmos-Solis, Anouk M van Loon, Sander A Los, Christian N L Olivers
Theories of visual search assume that selection is driven by an active template representation of the target object. Earlier studies suggest that template activation occurs prior to search, but the temporal dynamics of such preactivation remain unclear. Two experiments employed microsaccades to track both general preparation (i.e., anticipation of the search task as such) and template-specific preparation (i.e., anticipation of target selection) of visual search. Participants memorized a target color (i.e., the template) for an upcoming search task...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095748/central-control-of-eye-movements
#4
Jonathan J D Baird-Gunning, Christian J Lueck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eye-movement research continues to provide an excellent tool for understanding the central control of motor function, both in health and disease. This article reviews recent findings in relation to saccadic eye movements, particularly antisaccades and microsaccades, with particular emphasis on the control of inaction, something which has recently become topical. RECENT FINDINGS: Microsaccades are under the control of the cerebral cortex, particularly the frontal and parietal eye fields...
November 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081421/microsaccadic-behavior-when-developing-a%C3%A2-complex-dynamical-activity
#5
Gerardo Fernández, Nora P Rotstein, Luis E Politi, Liliana Castro, Osvaldo Agamennoni
Microsaccade are sensitive to changes of perceptual inputs as well as modulations of cognitive states. There are just a few works analyzing microsaccade while subjects are processing complex information and fewer when doing predictions about upcoming events. To evaluate whether contextual predictability would change microsaccadic behavior, we evaluated microsaccade of twenty one persons when reading 40 regular sentences and 40 proverbs. Analysis of microsaccade during reading proverbs and regular sentences revealed that microsaccade rate on words before maxjump, during maxjump and words after maxjump varied depending on the kind of sentence and on the word predictability...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060811/identifying-the-effects-of-microsaccades-in-tripolar-eeg-signals
#6
Rachel Bellisle, Preston Steele, Rachel Bartels, Lei Ding, Sridhar Sunderam, Walter Besio
Microsaccades are tiny, involuntary eye movements that occur during fixation, and they are necessary to human sight to maintain a sharp image and correct the effects of other fixational movements. Researchers have theorized and studied the effects of microsaccades on electroencephalography (EEG) signals to understand and eliminate the unwanted artifacts from EEG. The tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) sensors are used to acquire TCRE EEG (tEEG). The tEEG detects extremely focal signals from directly below the TCRE sensor...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021548/a-self-avoiding-walk-with-neural-delays-as-a-model-of-fixational-eye-movements
#7
Carl J J Herrmann, Ralf Metzler, Ralf Engbert
Fixational eye movements show scaling behaviour of the positional mean-squared displacement with a characteristic transition from persistence to antipersistence for increasing time-lag. These statistical patterns were found to be mainly shaped by microsaccades (fast, small-amplitude movements). However, our re-analysis of fixational eye-movement data provides evidence that the slow component (physiological drift) of the eyes exhibits scaling behaviour of the mean-squared displacement that varies across human participants...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934359/microsaccades-during-reading
#8
Norick R Bowers, Martina Poletti
Recent research has shown that microsaccades contribute to high acuity vision. However, little is known about whether microsaccades also play a role in daily activities, such as reading, that do not involve stimuli at the limit of spatial resolution. While the functions of larger saccades in reading have been extensively examined, microsaccades are commonly regarded as oculomotor noise in this context. We used high-resolution eyetracking and precise gaze localization to investigate fine oculomotor behavior during reading...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922090/microsaccades-and-interest-areas-during-free-viewing-sport-task
#9
Alessandro Piras, Milena Raffi, Monica Perazzolo, Ivan Malagoli Lanzoni, Salvatore Squatrito
Microsaccades are important fixation eye movements for visual scene perception. Compared to novices, athletes make fewer fixations of longer duration toward limited interest areas crucial for action prediction. Thus, our aim was to study the microsaccade features during those fixations. Gaze behaviour of expert and novice table tennis players was recorder during a task in which subjects were instructed to predict the direction of the ball after the opponent's throw. Three interest areas from the opponent's body and one from the ball trajectory were identified...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870284/microsaccadic-sampling-of-moving-image-information-provides-drosophila-hyperacute-vision
#10
Mikko Juusola, An Dau, Zhuoyi Song, Narendra Solanki, Diana Rien, David Jaciuch, Sidhartha Anil Dongre, Florence Blanchard, Gonzalo G de Polavieja, Roger C Hardie, Jouni Takalo
Small fly eyes should not see fine image details. Because flies exhibit saccadic visual behaviors and their compound eyes have relatively few ommatidia (sampling points), their photoreceptors would be expected to generate blurry and coarse retinal images of the world. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila see the world far better than predicted from the classic theories. By using electrophysiological, optical and behavioral assays, we found that R1-R6 photoreceptors' encoding capacity in time is maximized to fast high-contrast bursts, which resemble their light input during saccadic behaviors...
September 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822717/searching-for-monocular-microsaccades-a-red-hering-of-modern-eye-trackers
#11
Marcus Nyström, Richard Andersson, Diederick C Niehorster, Ignace Hooge
Despite early reports and the contemporary consensus on microsaccades as purely binocular phenomena, recent work has proposed not only the existence of monocular microsaccades, but also that they serve functional purposes. We take a critical look at the detection of monocular microsaccades from a signal perspective, using raw data and a state-of-the-art, video-based eye tracker. In agreement with previous work, monocular detections were present in all participants using a standard microsaccade detection algorithm...
August 23, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815321/fixational-eye-movements-in-tourette-syndrome
#12
Aasef G Shaikh, Shlomit Ritz Finkelstein, Ronald Schuchard, Glen Ross, Jorge L Juncos
Studies of saccadic eye movements in subjects with Tourette syndrome (TS) have provided additional evidence that there is a link between TS symptoms and deficits in fronto-striato-thalamic networks. These studies revealed impaired timing and inhibition of saccades. We compared fixational eye movements, such as microsaccades and ocular drifts, in subjects with TS and healthy controls.We measured horizontal and vertical eye positions with video-oculography in 14 subjects with Tourette syndrome. We found reduced microsaccade amplitude but increased time between adjacent microsaccades (intersaccadic interval)...
November 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800343/microsaccade-dysfunction-and-adaptation-in-hemianopia-after-stroke
#13
Ying Gao, Bernhard A Sabel
BACKGROUND: Besides the reduction of visual field size, hemianopic patients may also experience other poorly understood symptoms such as blurred vision, diplopia, or reduced visual acuity, which may be related to microsaccade function. OBJECTIVE: To determine (i) if microsaccades are altered in hemianopia; (ii) how altered microsaccade features correlate with visual performances; and (iii) how their direction relates to visual field defect topography. METHODS: In this case-control study, microsaccades of hemianopic stroke patients (n = 14) were assessed with high-resolution eye-tracking technique, compared with those of healthy controls (n = 14), and correlated with visual performances, visual field defect parameters and lesion age...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794193/sequential-hemifield-gating-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-behavioral-performance-oscillations-after-microsaccades
#14
Joachim Bellet, Chih-Yang Chen, Ziad M Hafed
Microsaccades are tiny saccades that occur during gaze fixation. Even though visual processing has been shown to be strongly modulated close to the time of microsaccades, both at central and peripheral eccentricities, it is not clear how these eye movements might influence longer term fluctuations in brain activity and behavior. Here we found that visual processing is significantly affected and, in a rhythmic manner, even several hundreds of milliseconds after a microsaccade. Human visual detection efficiency, as measured by reaction time, exhibited coherent rhythmic oscillations in the α- and β-frequency bands for up to ~650-700 ms after a microsaccade...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789960/multisensory-integration-in-orienting-behavior-pupil-size-microsaccades-and-saccades
#15
Chin-An Wang, Gunnar Blohm, Jeff Huang, Susan E Boehnke, Douglas P Munoz
Signals from different sensory modalities are integrated in the brain to optimize behavior. Although multisensory integration has been demonstrated in saccadic eye movements, its influence on other orienting responses, including pupil size and microsaccades, is still poorly understood. We examined human gaze orienting responses following presentation of visual, auditory, or combined audiovisual stimuli. Transient pupil dilation and microsaccade inhibition were evoked shortly after the appearance of a salient stimulus...
August 5, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713304/eye-behavior-associated-with-internally-versus-externally-directed-cognition
#16
Mathias Benedek, Robert Stoiser, Sonja Walcher, Christof Körner
What do our eyes do when we are focused on internal representations such as during imagination or planning? Evidence from mind wandering research suggests that spontaneous shifts from externally directed cognition (EDC) to internally directed cognition (IDC) involves oculomotor changes indicative of visual disengagement. In the present study, we investigated potential differences in eye behavior between goal-directed forms of IDC and EDC. To this end, we manipulated the focus of attention (internal versus external) in two demanding cognitive tasks (anagram and sentence generation)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689088/looking-for-ideas-eye-behavior-during-goal-directed-internally-focused-cognition
#17
Sonja Walcher, Christof Körner, Mathias Benedek
Humans have a highly developed visual system, yet we spend a high proportion of our time awake ignoring the visual world and attending to our own thoughts. The present study examined eye movement characteristics of goal-directed internally focused cognition. Deliberate internally focused cognition was induced by an idea generation task. A letter-by-letter reading task served as external task. Idea generation (vs. reading) was associated with more and longer blinks and fewer microsaccades indicating an attenuation of visual input...
July 6, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638094/microsaccades-are-sensitive-to-word-structure-a-novel-approach-to-study-language-processing
#18
Maya Yablonski, Uri Polat, Yoram S Bonneh, Michal Ben-Shachar
Microsaccades are miniature eye movements that occur involuntarily during fixation. They are typically inhibited following stimulus onset and are released from inhibition about 300 ms post-stimulus. Microsaccade-inhibition is modulated by low level features of visual stimuli, but it is currently unknown whether they are sensitive to higher level, abstract linguistic properties. To address this question, we measured the timing of microsaccades while subjects were presented with written Hebrew words and pronounceable nonwords (pseudowords)...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637052/subtle-eye-movement-metrics-reveal-task-relevant-representations-prior-to-visual-search
#19
Anouk M van Loon, Katya Olmos-Solis, Christian N L Olivers
Visual search is thought to be guided by an active visual working memory (VWM) representation of the task-relevant features, referred to as the search template. In three experiments using a probe technique, we investigated which eye movement metrics reveal which search template is activated prior to the search, and distinguish it from future relevant or no longer relevant VWM content. Participants memorized a target color for a subsequent search task, while being instructed to keep central fixation. Before the search display appeared, we briefly presented two task-irrelevant colored probe stimuli to the left and right from fixation, one of which could match the current target template...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298299/time-compression-of-visual-perception-around-microsaccades
#20
Gongchen Yu, Mingpo Yang, Peng Yu, Michael Christopher Dorris
Even during fixation, our eyes are in constant motion. For example, microsaccades are small (typically <1°) eye movements that occur 1~3 times/second. Despite their tiny and transient nature, our percept of visual space is compressed before microsaccades (Hafed ZM, Lovejoy LP, Krauzlis RJ. Eur J Neurosci 37: 1169-1181, 2013). As visual space and time are interconnected at both the physical and physiological levels, we asked whether microsaccades also affect the temporal aspects of visual perception. Here we demonstrate that the perceived interval between transient visual stimuli was compressed if accompanied by microsaccades...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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