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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724007/-mal-nutrition-and-the-new-epidemiological-trend-in-a-context-of-development-and-inequalities
#1
Nathália Paula de Souza, Pedro Israel Cabral de Lira, Annick Fontbonne, Fernanda Cristina de Lima Pinto, Eduarda Ângela Pessoa Cesse
The current context of intense social, economic and political transformations has contributed to changes in the health profile of the population and generated discussions about the impact of these changes on the reorganization of society. At the present moment, the increase in non-communicable illnesses and diseases raises major concerns about the paradox of malnutrition and obesity. Based on an in-depth reading and interpretation of texts, documents and databases, this article discusses issues related to nutrition, considering the dimensions of shortages and excesses, the evolution of nutrition over time, and the connection with the new epidemiological trend...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718712/comparison-of-domains-of-self-reported-physical-activity-between-kenyan-adult-urban-slum-dwellers-and-national-estimates
#2
Hilde E Groot, Stella K Muthuri
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) - largely the result of modifiable behavioral risks such as physical inactivity that gradually develop into physiological risks - are a main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Kenya, a nationally representative STEPwise survey of risk factors for NCDs established that 10.8% of Kenyans accumulated low levels of total physical activity. OBJECTIVES: The goal of our analyses was to compare domains of self-reported physical activity in two Nairobi slums to national estimates...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716821/abnormalities-in-alternative-splicing-in-diabetes-therapeutic-targets
#3
REVIEW
Zodwa Dlamini, Fortunate Mokoena, Rodney Hull
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable, metabolic disorder that affects 416 million individuals worldwide. Type 2 diabetes contributes to a vast 85-90% of the diabetes incidences while 10-15% of patients suffer from type 1 diabetes. These two predominant forms of DM cause a significant loss of functional pancreatic β-cell mass causing different degrees of insulin deficiency, most likely, due to increased β-cell apoptosis. Treatment options involve the use of insulin sensitisers, α-glucosidase inhibitors, and β-cell secretagogues which are often expensive, limited in efficacy and carry detrimental adverse effects...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716209/understanding-animal-health-communication-networks-among-smallholder-livestock-producers-in-australia-using-stakeholder-analysis
#4
L Hayes, R Woodgate, L Rast, J-A L M L Toribio, M Hernández-Jover
Smallholder livestock producers are a diverse population with wide ranging motivations for keeping livestock. The biosecurity risk posed by smallholders has been the subject of much conjecture, with comparisons often made between the level of animal health and biosecurity knowledge of smallholders, versus that of commercial livestock producers. This research aimed to gain a better understanding of current knowledge of smallholder production in Australia, particularly in relation to biosecurity and emergency animal disease, and to investigate the relationships that exist between smallholders and the organisations and individuals from which they seek information, assistance and support...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716042/tuberculosis-and-hiv-are-the-leading-causes-of-adult-death-in-northwest-ethiopia-evidence-from-verbal-autopsy-data-of-dabat-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-2007-2013
#5
Yigzaw Kebede, Gashaw Andargie, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Tadesse Awoke, Mezgebu Yitayal, Solomon Mekonnen, Mamo Wubshet, Temesgen Azmeraw, Yihunie Lakew, Kassahun Alemu
BACKGROUND: Reliable data on causes of death form the basis for building evidence on health policy, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. In Ethiopia, the majority of deaths occur at home and civil registration systems are not yet functional. The main objective of verbal autopsy (VA) is to describe the causes of death at the community or population level where civil registration and death certification systems are weak and where most people die at home without having had contact with the health system...
July 17, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716015/illegal-gold-miners-in-french-guiana-a-neglected-population-with-poor-health
#6
Maylis Douine, Emilie Mosnier, Quentin Le Hingrat, Charlotte Charpentier, Florine Corlin, Louise Hureau, Antoine Adenis, Yassamine Lazrek, Florence Niemetsky, Anne-Laure Aucouturier, Magalie Demar, Lise Musset, Mathieu Nacher
BACKGROUND: In French Guiana, a French overseas territory in South America, 6 to 10 thousands undocumented persons work illegally in gold mining sites in the Amazonian forest. Precarious life conditions lead to poor health but few data exist on the health status of illegal gold miners in French Guiana. The objective of this article was to describe the sociodemographic and health status of this vulnerable population. METHOD: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 on gold mine supply sites at the border between French Guiana and Suriname...
July 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715989/use-and-effectiveness-of-behavioural-economics-in-interventions-for-lifestyle-risk-factors-of-non-communicable-diseases-a-systematic-review-with-policy-implications
#7
Oana M Blaga, Livia Vasilescu, Razvan M Chereches
AIM: There is limited evidence on what behavioural economics strategies are effective and can be used to inform non-communicable diseases (NCDs) public health policies designed to reduce overeating, excessive drinking, smoking, and physical inactivity. The aim of the review is to examine the evidence on the use and effectiveness of behavioural economics insights on reducing NCDs lifestyle risk factors. METHODS: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and EconLit were searched for studies published between January 2002 and July 2016 and reporting empirical, non-pharmacological, interventional research focusing on reducing at least one NCDs lifestyle risk factor by employing a behavioural economics perspective...
July 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715931/understanding-and-acting-on-the-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-in-africa-would-improve-health-across-generations
#8
Shane A Norris, Abdallah Daar, Dorairajan Balasubramanian, Peter Byass, Elizabeth Kimani-Murage, Andrew Macnab, Christoff Pauw, Atul Singhal, Chittaranjan Yajnik, James Akazili, Naomi Levitt, Jihene Maatoug, Nolwazi Mkhwanazi, Sophie E Moore, Moffat Nyirenda, Juliet R C Pulliam, Tamsen Rochat, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Soraya Seedat, Eugene Sobngwi, Mark Tomlinson, Elona Toska, Cari van Schalkwyk
Data from many high- and low- or middle-income countries have linked exposures during key developmental periods (in particular pregnancy and infancy) to later health and disease. Africa faces substantial challenges with persisting infectious disease and now burgeoning non-communicable disease.This paper opens the debate to the value of strengthening the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) research focus in Africa to tackle critical public health challenges across the life-course. We argue that the application of DOHaD science in Africa to advance life-course prevention programmes can aid the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, and assist in improving health across generations...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714422/household-availability-of-ultra-processed-foods-and-obesity-in-nineteen-european-countries
#9
Carlos Augusto Monteiro, Jean-Claude Moubarac, Renata Bertazzi Levy, Daniela Silva Canella, Maria Laura da Costa Louzada, Geoffrey Cannon
OBJECTIVE: To assess household availability of NOVA food groups in nineteen European countries and to analyse the association between availability of ultra-processed foods and prevalence of obesity. DESIGN: Ecological, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Europe. SUBJECTS: Estimates of ultra-processed foods calculated from national household budget surveys conducted between 1991 and 2008. Estimates of obesity prevalence obtained from national surveys undertaken near the budget survey time...
July 17, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710353/potential-mediating-biomarkers-underlying-the-association-of-body-mass-index-or-waist-circumference-with-blood-pressure-results-from-three-population-based-studies
#10
Xiaoyan Wu, Xue Yang, Ruiqi Shan, Tianjiao Li, Tianqi Zi, Ying Li, Lixin Na, Changhao Sun
We conducted a comprehensive and in-depth assessment of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) related to blood pressure (BP) and determined whether the association is mediated by the possible potential mediators in the cross-sectional survey of the Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases of 7094 participants aged 20-74 years, and validated the significant findings in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey four cross-sectional cohorts (2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012) and the cohort data of the Harbin People's Health Study (a median of 4...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709429/efficacy-of-rituximab-in-non-paraneoplastic-autoimmune-retinopathy
#11
Katherine Boudreault, Sally Justus, Jesse D Sengillo, Kaspar Schuerch, Winston Lee, Thiago Cabral, Stephen H Tsang
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) is a rare but potentially blinding condition that is often underdiagnosed. Common features in AIR presentation include rapidly progressive vision loss with abnormal electrophysiological responses of the retina associated with positive anti-retinal antibodies. AIR is also challenging to treat, and thus, the introduction of new potential therapeutic agents is welcomed. The goal of this communication is to assess the effects of rituximab infusions on electroretinogram (ERG) responses and visual function outcomes in patients with non-paraneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy (npAIR)...
July 15, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709077/phytonanotherapy-for-management-of-diabetes-using-green-synthesis-nanoparticles
#12
K Anand, C Tiloke, Pragalathan Naidoo, A A Chuturgoon
The world has a rich diversity of indigenous medicinal plants. The World Health Organization (WHO) gives high priority to eco-friendly, non-hazardous and cost effective healthcare such as the use of medicinal plants to treat various illnesses, including Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis (TB), diabetes mellitus (DM), malaria, and cancer. In developing countries, a high proportion of the population tends to use complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) together with conventional prescription drugs...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709060/the-association-between-suicidal-ideation-and-sleep-quality-in-elderly-individuals-a-cross-sectional-study-in-shandong-china
#13
Yangyang Qian, Long Sun, Chengchao Zhou, Dandan Ge, Li Zhang
Previous studies have identified global associations between sleep quality and suicidal ideation. However, little is known regarding the relationship between sleep quality and suicidal ideation among Chinese older adults. We examined the relationship between sleep quality and suicidal ideation in older adults in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 3313 seniors in Shandong, China. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the interviewees' answers to the question "Have you ever seriously considered wanting to die?"...
July 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708466/a-bidirectional-association-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-cns-disease-in-a-biphasic-murine-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Sara L Colpitts, Eli J Kasper, Abigail Keever, Caleb Liljenberg, Trevor Kirby, Krisztian Magori, Lloyd H Kasper, Javier Ochoa-Repáraz
The gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of inflammatory disease as shown using experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Gut microbes influence the response of regulatory immune cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which drive protection in acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent observations suggest that communication between the host and the gut microbiome is bidirectional. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota differs between the acute inflammatory and chronic progressive stages of a murine model of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SP-MS)...
July 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706894/developmental-origins-and-nephron-endowment-in-hypertension
#15
REVIEW
Shari Gurusinghe, Anita Tambay, Christine B Sethna
Primary hypertension continues to be one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease worldwide. A stable intrauterine environment is critical for the future development and health of the fetus. The developing kidney has been found to be especially vulnerable during this time period, and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that an adverse in utero environment is associated with an increased risk of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Macro- and micronutrient deficiencies as well as exposure to tobacco, alcohol, and certain medications during gestation have been shown to negatively impact nephrogenesis and reduce one's nephron number...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706092/development-of-an-intervention-to-support-patients-and-clinicians-with-advanced-lung-cancer-when-considering-systematic-anticancer-therapy-protocol-for-the-pact-study
#16
Despina Anagnostou, Stephanie Sivell, Simon Noble, Jason Lester, Anthony Byrne, Catherine Sampson, Mirella Longo, Annmarie Nelson
INTRODUCTION: Patient-centred care is essential to the delivery of healthcare; however, this necessitates direct patient involvement in clinical decision-making and can be challenging for patients diagnosed with advanced non-small cell lung cancer where there may be misunderstanding of the extent of disease, prognosis and aims of treatment. In this context, decisions are complex and there is a need to balance the risks and benefits, including treatment with palliative intent. The aim of the PACT study is to identify the information and decision support needs of patients, leading to the development of an intervention to support patients with advanced lung cancer when considering treatment options...
July 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705893/evaluation-of-strategies-to-communicate-harmful-and-potentially-harmful-constituent-hphc-information-through-cigarette-package-inserts-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#17
Ramzi G Salloum, Jordan J Louviere, Kayla R Getz, Farahnaz Islam, Dien Anshari, Yoojin Cho, Richard J O'Connor, David Hammond, James F Thrasher
BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulatory authority to use inserts to communicate with consumers about harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products; however, little is known about the most effective manner for presenting HPHC information. METHODS: In a discrete choice experiment, participants evaluated eight choice sets, each of which showed two cigarette packages from four different brands and tar levels (high vs low), accompanied by an insert that included between-subject manipulations (ie, listing of HPHCs vs grouping by disease outcome and numeric values ascribed to HPHCs vs no numbers) and within-subject manipulations (ie, 1 of 4 warning topics; statement linking an HPHC with disease vs statement with no HPHC link)...
July 13, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705242/non-communicable-diseases-and-related-risk-behaviors-among-men-and-women-living-with-hiv-in-cambodia-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Pheak Chhoun, Chanrith Ngin, Sovannary Tuot, Khuondyla Pal, Martin Steel, Jennifer Dionisio, Hattie Pearson, Gitau Mburu, Carinne Brody, Siyan Yi
BACKGROUND: There is a growing concern for an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in people living with HIV. This concern is evident especially in developing countries where dietary and lifestyle risk factors associated with NCDs are becoming more prominent. This study explored the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia and related risk factors in men and women living with HIV in Cambodia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 510 adult people living with HIV randomly selected from one city and four provinces in Cambodia...
July 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704965/progress-evaluation-for-the-restaurant-industry-assessed-by-a-voluntary-marketing-mix-and-choice-architecture-framework-that-offers-strategies-to-nudge-american-customers-toward-healthy-food-environments-2006-2017
#19
Vivica Kraak, Tessa Englund, Sarah Misyak, Elena Serrano
Consumption of restaurant food and beverage products high in fat, sugar and sodium contribute to obesity and non-communicable diseases. We evaluated restaurant-sector progress to promote healthy food environments for Americans. We conducted a desk review of seven electronic databases (January 2006-January 2017) to examine restaurant strategies used to promote healthful options in the United States (U.S.). Evidence selection (n = 84) was guided by the LEAD principles (i.e., locate, evaluate, and assemble evidence to inform decisions) and verified by data and investigator triangulation...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704932/sodium-reduction-in-processed-foods-in-brazil-analysis-of-food-categories-and-voluntary-targets-from-2011-to-2017
#20
Eduardo A F Nilson, Ana M Spaniol, Vivian S S Gonçalves, Iracema Moura, Sara A Silva, Mary L'Abbé, Patricia C Jaime
Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, are responsible for over 70% of deaths in Brazil. Currently, over 25% of Brazilian adults are diagnosed as hypertensive; overall, current dietary sodium intake in Brazil (4700 mg/person) is over twice the international recommendations, and 70-90% of adolescents and adults consume excessive sodium. National sodium reduction strategies consider the main dietary sources of sodium to be added salt to foods, foods consumed outside of the household, and sodium in processed foods...
July 12, 2017: Nutrients
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