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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924616/soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-are-not-associated-with-compromised-antibody-responses-to-previously-administered-measles-and-tetanus-vaccines-among-hiv-1-infected-art-na%C3%A3-ve-kenyan-adults
#1
Helen L Storey, Benson Singa, Jackie Naulikha, Helen Horton, Barbra A Richardson, Grace John-Stewart, Judd L Walson
In many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, both HIV and helminth infections are prevalent. HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) and helminth infections can both compromise immune responses in humans. To determine whether the presence of helminth infection or the treatment of helminth infection alters unstimulated vaccine responses among HIV-1 infected individuals, we conducted two nested serologic studies. Blood samples were collected for HIV disease monitoring and vaccine-specific serologic assays, while stool was evaluated by direct microscopy methods...
February 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924272/achievements-of-healthcare-services-vis-a-vis-the-mdg-targets-evidence-from-pakistan
#2
Saeeda Batool, Ather Maqsood Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of public healthcare facilities and socio-economic circumstances on the status of child health. METHODS: The study was conducted at the School of Social Sciences and Humanities of the National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan. The human opportunity index framework was used to measure the trends in health inequalities and coverage using Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement dataset from year 2001-02 to 2012-13 at national and provincial levels...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923422/a-novel-measles-outbreak-control-strategy-in-the-netherlands-in-2013-2014-using-a-national-electronic-immunization-register-a-study-of-early-mmr-uptake-and-its-determinants
#3
Laura M Nic Lochlainn, Tom Woudenberg, Alies van Lier, Irmgard Zonnenberg, Marvin Philippi, Hester E de Melker, Susan J M Hahné
BACKGROUND: During a large measles outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013-2014, infants aged 6-14months living in municipalities with low (<90%) measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) coverage were individually invited for an early MMR using the national electronic immunization register, Præventis. We estimated uptake of early MMR prior to and during the 2013-2014 outbreak and assessed determinants for early MMR vaccination. METHODS: We obtained vaccination records from Præventis, and defined early MMR as vaccination before 415days (13months) of age...
September 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920573/preliminary-findings-indicate-nosocomial-transmission-and-roma-population-as-most-affected-group-in-ongoing-measles-b3-genotype-outbreak-in-bulgaria-march-to-august-2017
#4
Anna Kurchatova, Stefka Krumova, Nadezhda Vladimirova, Lubomira Nikolaeva-Glomb, Asya Stoyanova, Todor Kantardjiev, Nina Gatcheva
From March to August 2017, 165 measles cases were reported from three regions in Bulgaria. The age range was 0-55 years and 66% of the cases were under 9 years. The Roma population was disproportionally affected (89% of cases), 41% cases were unvaccinated and in 24 cases there was nosocomial transmission mostly in paediatric departments. A child under 12 months of age died. Control measures have been taken and the investigation is still ongoing.
September 7, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916391/zika-virus-structural-biology-and-progress-in-vaccine-development
#5
REVIEW
Hsiao-Han Lin, Bak-Sau Yip, Li-Min Huang, Suh-Chin Wu
The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses...
September 12, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915813/the-relationship-between-burden-of-childhood-disease-and-foreign-aid-for-child-health
#6
J Clay Bavinger, Paul Wise, Eran Bendavid
BACKGROUND: We sought to examine the relationship between child specific health aid (CHA) and burden of disease. Based on existing evidence, we hypothesized that foreign aid for child health would not be proportional to burden of disease. METHODS: In order to examine CHA and burden of disease, we obtained estimates of these parameters from established sources. Estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) in children (0-5 years) were obtained from the World Health Organization for 2000 and 2012...
September 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914112/socioeconomic-differences-in-childhood-vaccination-in-developed-countries-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-studies
#7
Aurélie Bocquier, Jeremy Ward, Jocelyn Raude, Patrick Peretti-Watel, Pierre Verger
Introduction The reasons for vaccine hesitancy and its relation to individual socioeconomic status (SES) must be better understood. Areas covered This review focused on developed countries with programs addressing major financial barriers to vaccination access. We systematically reviewed differences by SES in uptake of publicly funded childhood vaccines and in cognitive determinants (beliefs, attitudes) of parental decisions about vaccinating their children. Using the PRISMA statement to guide this review, we searched three electronic databases from January 2000 through April 2016...
September 15, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910270/updated-dosing-instructions-for-immune-globulin-human-gamastan-s-d-for-hepatitis-a-virus-prophylaxis
#8
Noele P Nelson
GamaSTAN S/D (Grifols Therapeutics, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) is a sterile, preservative-free solution of immune globulin (IG) for intramuscular administration and is used for prophylaxis against disease caused by infection with hepatitis A, measles, varicella, and rubella viruses (1). GamaSTAN S/D is the only IG product approved by the Food and Drug Administration for hepatitis A virus (HAV) prophylaxis. In July 2017, GamaSTAN S/D prescribing information was updated with changes to the dosing instructions for hepatitis A preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis indications...
September 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910268/assessment-of-hospital-emergency-department-response-to-potentially-infectious-diseases-using-unannounced-mystery-patient-drills-new-york-city-2016
#9
Mary M K Foote, Timothy S Styles, Celia L Quinn
Recent outbreaks of infectious diseases have revealed significant health care system vulnerabilities and highlighted the importance of rapid recognition and isolation of patients with potentially severe infectious diseases. During December 2015-May 2016, a series of unannounced "mystery patient drills" was carried out to assess New York City Emergency Departments' (EDs) abilities to identify and respond to patients with communicable diseases of public health concern. Drill scenarios presented a patient reporting signs or symptoms and travel history consistent with possible measles or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)...
September 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904342/evolution-of-t-cell-responses-during-measles-virus-infection-and-rna-clearance
#10
Ashley N Nelson, Nicole Putnam, Debra Hauer, Victoria K Baxter, Robert J Adams, Diane E Griffin
Measles is an acute viral disease associated both with immune suppression and development of life-long immunity. Clearance of measles virus (MeV) involves rapid elimination of infectious virus during the rash followed by slow elimination of viral RNA. To characterize cellular immune responses during recovery, we analyzed the appearance, specificity and function of MeV-specific T cells for 6 months after respiratory infection of rhesus macaques with wild type MeV. IFN-γ and IL-17-producing cells specific for the hemagglutinin and nucleocapsid proteins appeared in circulation in multiple waves approximately 2-3, 8 and 18-24 weeks after infection...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904193/mutations-in-the-fusion-protein-of-measles-virus-that-confer-resistance-to-the-membrane-fusion-inhibitors-carbobenzoxy-d-phe-l-phe-gly-and-as-48
#11
Michael N Ha, Sébastien Delpeut, Ryan S Noyce, Gary Sisson, Karen M Black, Liang-Tzung Lin, Darius Bilimoria, Richard K Plemper, Gilbert G Privé, Christopher D Richardson
The inhibitors Z-d-Phe-l-Phe Gly (fusion inhibitor peptide, FIP) and AS-48 have similar efficacy in blocking membrane fusion and syncytia formation mediated by measles virus. Other homologues such as Z-d-Phe are less effective, but may act through the same mechanism. In an attempt to map the site of action of these inhibitors, we generated mutant viruses which were resistant to the inhibitory effects of Z-d-Phe-l-Phe Gly. These 10 mutations were localized to the heptad repeat region (HRB) of the fusion protein and no changes were observed in the viral hemagglutinin, which is the receptor attachment protein...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903791/an-outbreak-of-mumps-with-genetic-strain-variation-in-a-highly-vaccinated-student-population-in-scotland
#12
L J Willocks, D Guerendiain, H I Austin, K E Morrison, R L Cameron, K E Templeton, V R F DE Lima, R Ewing, W Donovan, K G J Pollock
An outbreak of mumps within a student population in Scotland was investigated to assess the effect of previous vaccination on infection and clinical presentation, and any genotypic variation. Of the 341 cases, 79% were aged 18-24. Vaccination status was available for 278 cases of whom 84% had received at least one dose of mumps containing vaccine and 62% had received two. The complication rate was 5·3% (mainly orchitis), and 1·2% were admitted to hospital. Genetic sequencing of mumps virus isolated from cases across Scotland classified 97% of the samples as genotype G...
September 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898512/knowledge-attitudes-and-opinions-towards-measles-and-the-mmr-vaccine-across-two-nsw-cohorts
#13
Daniel Brieger, Matthew Edwards, Poonam Mudgil, John Whitehall
OBJECTIVE: Although the number of national measles cases has greatly decreased since 1980s, there has been resurgence in disease incidence in recent years. While parental knowledge and attitudes toward both disease and vaccinations are known to influence vaccine uptake, the contribution of these factors toward vaccination rates in NSW populations has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and opinions on measles and MMR vaccine in NSW Central and North Coast regions...
September 12, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893741/prevention-and-assessment-of-infectious-diseases-among-children-and-adult-migrants-arriving-to-the-european-union-european-economic-association-a-protocol-for-a-suite-of-systematic-reviews-for-public-health-and-health-systems
#14
Kevin Pottie, Alain D Mayhew, Rachael L Morton, Christina Greenaway, Elie A Akl, Prinon Rahman, Dominik Zenner, Manish Pareek, Peter Tugwell, Vivian Welch, Joerg Meerpohl, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Charles Hui, Beverley-Ann Biggs, Ana Requena-Méndez, Eric Agbata, Teymur Noori, Holger J Schünemann
INTRODUCTION: The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control is developing evidence-based guidance for voluntary screening, treatment and vaccine prevention of infectious diseases for newly arriving migrants to the European Union/European Economic Area. The objective of this systematic review protocol is to guide the identification, appraisal and synthesis of the best available evidence on prevention and assessment of the following priority infectious diseases: tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis (polio), Haemophilus influenza disease, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893478/pain-caused-by-measles-mumps-and-rubella-vaccines-a-systematic-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Corinne Willame, Ouzama Henry, Lan Lin, Volker Vetter, Laurence Baril, Nicolas Praet
PURPOSE: The risk of post-vaccination adverse events (AEs) is a primary public health concern. Among the AEs, pain is a significant source of anxiety for both children and their parents. This review describes and assesses the intensity of pain experienced by children post-vaccination with widely used Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccines. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane to identify publications describing immediate pain at injection site (primary objective) or pain within days (secondary objective) after 2 specific MMR vaccines...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893198/lessons-from-a-decade-of-individual-based-models-for-infectious-disease-transmission-a-systematic-review-2006-2015
#16
Lander Willem, Frederik Verelst, Joke Bilcke, Niel Hens, Philippe Beutels
BACKGROUND: Individual-based models (IBMs) are useful to simulate events subject to stochasticity and/or heterogeneity, and have become well established to model the potential (re)emergence of pathogens (e.g., pandemic influenza, bioterrorism). Individual heterogeneity at the host and pathogen level is increasingly documented to influence transmission of endemic diseases and it is well understood that the final stages of elimination strategies for vaccine-preventable childhood diseases (e...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892316/-epidemic-of-measles-in-the-verviers-area-belgium-management-and-precautions-at-the-reception-in-the-emergency-department
#17
A Hebert, O Louis, L Hankenne, P Michel
Measles is a highly contagious viral disease. Transmission occurs from person to person through direct contact or by aerosolization of pharyngeal secretions. In the area of Verviers (Belgium), we were confronted to a group of patients with measles, a public health event with local concentration. In our hospital institution, our case index dates back to the beginning of February 2017 and the follow-up of the cases indicates an upward trajectory. Sorting measures and isolations of potential patients, extensive screening and vaccinations were undertaken and coordinated from an internal management unit...
September 2017: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891541/inequity-in-access-to-childhood-immunization-in-enugu-urban-southeast-nigeria
#18
B S Uzochukwu, C C Okeke, E Envuladu, C Mbachu, C Okwuosa, O E Onwujekwe
BACKGROUND: The Nigerian National Programme on Immunization aims at increasing the immunization coverage of children under 1 year of age. However, there is still a gap between the national immunization targets and the immunization coverage rates, and data are rarely disaggregated according to socioeconomic status. As a result, there is a dearth of information about the coverage of subgroups, especially at the local level. This study determined the socioeconomic differentials in immunization coverage for children under 5 years and under 1 year in Enugu urban, Southeast Nigeria...
August 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890752/measles-burden-in-urban-settings-characteristics-of-measles-cases-in-addis-ababa-city-administration-ethiopia-2004-2014
#19
Amare Mengistu Mersha, Fiona Braka, Kathleen Gallagher, Aysheshim Ademe Tegegne, Aron Kassahun Argay, Mekonnen Admassu Mekonnen, Merawi Aragaw, Debritu Mengesha Abegaz, Etsehiwot Zeamlak Worku, Mekonen Getahun Baynesagn
INTRODUCTION: In developing countries, measles was a major cause of morbidity and mortality before the wide spread use of measles vaccine. The purpose of this study was to describe measles burden in an urban setting, Addis Ababa- since the implementation of measles case-based surveillance in Ethiopia. We analyzed measles surveillance data for 2004 -2014. METHODS: Incidence of measles was described by sub city, by year and by age groups. Age specific incidence rate were calculated...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890401/aggregation-properties-of-a-disordered-protein-are-tunable-by-ph-and-depend-on-its-net-charge-per-residue
#20
Giulia Tedeschi, Marco Mangiagalli, Sara Chmielewska, Marina Lotti, Antonino Natalello, Stefania Brocca
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) possess a peculiar amino acid composition that makes them very soluble. Nevertheless, they can encounter aggregation in physiological and pathological contexts. In this work, we addressed the issue of how electrostatic charges can influence aggregation propensity by using the N-terminus moiety of the measles virus phosphoprotein, PNT, as a model IDP. Taking advantage of the high sequence designability of IDPs, we have produced an array of PNT variants sharing the same hydrophobicity, but differing in net charges per residue and isoelectric points (pI)...
September 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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