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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341533/epidemiology-of-infectious-encephalitis-causes-in-2016
#1
REVIEW
A Boucher, J L Herrmann, P Morand, R Buzelé, Y Crabol, J P Stahl, A Mailles
We performed a literature search in the Medline database, using the PubMed website. The incidence of presumably infectious encephalitis is estimated at 1.5-7 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year, excluding epidemics. Infectious encephalitis and immune-mediated encephalitis share similar clinical signs and symptoms. The latter accounts for a significant proportion of presumably infectious encephalitis cases without any established etiological diagnosis; as shown from a prospective cohort study where 21% of cases were due to an immune cause...
March 21, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341115/fewer-out-of-sequence-vaccinations-and-reduction-of-child-mortality-in-northern-ghana
#2
Paul Welaga, Abraham Oduro, Cornelius Debpuur, Peter Aaby, Henrik Ravn, Andreas Andersen, Fred Binka, Abraham Hodgson
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine administered simultaneously with measles vaccine (MV) or DTP administered after MV are associated with higher child mortality than having MV-after-DTP3 as most recent vaccination. We tested this in Northern Ghana where the prevalence of such out-of-sequence vaccinations has declined. METHODS: Using annual cohort data of children aged 12-23months from 1996 to 2012 and Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed survival in relation to the most recent vaccination status within the next 12months and until five years of age...
March 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338902/assessment-of-the-status-of-measles-elimination-in-the-united-states-2001-2014
#3
Paul A Gastañaduy, Prabasaj Paul, Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, Susan B Redd, Ben A Lopman, Manoj Gambhir, Gregory S Wallace
We assessed the status of measles elimination in the United States using outbreak notification data. Measles transmissibility was assessed by estimation of the reproduction number, R, the average number of secondary cases per infection, using 4 methods; elimination requires maintaining R at <1. Method 1 estimates R as 1 minus the proportion of cases that are imported. Methods 2 and 3 estimate R by fitting a model of the spread of infection to data on the sizes and generations of chains of transmission, respectively...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331086/nectin-4-interactions-govern-measles-virus-virulence-in-a-new-model-of-pathogenesis-squirrel-monkeys-simia-sciureus
#4
Sébastien Delpeut, Bevan Sawatsky, Xiao-Xiang Wong, Marie Frenzke, Roberto Cattaneo, Veronika von Messling
In addition to humans, only certain non-human primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species-dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys (Simia sciureus), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323479/evaluation-of-measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination-among-newly-arrived-refugees
#5
Deborah Lee, Michelle Weinberg, Stephen Benoit
OBJECTIVES: To assess US availability and use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination documentation for refugees vaccinated overseas. METHODS: We selected 1500 refugee records from 14 states from March 2013 through July 2015 to determine whether overseas vaccination records were available at the US postarrival health assessment and integrated into the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices schedule. We assessed number of doses, dosing interval, and contraindications...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318190/successful-administration-of-measles-rubella-mumps-vaccine-by-graded-challenge-in-a-case-with-anaphylaxis-after-prior-vaccination
#6
Tuba Tuncel, Ozlem Sancakli, Ece Ozdogru
Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies during childhood along with cow's milk allergy. The measles-mumpsrubella (MMR) vaccine is included in the pediatric immunization schedule and contains egg protein. The currently accepted opinion is that the MMR vaccination should be done in a single dose under medical observation in patients with egg allergy. Although it is reported that the MMR vaccine is safe for that patients, there are some patients who developed anaphylaxis. Generally, the development of anaphylaxis after the previous vaccination is reported as a contraindication...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315717/exploring-novel-sero-epidemiological-tools-effect-of-different-storage-conditions-on-longitudinal-stability-of-microarray-slides-comprising-influenza-a-measles-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-antigens
#7
Gudrun Freidl, Erwin de Bruin, Maarten Schipper, Marion Koopmans
In this study we evaluated the long-term stability of a microarray-based serological screening platform, containing antigens of influenza A, measles and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as part of a preparedness research program aiming to develop assays for syndromic disease detection. Spotted microarray slides were kept at four different storage regimes with varying temperature and humidity conditions. We showed that under the standard storage condition in a temperature-controlled (21°C) and desiccated environment (0% relative humidity), microarray slides remained stable for at least 22 months without loss of antigen quality, whereas the other three conditions (37°C, desiccated; Room temperature, non-desiccated; Frozen, desiccated) produced acceptable results for some antigens (influenza A, S...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303812/global-eradication-of-measles-are-we-poised
#8
REVIEW
Raghavendra D Kulkarni, G S Ajantha, Aithal R Kiran, K R Pravinchandra
Measles, a highly infectious viral disease is the next target for eradication following poliovirus. Decades of experience with highly effective vaccination has invigorated us to take on this virus. The task is not only Titanic but is laced with intricate issues. Recently, an outbreak of fever with rash occurred on a tertiary care teaching hospital campus and was confirmed serologically as measles outbreak by IgMELISA. Therefore, we searched the literature related to outbreaks, transmission of the measles virus, age groups involved, vaccination strategies, vaccination failure and epidemiological features of the disease and reviewed the possible reasons for such outbreaks and problems in the global eradication of the virus...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303592/trend-of-measles-mumps-and-rubella-incidence-following-the-measles-rubella-catch-up-vaccination-in-the-republic-of-korea-2001
#9
Young June Choe, Hye-Eun Eom, Sung-Il Cho
Following the introduction of measles-rubella (MR) catch-up vaccination in 2001 and two dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR2) keep-up program in 2002, the incidence of measles, mumps and rubella was not evaluated systematically. To describe the recent changes in epidemiology, a population based incidence study from 2001 to 2015 using national notifiable disease surveillance data was conducted. Between 2001 and 2015, there was decrease in the incidence of measles and rubella, whereas a steady increase in mump incidence was noted...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302434/evaluation-of-low-immunization-coverage-among-the-amish-population-in-rural-ohio
#10
Christine Kettunen, John Nemecek, Olivia Wenger
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Review included childhood immunizations among the 10 great public health achievements in the United States in the 20th century. Despite this acknowledged success, childhood immunization rates continue to be much lower in select populations. Amish communities have persistently lower immunization rates. Recent outbreaks in Amish communities include a 2014 measles outbreak in Ohio, resulting in 368 cases reported...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301394/effects-on-the-anti-abo-titers-of-military-blood-donors-from-a-predeployment-vaccination-program
#11
Olle Berséus
BACKGROUND: The use of blood group O as "universal blood" for emergency whole blood transfusions carries the risk for a hemolytic transfusion reaction mediated by incompatible A-/B-antibodies. This risk can be minimized by assuring that the donor has a low titer of anti-A and anti-B. The level of these naturally occurring antibodies have been shown to be increased by vaccination with most biologically derived vaccines. This boostering effect has been investigated for the new generation of vaccines...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290130/the-choosing-wisely-initiative-in-infectious-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Clara Lehmann, Reinhard Berner, Johannes R Bogner, Oliver A Cornely, Katja de With, Susanne Herold, Winfried V Kern, Sebastian Lemmen, Mathias W Pletz, Bernhard Ruf, Bernd Salzberger, Hans Jürgen Stellbrink, Norbert Suttorp, Andrew J Ullmann, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Norma Jung
OBJECTIVE: "Choosing Wisely" is a growing international campaign aiming at practice changes to improve patient health and safety by both, conduct of essential and avoidance of unnecessary diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic procedures. The goal is to create an easily recognizable and distributable list ("Choosing Wisely items") that addresses common over- and underuse in the management of infectious diseases. METHODS: The German Society of Infectious Diseases (DGI) participates in the campaign "Klug Entscheiden" by the German Society of Internal Medicine...
March 13, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289848/genome-wide-associations-of-cd46-and-ifi44l-genetic-variants-with-neutralizing-antibody-response-to-measles-vaccine
#13
Iana H Haralambieva, Inna G Ovsyannikova, Richard B Kennedy, Beth R Larrabee, Michael T Zimmermann, Diane E Grill, Daniel J Schaid, Gregory A Poland
Population-based studies have revealed 2-10% measles vaccine failure rate even after two vaccine doses. While the mechanisms behind this remain unknown, we hypothesized that host genetic factors are likely to be involved. We performed a genome-wide association study of measles specific neutralizing antibody and IFNγ ELISPOT response in a combined sample of 2872 subjects. We identified two distinct chromosome 1 regions (previously associated with MMR-related febrile seizures), associated with vaccine-induced measles neutralizing antibody titers...
April 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288747/mobile-phone-delivered-reminders-and-incentives-to-improve-childhood-immunisation-coverage-and-timeliness-in-kenya-m-simu-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Dustin G Gibson, Benard Ochieng, E Wangeci Kagucia, Joyce Were, Kyla Hayford, Lawrence H Moulton, Orin S Levine, Frank Odhiambo, Katherine L O'Brien, Daniel R Feikin
BACKGROUND: As mobile phone access continues to expand globally, opportunities exist to leverage these technologies to support demand for immunisation services and improve vaccine coverage. We aimed to assess whether short message service (SMS) reminders and monetary incentives can improve immunisation uptake in Kenya. METHODS: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, villages were randomly and evenly allocated to four groups: control, SMS only, SMS plus a 75 Kenya Shilling (KES) incentive, and SMS plus 200 KES (85 KES = USD$1)...
April 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286295/impact-of-non-medical-vaccine-exemption-policies-on-the-health-and-economic-burden-of-measles
#15
Melanie D Whittington, Allison Kempe, Amanda Dempsey, Rachel Herlihy, Jonathan D Campbell
OBJECTIVE: Despite relatively high national vaccination coverage for measles, geographic vaccination variation exists resulting in clusters of susceptibility. A portion of this geographic variation can be explained by differences in state policies related to non-medical vaccine exemptions. The objective of this analysis was to determine the magnitude, likelihood, and cost of a measles outbreak under different non-medical vaccine exemption policies. METHODS: An agent-based transmission model simulated the likelihood and magnitude of a measles outbreak under different non-medical vaccine exemption policies, previously categorized as easy, medium, or difficult...
March 9, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284678/analysis-of-the-effects-of-individual-and-community-level-factors-on-childhood-immunization-in-malawi
#16
Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Kun-Yang Chuang, Fentanesh Nibret Tiruneh, Ying-Chih Chuang
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence regarding the relationship between childhood immunization and individual- and community-level factors in low-income countries has received little attention. We compared the trends and the effects of a wide range of individual- and community-level socioeconomic factors on the likelihood of a child being immunized between 2004 and 2010 in Malawi. METHODS: We used data from the 2004 and 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and applied generalized estimating logistic regression equation to analyze data respectively on 2042 and 3496 children aged 12-23months...
March 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282701/vitamin-a-supplementation-for-preventing-morbidity-and-mortality-in-children-from-six-months-to-five-years-of-age
#17
REVIEW
Aamer Imdad, Evan Mayo-Wilson, Kurt Herzer, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries, affecting 190 million children under five years of age and leading to many adverse health consequences, including death. Based on prior evidence and a previous version of this review, the World Health Organization has continued to recommend vitamin A supplementation for children aged 6 to 59 months. There are new data available from recently published randomised trials since the previous publication of this review in 2010, and this update incorporates this information and reviews the evidence...
March 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280010/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-wild-type-measles-virus-isolated-during-a-2016-winter-outbreak-in-a-refugee-settlement-in-calais-france
#18
Julia Dina, Justine Hamel, Denise Antona, Astrid Vabret
Measles outbreaks are regularly reported in European countries despite efforts to improve vaccination coverage. In January 2016, an outbreak occurred in a refugee settlement in Calais, France. We report here the complete genome sequence of a wild-type measles virus isolated from a health care worker (MVi/Calais. FRA/01.16) infected during this outbreak.
March 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278415/paediatric-active-enhanced-disease-surveillance-inaugural-annual-report-2014
#19
Yvonne A Zurynski, Jocelynne E McRae, Helen E Quinn, Nicholas J Wood, Kristine K Macartney
INTRODUCTION: The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment of selected uncommon vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS enhances other Australian surveillance systems by providing prospective detailed clinical and laboratory data for the same child. METHODS: Specialist surveillance nurses screen hospital admissions, emergency department records, laboratory and other data, to prospectively identify hospitalised children aged under 15 years in 5 paediatric tertiary referral hospitals in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland...
September 30, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274931/association-of-bcg-dtp-and-measles-containing-vaccines-with-childhood-mortality-systematic-review
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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