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A Kirolos, C Waugh, K Templeton, D McCormick, R Othieno, L J Willocks, J Stevenson
In September 2016, an imported case of measles in Edinburgh in a university student resulted in a further 17 confirmed cases during October and November 2016. All cases were genotype D8 and were associated with a virus strain most commonly seen in South East Asia. Twelve of the 18 cases were staff or students at a university in Edinburgh and 17 cases had incomplete or unknown measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccination status. The public health response included mass follow-up of all identified contacts, widespread communications throughout universities in Edinburgh and prompt vaccination clinics at affected campuses...
March 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Christopher J Fonnesbeck, Katriona Shea, Spencer Carran, Jose Cassio de Moraes, Christopher Gregory, James L Goodson, Matthew J Ferrari
Resurgent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases that have previously been controlled or eliminated have been observed in many settings. Reactive vaccination campaigns may successfully control outbreaks but must necessarily be implemented in the face of considerable uncertainty. Real-time surveillance may provide critical information about at-risk population and optimal vaccination targets, but may itself be limited by the specificity of disease confirmation. We propose an integrated modelling approach that synthesizes historical demographic and vaccination data with real-time outbreak surveillance via a dynamic transmission model and an age-specific disease confirmation model...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
D N Durrheim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
A K Winter, M E Martinez, F T Cutts, W J Moss, M Ferrari, A McKee, J Lessler, K Hayford, J Wallinga, C J E Metcalf
Control efforts for measles and rubella are intensifying globally. It becomes increasingly important to identify and reach remaining susceptible populations as elimination is approached. Serological surveys for measles and rubella can potentially measure susceptibility directly, but their use remains rare. Here, using simulations, we outline key subtleties in interpretation associated with the dynamic context of age-specific immunity, highlighting how the patterns of immunity predicted from disease surveillance and vaccination coverage data may be misleading...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jennifer L Perret, Melanie C Matheson, Lyle C Gurrin, David P Johns, John A Burgess, Bruce R Thompson, Adrian J Lowe, James Markos, Stephen S Morrison, Christine F McDonald, Richard Wood-Baker, Cecilie Svanes, Paul S Thomas, John L Hopper, Graham G Giles, Michael J Abramson, E Haydn Walters, Shyamali C Dharmage
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has potential origins in childhood but an association between childhood measles and post-bronchodilator (BD) airflow obstruction (AO) has not yet been shown. We investigated whether childhood measles contributed to post-BD AO through interactions with asthma and/or smoking in a non-immunized middle-aged population. METHODS: The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) cohort born in 1961 (n = 8583) underwent spirometry in 1968 before immunization was introduced...
March 20, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Diane E Griffin, Wen-Hsuan W Lin, Ashley N Nelson
Measles is an acute systemic viral disease with initial amplification of infection in lymphoid tissue and subsequent spread over 10-14 days to multiple organs. Failure of the innate response to control initial measles virus (MeV) replication is associated with the ability of MeV to inhibit the induction of type I interferon and interferon-stimulated antiviral genes. Rather, the innate response is characterized by the expression of proteins regulated by nuclear factor kappa B and the inflammasome. With eventual development of the adaptive response, the rash appears with immune cell infiltration into sites of virus replication to initiate the clearance of infectious virus...
2018: F1000Research
Julia D S Hanauer, Benjamin Rengstl, Dina Kleinlützum, Johanna Reul, Anett Pfeiffer, Thorsten Friedel, Irene C Schneider, Sebastian Newrzela, Martin-Leo Hansmann, Christian J Buchholz, Alexander Muik
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is a hematopoietic malignancy with a characteristic cellular composition. The tumor mass is made up of infiltrated lymphocytes and other cells of hematologic origin but only very few neoplastic cells that are mainly identified by the diagnostic marker CD30. While most patients with early stage cHL can be cured by standard therapy, treatment options for relapsed or refractory cHL are still not sufficient, although immunotherapy-based approaches for the treatment of cHL patients have gained ground in the last decade...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Julie Aaberg Lauridsen, Tyra Grove Krause, Peter Henrik Andersen
Measles vaccination has led to a significant fall in the number of measles cases and measles-related deaths worldwide. However, many countries still struggle to eliminate the disease. To obtain elimination, a minimum of 95% vaccination coverage for both of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines is necessary as well as an efficient surveillance system and timely public health response. Presenting data on reported cases and vaccination coverage in the latest 20 years, this article describes how measles are eliminated in Denmark and recommends, how the Danish measles surveillance system can be further improved to maintain the status...
March 19, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Maria Isabel de Oliveira, Gislene Mitsue Namiyama, Gabriela Bastos Cabral, João Leandro Ferreira, Noemi Taniwaki, Ana Maria Sardinha Afonso, Isabella Rillo Lima, Luís Fernando Macedo de Brigido
A great variety of viruses which cause exanthema share other clinical manifestations, making the etiologic identification a very difficult task, relying exclusively on the clinical examination. Rubella virus (RV) infection during the early stages of pregnancy can lead to serious birth defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In the present report, we described the presence of Zika virus (ZIKV) particles in urine samples and also ZIKV isolation in SIRC cells from the urine of a patient in acute phase of suspected rubella disease...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Bart N Ford, Robert H Yolken, Faith B Dickerson, T Kent Teague, Michael R Irwin, Martin P Paulus, Jonathan Savitz
BACKGROUND: Depression can impair the immunogenicity of vaccine administration in adults. Whereas many vaccinations are administered in childhood, it is not known whether adolescent or adult onset depression is associated with impairments in the maintenance of protection of childhood vaccines. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with adolescent or adult onset mood disorders would display compromised immunity to measles, a target of childhood vaccination. METHODS: IgG antibodies to measles were quantified using a solid phase immunoassay in volunteers with bipolar disorder (BD, n = 64, mean age of onset = 16...
March 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Heidi L Tessmer, Kimihito Ito, Ryosuke Omori
To estimate and predict the transmission dynamics of respiratory viruses, the estimation of the basic reproduction number, R 0 , is essential. Recently, approximate Bayesian computation methods have been used as likelihood free methods to estimate epidemiological model parameters, particularly R 0 . In this paper, we explore various machine learning approaches, the multi-layer perceptron, convolutional neural network, and long-short term memory, to learn and estimate the parameters. Further, we compare the accuracy of the estimates and time requirements for machine learning and the approximate Bayesian computation methods on both simulated and real-world epidemiological data from outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, mumps, and measles...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kristin Pfeffermann, Mareike Dörr, Florian Zirkel, Veronika von Messling
Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines against measles and several animal morbilliviruses, they continue to cause regular outbreaks and epidemics in susceptible populations. Morbilliviruses are highly contagious and share a similar pathogenesis in their respective hosts. This review provides an overview of morbillivirus history and the general replication cycle and recapitulates Morbillivirus pathogenesis focusing on common and unique aspects seen in different hosts. It also summarizes the state of knowledge regarding virus-host interactions on the cellular level with an emphasis on viral interference with innate immune response activation, and highlights remaining knowledge gaps...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Qiru Su, Chao Ma, Ning Wen, Chunxiang Fan, Hong Yang, Huaqing Wang, Zundong Yin, Zijian Feng, Lixin Hao, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: Rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) became available in China in 1993 and was introduced nationwide into the Expanded Immunization Program (EPI) in 2008. We evaluated implementation and impact of RCV from 2 years prior to nationwide introduction through the 10 years after nationwide introduction. METHODS: We analyzed RCV lot-release (doses distributed) data, 1- and 2-dose RCV coverage, and rubella data from China's nationwide disease surveillance system to describe the current status and changes in rubella epidemiology between 2005 and 2017...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
Lejla Čalkić, Muhamed Skomorac, Salih Tandir, Suad Sivić, Lejla Bajramović Omeragić
Aim To investigate epidemiological characteristics of the measles epidemic (risk factors and reasons for its emergence) in order to establish better control and prevention of future epidemics as well as to determine an influence of poor collective immunization of children against measles on appearance of epidemic disease. Methods An open retrospective epidemiological study of measles infection was conducted during the epidemic in Zenica-Doboj Canton (ZDC) in the period 2014-2015. Disease reports, Disease Reporting Forms for measles and rubella cases and the Bulletin of the Institute for Health and Food Safety Zenica were used for data collection...
February 1, 2018: Medicinski Glasnik
Arshad Khan, Rahmat Ali Khan, Mushtaq Ahmed, Muhammad Sadiq Khan
This was a cross-sectional descriptive study for determining the effect of vaccination in children suffering from measles in district Bannu and FR regions. It was conducted at the Paediatric Unit of Women and Children Teaching Hospital, Bannu Medical College Bannu, from July 2015 to June 2016.A total of 7,200 children were examined both from indoor and OPD. Among these, 3,210 (44.58%), were males and 3990 (55.42) were females. Children upto 15 years, suffering from measles were included both from indoor and outdoor departments...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Francieli Fontana Sutile Tardetti Fantinato, Alexander Vargas, Sandra Maria Deotti Carvalho, Carla Magda Allan Santos Domingues, Gisele Barreto, Arieli Schiessl Fialho, Roselita Heinen da Silva, Eduardo Saad, Ivonne Natalia Solarte Agredo
The study aimed to describe cases and verify the frequency of anaphylaxis related to measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine produced by manufacturer A and to assess associated risk factors. This was a case-control study (1:4) in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from July 14, 2014, to January 12, 2015, in children from one year to less than five years of age, vaccinated with MMR and reported with anaphylaxis, while the controls were without anaphylaxis. The measure of association was odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI), using the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Francelena de Sousa Silva, Yonna Costa Barbosa, Mônica Araújo Batalha, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa Ribeiro, Vanda Maria Ferreira Simões, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Waleska Regina Machado Araújo, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva
This study estimated the percentages of incomplete immunization with new vaccines and old vaccines and associated factors in children 13 to 35 months of age belonging to a birth cohort in São Luís, the capital of Maranhão State, Brazil. The sample was probabilistic, with 3,076 children born in 2010. Information on vaccination was obtained from the Child's Health Card. The new vaccines, namely those introduced in 2010, were meningococcal C and 10-valent pneumococcal, and the old vaccines, or those already on the childhood immunization schedule, were BCG, hepatitis B, human rotavirus, polio, tetravalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae b), yellow fever, and triple viral (measles, mumps, rubella)...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Etienne Gignoux, Jonathan Polonsky, Iza Ciglenecki, Mathieu Bichet, Matthew Coldiron, Enoch Thuambe Lwiyo, Innocent Akonda, Micaela Serafini, Klaudia Porten
In 2013, a large measles epidemic occurred in the Aketi Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of Congo. We conducted a two-stage, retrospective cluster survey to estimate the attack rate, the case fatality rate, and the measles-specific mortality rate during the epidemic. 1424 households containing 7880 individuals were included. The estimated attack rate was 14.0%, (35.0% among children aged <5 years). The estimated case fatality rate was 4.2% (6.1% among children aged <5 years). Spatial analysis and linear regression showed that younger children, those who did not receive care, and those living farther away from Aketi Hospital early in the epidemic had a higher risk of measles related death...
2018: PloS One
Yasemin Cosgun, Dilek Guldemir, Aslihan Coskun, Sultan Yolbakan, Atila Taner Kalaycioglu, Gulay Korukluoglu, Riza Durmaz
Measles is an important childhood infection targeted to be eliminated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Virus circulation has not been interrupted in the European Region because high vaccination rates could not be achieved among some countries of the WHO European Region including Turkey. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the laboratory findings of measles cases confirmed in the last nine years, to assess the epidemiological data of the cases, to determine the molecular genotyping studies and to emphasise the importance of laboratory-based surveillance in measles...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Matthew Graham, Jonathan E Suk, Saki Takahashi, C Jessica Metcalf, Adela Paez Jimenez, Vladimir Prikazsky, Matthew J Ferrari, Justin Lessler
We report on and evaluate the process and findings of a real-time modeling exercise in response to an outbreak of measles in Lola prefecture, Guinea, in early 2015 in the wake of the Ebola crisis. Multiple statistical methods for the estimation of the size of the susceptible (i.e., unvaccinated) population were applied to weekly reported measles case data on seven subprefectures throughout Lola. Stochastic compartmental models were used to project future measles incidence in each subprefecture in both an initial and a follow-up iteration of forecasting...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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