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Rosa Isabel Figueroa, Marta Estrada, Esther Garcés
In coastal and offshore waters, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) currently threaten the well-being of coastal countries. These events, which can be localized or involve wide-ranging areas, pose risks to human health, marine ecosystems, and economic resources, such as tourism, fisheries, and aquaculture. Dynamics of HABs vary from one site to another, depending on the hydrographic and ecological conditions. The challenge in investigating HABs is that they are caused by organisms from multiple algal classes, each with its own unique features, including different life histories...
March 2018: Harmful Algae
Jae Hoon Noh, Wonkook Kim, Seung Hyun Son, Jae-Hyun Ahn, Young-Je Park
Accurate and timely quantification of widespread harmful algal bloom (HAB) distribution is crucial to respond to the natural disaster, minimize the damage, and assess the environmental impact of the event. Although various remote sensing-based quantification approaches have been proposed for HAB since the advent of the ocean color satellite sensor, there have been no algorithms that were validated with in-situ quantitative measurements for the red tide occurring in the Korean seas. Furthermore, since the geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) became available in June 2010, an algorithm that exploits its unprecedented observation frequency (every hour during the daytime) has been highly demanded to better track the changes in spatial distribution of red tide...
March 2018: Harmful Algae
Leila Basti, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Hajime Uchida, Takashi Kamiyama, Satoshi Nagai
Species of the harmful algal bloom (HAB) genera Dinophysis are causative of one of the most widespread and expanding HAB events associated with the human intoxication, diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). The effects of warming temperature on the physiology and toxinology of these mixotrophic species remain intractable due to their low biomass in nature and difficulties in establishing and maintaining them in culture. Hence, the present study investigated the influence of warming temperature, encompassing present and predicted climate scenarios, on growth and toxin production in a strain of the most cosmopolitan DSP-causative species, Dinophysis acuminata...
March 2018: Harmful Algae
Chih-Hsien Michelle Lin, Vyacheslav Lyubchich, Patricia M Glibert
The harmful dinoflagellate, Karlodnium veneficum, has been implicated in fish-kill and other toxic, harmful algal bloom (HAB) events in waters worldwide. Blooms of K. veneficum are known to be related to coastal nutrient enrichment but the relationship is complex because this HAB taxon relies not only on dissolved nutrients but also particulate prey, both of which have also changed over time. Here, applying cross-correlations of climate-related physical factors, nutrients and prey, with abundance of K. veneficum over a 10-year (2002-2011) period, a synthesis of the interactive effects of multiple factors on this species was developed for Chesapeake Bay, where blooms of the HAB have been increasing...
March 2018: Harmful Algae
HyeonSeok Shin, Eunju Lee, Jongoh Shin, So-Ra Ko, Hyung-Seok Oh, Chi-Yong Ahn, Hee-Mock Oh, Byung-Kwan Cho, Suhyung Cho
Interactions between microalgae and bacteria are often obligatory for harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we investigated the specific bacterial communities associated with Alexandrium tamarense and Cochlodinium polykrikoides, which cause ecological and economic damage during their blooms. To this end, the bacterial metagenome was selectively isolated from the two dinoflagellates and subsequently used for 16S rRNA analysis via the Nanopore MinION and Illumina sequencing platforms. Although the full-length 16S rRNA reads from the MinION platform showed high correlation in higher taxonomic ranks to the partial-length 16S rRNA reads from the Illumina platform, there was less correlation at the genus and species levels...
March 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria V Zykova, Igor A Schepetkin, Michael V Belousov, Sergey V Krivoshchekov, Lyudmila A Logvinova, Kristina A Bratishko, Mekhman S Yusubov, Sergey V Romanenko, Mark T Quinn
Although humic acids (HAs) from peat exhibit various therapeutic properties, there is little information available concerning their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. To address this issue, nine different types of peat, including oligotrophic, mesotrophic, and minerotrophic peat samples, were used for isolation of HA fractions by basic (HAb) and pyrophosphate (HAp) extractions. Physical parameters of the HAs were analyzed by UV-Vis, fluorescent, infrared (IR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy...
March 24, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Piotr M Kuś, Igor Jerković, Zvonimir Marijanović, Marina Kranjac, Carlo I G Tuberoso
Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth. honey (14 samples) collected in Poland was characterized by melissopalynological analysis, color determination (CIE L*a*b*Cab *hab ° coordinates) and volatiles (VOCs) composition. VOCs were isolated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, two fibers) and ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (USE, two solvents) and analyzed by GC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical-tree clustering (HTC) were applied to show trends and form groups and to indicate the most representative unifloral samples...
April 2018: Food Research International
Brett Greer, Julie P Meneely, Christopher T Elliott
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in freshwater systems and intensified aquaculture have increased the risk to human health through exposure to cyanotoxins such as microcystin-LR (MC-LR). To understand the uptake and processing of MC-LR in humans, the pig was chosen as an animal model. This was assessed by repeated exposure for 13 weeks of eight animals dosed daily with MC-LR at 0.04 µg/kg bw, repeated with six animals over five weeks at a dose 50 times higher at 2 µg/kg bw. An analytical method was developed for MC-LR in porcine serum and also to analyse levels of free MC-LR in harvested porcine tissues, with Lemieux Oxidation employed to determine bound MC-LR in these tissues...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Małgorzata Jakubowicz, Witold Nowak, Łukasz Gałgański, Danuta Babula-Skowrońska
In this report, the members of PP2C, SnRK2a and Rboh oxidase families from Arabidopsis and poplar were studied in silico, and the expression profiles of the some of them were specified in Populus tremula buds and adult leaves. In poplars, the counterparts of ABI1- and ABI2-like protein phosphatases are lacking, but poplar genomes encode three HAB-like proteins denoted in this work as HAB1, HAB3a and HAB3b, and the counterparts of the two latter ones are absent in Arabidopsis. Nonetheless, they may be present in other species...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Takahiko Kojima, Fumiya Ogishima, Takahisa Nishibu, Hiroaki Kotani, Tomoya Ishizuka, Toshihiro Okajima, Shunsuke Nozawa, Yoshihito Shiota, Kazunari Yoshizawa, Hiroyoshi Ohtsu, Masaki Kawano, Takuya Shiga, Hiroki Oshio
An iron(III) complex having a dibenzotetraethyltetraamido macrocyclic ligand (DTTM4- ), (NEt4 )2 [FeIII (DTTM)Cl] (1), was synthesized and characterized by crystallographic, spectroscopic, and electrochemical methods. Complex 1 has a square-pyramidal structure in the S =3 /2 spin state. The complex exhibited two reversible redox waves at +0.36 and +0.68 V (vs SCE) in the cyclic voltammogram measured in CH2 Cl2 at room temperature. The stepwise oxidation of 1 using chemical oxidants allowed us to observe clear and distinct spectral changes with distinct isosbestic points for each step, in which oxidation occurred at the phenylenediamido moiety rather than the iron center...
March 16, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Alicia Algeciras-Schimnich
The post-operative management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) relies on serial measurements of serum thyroglobulin. Current methodologies for thyroglobulin quantitation vary in their analytical and clinical performance. For years, thyroglobulin radioimmunoassays (RIA) and immunometric assays (IMA) have been used despite analytical interferences from anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) as well as heterophile antibodies (HAb). TgAb interference limits Tg utility as a tumor marker in ∼30% of TgAb-positive patients...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Chunyi Liu, Xusheng Wang, Wenjun Deng, Chang Li, Jitao Chen, Mianqi Xue, Rui Li, Feng Pan
Rechargeable aqueous metal-ion battery (RAMB) has attracted considerable attention due to its safety, low cost, and environmental friendliness. Yet the poor-performance electrode materials lead to a low feasibility of practical application. Hybrid aqueous battery (HAB) built by electrode materials with selective cation channels could increase the electrode applicability and thus enlarge the application of RAMB. In this work, we construct a high-voltage K-Na HAB based on K2FeFe(CN)6 cathode and carbon-coated NaTi2(PO4)3 (NTP/C) anode...
March 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Marcus Unterrainer, C Mahler, L Vomacka, S Lindner, J Havla, M Brendel, G Böning, B Ertl-Wagner, T Kümpfel, V M Milenkovic, R Rupprecht, M Kerschensteiner, P Bartenstein, Nathalie L Albert
PURPOSE: Expression of the translocator protein (TSPO) is upregulated in activated macrophages/microglia and is considered to be a marker of neuroinflammation. We investigated the novel TSPO ligand [18 F]GE-180 in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) to determine the feasibility of [18 F]GE-180 PET imaging in RRMS patients and to assess its ability to detect active inflammatory lesions in comparison with the current gold standard, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Gregory T Sigurdson, Peipei Tang, M Mónica Giusti
The color expression of anthocyanins can be affected by a variety of environmental factors and structural characteristics. Anthocyanin acylation (type and number of acids) is known to be key, but the influence of acyl isomers (with unique stereochemistries) remains to be explored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cis-trans configuration of the acylating group on the spectral and colorimetric properties of anthocyanins. Petunidin-3-rutinoside-5-glucoside (Pt-3-rut-5-glu) and Delphinidin-3-rutinoside-5-glucoside (Dp-3-rut-5-glu) and their cis and trans coumaroylated derivatives were isolated from black goji and eggplant, diluted in pH 1-9 buffers, and analyzed spectrophotometrically (380-700 nm) and colorimetrically (CIELAB) during 72 h of storage (25 °C, dark)...
March 7, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Fernando A Cruzat, Christian Muñoz, Rodrigo R González-Saldía, Agar Inostroza, Karl B Andree
Chilean waters are often affected by Alexandrium catenella, one of the leading organisms behind Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs). Genetic variability for this species are commonly carried out from cultured samples, approach that may not accurately quantify genetic variability of this organism in the water column. In this study, genetic variability of A. catenella was determined by sequencing the rDNA region, in water samples from the Canal Puyuhuapi (South Austral Ecosystem of Chile). A. catenella was detected in 8,8% of samples analysed...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Ganeko Bernardo-Seisdedos, Eider Nuñez, Carolina Gomis, Covadonga Malo, Álvaro Villarroel, Oscar Millet
The Kv7.2 (KCNQ2) channel is the principal molecular component of the slow voltage-gated, noninactivating K+ M-current, a key controller of neuronal excitability. To investigate the calmodulin (CaM)-mediated Ca2+ gating of the channel, we used NMR spectroscopy to structurally and dynamically describe the association of helices h A and h B of Kv7.2 with CaM, as a function of Ca2+ concentration. The structures of the CaM/Kv7.2-hAB complex at two different calcification states are reported here. In the presence of a basal cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (10-100 nM), only the N-lobe of CaM is Ca2+ -loaded and the complex (representative of the open channel) exhibits collective dynamics on the millisecond time scale toward a low-populated excited state (1...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lingling Wu, Guojun Wen, Yudan Wang, Lei Huang, Jiang Zhou
Horizontal auger boring (HAB) is a widely used trenchless technology for the high-accuracy installation of gravity or pressure pipelines on line and grade. Differing from other pipeline installations, HAB requires a more precise and automated guidance system for use in a practical project. This paper proposes an economic and enhanced automated optical guidance system, based on optimization research of light-emitting diode (LED) light target and five automated image processing bore-path deviation algorithms...
February 15, 2018: Sensors
Inia M Soto, Mustafa Kemal Cambazoglu, Adam D Boyette, Kristina Broussard, Drew Sheehan, Stephan D Howden, Alan M Shiller, Brian Dzwonkowski, Laura Hode, Patrick J Fitzpatrick, Robert A Arnone, Paul F Mickle, Kimberly Cressman
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis have been documented along coastal waters of every state bordering the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Some Gulf Coast locations, such as Florida and Texas, suffer from recurrent intense and spatially large blooms, while others such as Mississippi seem to rarely observe them. The main objective of this work is to understand the dynamics that led to the K. brevis bloom in Mississippi coastal waters in fall 2015. Blooms of K. brevis from the Florida Panhandle region are often advected westward towards the Mississippi-Alabama coast; however there is interannual variability in their presence and intensity in Mississippi coastal waters...
February 2018: Harmful Algae
Yue Zhang, Zhiming Yu, Xiuxian Song, Yongquan Yuan, Xihua Cao
Cyst formation plays an important role in the resistance of dinoflagellates to adverse environments, and cyst germination is considered one of the causes of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Among the methods for mitigating HABs, modified clay (MC) is considered a promising strategy because of its high efficiency and low environmental impacts. The typical HAB species Alexandrium pacificum was focused on in this study to clarify the effects of MC on cyst formation and germination. The results showed that more than 90% of the vegetative cells were removed under the 0...
February 2018: Harmful Algae
Stéphane Karasiewicz, Elsa Breton, Alain Lefebvre, Tania Hernández Fariñas, Sébastien Lefebvre
The link between harmful algal blooms, phytoplankton community dynamics and global environmental change is not well understood. To tackle this challenging question, a new method was used to reveal how phytoplankton communities responded to environmental change with the occurrence of an harmful algae, using the coastal waters of the eastern English Channel as a case study. The great interannual variability in the magnitude and intensity of Phaeocystis spp. blooms, along with diatoms, compared to the ongoing gradual decrease in anthropogenic nutrient concentration and rebalancing of nutrient ratios; suggests that other factors, such as competition for resources, may also play an important role...
February 2018: Harmful Algae
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