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Jahir Orozco, Elisa Villa, Carmem-Lara Manes, Linda K Medlin, Delphine Guillebault
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are becoming more frequent as climate changes, with tropical species moving northward. Monitoring programs detecting the presence of toxic algae before they bloom are of paramount importance to protect aquatic ecosystems, aquaculture, human health and local economies. Rapid and reliable species identification methods using molecular barcodes coupled to biosensor detection tools have received increasing attention over the past decade as an alternative to the impractical standard microscopic counting-based techniques...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Diane M Orihel, David W Schindler, Nathaniel C Ballard, Lindsey R Wilson, Rolf D Vinebrooke
The effects of reducing nutrient inputs to lakes and reservoirs are often delayed by hysteresis resulting from internal phosphorus (P) loading from sediments. Consequently, controlling harmful algal blooms (HABs) in many eutrophic ecosystems requires additional management to improve water quality. We manipulated iron (Fe) concentrations in a hypereutrophic lake to determine if Fe amendment would suppress HABs by inhibiting P release from sediments. Our experiment consisted of 15 in situ mesocosms, 12 of which each received a different dose of Fe (ranging from 2 to 225 g/m(2) ); the remaining three were unmanipulated to serve as controls...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Ines Khedhri, Ahmed Afli, Lotfi Aleya
The authors investigated the impact of the extension of the El Kantra Channel on the composition and structure of macrobenthic assemblages in Boughrara Lagoon (Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia along with the use of 4 biotic indices (AMBI, BENTIX, M-AMBI and TUBI). Thirteen stations were sampled seasonally in 2012-2013. Forty-one species were found in 2012-2013 not recorded in 2009-2010, including 20 species of polychaetes belonging to the trophic groups of deposit-feeders and carnivores which are expected to increase in areas disturbed by organic pollution...
October 13, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Arman Zargaran, Saeid Daneshamouz, Gholamreza Kordafshari, Abdolali Mohagheghzadeh
The Ergh-al-Nassa pill (Hab) is a traditional combination suggested as one of the most effective preparations useful for treatment of sciatica. Although traditional preparations can be applied as new therapeutic drugs for investigations and clinical trials, they need to be reformulated to achieve pharmacopoeial standards for modern medicine. In this research, based on seven traditional Persian pharmacopeias for Ergh-al-NassaHab, nine different molded tablets were reformulated. Each formulation comprised the same amount of colchicum, ginger, aloe and yellow myrobalan fruit...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Alicja Puścian, Szymon Łęski, Grzegorz Kasprowicz, Maciej Winiarski, Joanna Borowska, Tomasz Nikolaev, Paweł M Boguszewski, Hans-Peter Lipp, Ewelina Knapska
Eco-HAB is an open source, RFID-based system for automated measurement and analysis of social preference and in-cohort sociability in mice. The system closely follows murine ethology. It requires no contact between a human experimenter and tested animals, overcoming the confounding factors that lead to irreproducible assessment of murine social behavior between laboratories. In Eco-HAB, group-housed animals live in a spacious, four-compartment apparatus with shadowed areas and narrow tunnels, resembling natural burrows...
October 12, 2016: ELife
Vittoria Roncalli, Jefferson T Turner, David Kulis, Donald M Anderson, Petra H Lenz
Inshore and offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine (USA) have spring/summer harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, which is responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans. The calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus co-occurs with A. fundyense during the seasonal blooms. At that time, C. finmarchicus population abundances are high, dominated by immature copepods preparing for diapause, and by actively-reproducing adults. High survival has been reported for copepods exposed to toxic A...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
Igor Jerković, Zvonimir Marijanović, Marina Zekić, Carlo I G Tuberoso
Rare Moltkia petraea (Tratt.) Griseb. honey from Croatia was first time characterised. The spectrophotometric assays on CIE L*a*b*Cab *hab ° colour coordinates, total phenol content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, DPPH(●) and ABTS(●+) assays) determined higher honey values generally close to dark honeys ranges. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) on two fibres after GC-FID and GC-MS revealed the major compounds 2-phenylacetaldehyde (12.8%; 15.6%), benzaldehyde (11.1%; 10.0%), octane (9...
October 8, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Jacob Spencer, Laura Scalfi, Antoine Carof, Jochen Blumberger
We investigate the performance of fewest switches surface hopping (SH) in describing electron transfer (ET) for a molecular donor-acceptor system. Computer simulations are carried out for a wide range of reorganisation energy (λ), electronic coupling strength (Hab) and driving force using our recently developed fragment orbital-based SH approach augmented with a simple decoherence correction. This methodology allows us to compute SH ET rates over more than four orders of magnitude, from the sub-picosecond to the nanosecond time regime...
October 3, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Luca Carnevali, Paul L Andrews, Inga D Neumann, Eugene Nalivaiko, Andrea Sgoifo
In humans, associations between anxiety and nausea (including motion-induced) are reported but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Hypothermia is proposed to be an index of nausea in rats. Utilising hypothermia and heart rate as outcome measures we investigated the response to provocative motion in rats selectively bred for high (HAB) and low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviors and in non-selected (NAB) rats to further elucidate the potential relationship between hypothermia and nausea-like state. Core temperature and electrocardiogram were monitored in each group (n=10 per group) using telemetry, with or without circular motion (40min; 0...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Courtney C Cocilova, Sarah L Milton
Harmful algal blooms are increasing in frequency and extent worldwide and occur nearly annually off the west coast of Florida where they affect both humans and wildlife. The dinoflagellate Karenia brevis is a key organism in Florida red tides that produces a suite of potent neurotoxins collectively referred to as the brevetoxins (PbTx). Brevetoxins bind to and open voltage gated sodium channels (VGSC), increasing cell permeability in excitable cells and depolarizing nerve and muscle tissue. Exposed animals may thus show muscular and neurological symptoms including head bobbing, muscle twitching, paralysis, and coma; large HABs can result in significant morbidity and mortality of marine life, including fish, birds, marine mammals, and sea turtles...
September 28, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Hans W Paerl, J Thad Scott, Mark J McCarthy, Silvia E Newell, Wayne S Gardner, Karl E Havens, Daniel K Hoffman, Steven W Wilhelm, Wayne A Wurtsbaugh
Preventing harmful algal blooms (HABs) is needed to protect lakes and downstream ecosystems. Traditionally, reducing phosphorus (P) inputs was the prescribed solution for lakes, based on the assumption that P universally limits HAB formation. Reduction of P inputs has decreased HABs in many lakes, but was not successful in others. Thus, the "P-only" paradigm is overgeneralized. Whole-lake experiments indicate that HABs are often stimulated more by combined P and nitrogen (N) enrichment rather than N or P alone, indicating that the dynamics of both nutrients are important for HAB control...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Dominik Lungerich, Jakob Hitzenberger, Wolfgang Donaubauer, Thomas Drewello, Norbert Jux
A feasible two-step synthesis and characterization of a full series of hexaarylbenzene (HAB) substituted (benzo)porphyrins is presented. Key steps represent the microwave-assisted porphyrin condensation and the statistical Diels-Alder reaction to the desired HAB-porphyrins. Regarding their applications, they proved to be easily accessible and effective high molecular mass calibrants for (MA)LDI mass spectrometry. The free-base and zinc(II) porphyrin systems, as well as the respective tetrabenzoporphyrins demonstrate in solid state experiments, strong red- and near-infrared-light emission and are potentially interesting for the application as "truly-organic" light-emitting devices...
September 23, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Michaela E Larsson, Penelope A Ajani, Ana M Rubio, Kristy Guise, Ross G McPherson, Steven J Brett, Kevin P Davies, Martina A Doblin
Sixteen years (1997-2013) of physicochemical, nutrient and phytoplankton biomass (Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a)) data and a decade (2003-2013) of phytoplankton composition and abundance data were analyzed to assess how the algal community in a temperate southeastern Australian estuary has responded to decreased chronic point source nitrogen loading following effluent treatment upgrade works in 2003. Nitrogen concentrations were significantly lower (P<0.05) following enhanced effluent treatment and Chl-a levels decreased (P<0...
September 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jie Cheng, Xiaogang Xun, Yifan Kong, Shuyue Wang, Zhihui Yang, Yajuan Li, Dexu Kong, Shi Wang, Lingling Zhang, Xiaoli Hu, Zhenmin Bao
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70s) family members are present in virtually all living organisms and perform a fundamental role against different types of environmental stressors and pathogenic organisms. Marine bivalves live in highly dynamic environments and may accumulate paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a class of well-known neurotoxins closely associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we provide a systematic analysis of Hsp70 genes (PyHsp70s) in the genome of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), an important aquaculture species in China, through in silico analysis using transcriptome and genome databases...
September 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Samara Perez, Gilla K Shapiro, Ovidiu Tatar, Keven Joyal-Desmarais, Zeev Rosberger
BACKGROUND: Parents' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination decision-making is strongly influenced by their attitudes and beliefs toward vaccination. To date, psychometrically evaluated HPV vaccination attitudes scales have been narrow in their range of measured beliefs and often limited to attitudes surrounding female HPV vaccination. The study aimed to develop a comprehensive, validated and reliable HPV vaccination attitudes and beliefs scale among parents of boys. METHODS: Data were collected from Canadian parents of 9- to 16-year-old boys using an online questionnaire completed in 2 waves with a 7-month interval...
October 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Carol J Boushey, Edward J Delp, Ziad Ahmad, Yu Wang, Sparkle M Roberts, Lynn M Grattan
Three Tribal Nations in the Pacific Northwest United States comprise the members of the CoASTAL cohort. These populations may be at risk for neurobehavioral impairment, i.e., amnesic shellfish poisoning, from shellfish consumption as a result of repeated, low-level domoic acid (DA) exposure present in local clams. Previous work with this cohort confirmed a high proportion of clam consumers with varying levels of potential exposure over time. Since clams are an episodically consumed food, traditional dietary records do not fully capture exposure...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
Sparkle M Roberts, Lynn M Grattan, Alexandra C Toben, Christina Ausherman, Vera Trainer, Kate Tracy, J Glenn Morris
Risk perception is a complex process that refers to the way people approach, think about and interpret risks in their environment. An important element of risk perception is that it is culturally situated. Since HAB's can present a health risk in many places around the world, looking at cultural parameters for understanding and interpreting risks are important. This study examined how two different groups of people perceive the potential health risks of low level exposure to domoic acid (DA) through razor clam consumption...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
Kate Tracy, Carol Boushey, Sparkle M Roberts, J Glenn Morris, Lynn M Grattan
The CoASTAL cohort represents the first community cohort assembled to study a HAB related illness. It is comprised of three Native American tribes in the Pacific NW for the purpose of studying the health impacts of chronic, low level domoic acid (DA) exposure through razor clam consumption. This cohort is at risk of domoic acid (DA) toxicity by virtue of their geographic location (access to beaches with a history of elevated DA levels in razor clams) and the cultural and traditional significance of razor clams in their diet...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
Lynn M Grattan, Sailor Holobaugh, J Glenn Morris
The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
Quan Zhang, Qin Song, Cui Wang, Cong Zhou, Chengsheng Lu, Meirong Zhao
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been emerging as a worldwide issue due to their detrimental effect to water quality and the threat to ecological health. However, there were scarcely reports on whether existing agrochemicals such as herbicides have potential effects on Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) which may form large surface blooms. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the effects of glufosinate, a widely use herbicide in the world, on the growth of M. aeruginosa. The change of the content of intracellular (intra-) and extracellular (extra-) levels of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) were also determined by HPLC...
September 7, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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