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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086916/microglial-activation-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-18-f-feppa
#1
Christine Ghadery, Yuko Koshimori, Sarah Coakeley, Madeleine Harris, Pablo Rusjan, Jinhee Kim, Sylvain Houle, Antonio P Strafella
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory processes including activated microglia have been reported to play an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Increased expression of translocator protein (TSPO) has been observed after brain injury and inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand targeting TSPO allows for the quantification of neuroinflammation in vivo. METHODS: Based on the genotype of the rs6791 polymorphism in the TSPO gene, we included 25 mixed-affinity binders (MABs) (14 PD patients and 11 age-matched healthy controls (HC)) and 27 high-affinity binders (HABs) (16 PD patients and 11 age-matched HC) to assess regional differences in the second-generation radioligand [(18)F]-FEPPA between PD patients and HC...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073564/education-and-notification-approaches-for-harmful-algal-blooms-habs-washington-state-usa
#2
F Joan Hardy, Debra Bouchard, Marisa Burghdoff, Ray Hanowell, Beth LeDoux, Ellen Preece, Lindsay Tuttle, Gene Williams
While numerous strategies have been used to educate and notify the public about potential hazards from exposure to Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), at present there are no national guidelines or suggested outreach approaches. To raise public awareness and determine effective HAB outreach methods, two Washington State agencies and three counties in the Puget Sound region implemented several education and notification strategies. These approaches were rated for effectiveness by state and county public health and water quality professionals...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073545/a-validated-uplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-surveillance-of-ten-aquatic-biotoxins-in-european-brackish-and-freshwater-systems
#3
Brett Greer, Sara E McNamee, Bas Boots, Lucia Cimarelli, Delphine Guillebault, Karim Helmi, Stefania Marcheggiani, Stefan Panaiotov, Ulrich Breitenbach, Reyhan Akçaalan, Linda K Medlin, Katrin Kittler, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Over the past few decades, there has been an increased frequency and duration of cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in freshwater systems globally. These can produce secondary metabolites called cyanotoxins, many of which are hepatotoxins, raising concerns about repeated exposure through ingestion of contaminated drinking water or food or through recreational activities such as bathing/swimming. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) multi-toxin method has been developed and validated for freshwater cyanotoxins; microcystins-LR, -YR, -RR, -LA, -LY and -LF, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxin-a and the marine diatom toxin domoic acid...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073541/the-main-nitrate-transporter-of-the-dinoflagellate-lingulodinium-polyedrum-is-constitutively-expressed-and-not-responsible-for-daily-variations-in-nitrate-uptake-rates
#4
Steve Dagenais Bellefeuille, David Morse
Dinoflagellates are unicellular eukaryotes capable of forming spectacular harmful algal blooms (HABs). Eutrophication of coastal waters by fertilizer runoff, nitrate in particular, has contributed to recent increases in the frequency, magnitude and geographic extent of HABs. Although physiological nitrate uptake and assimilation in dinoflagellates have often been measured in the field and in the laboratory, no molecular components involved in nitrate transport have yet been reported. This study reports the first identification and characterization of dinoflagellate nitrate transporters, found in the transcriptome of the bloom-forming Lingulodinium polyedrum...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073539/physical-processes-leading-to-the-development-of-an-anomalously-large-cochlodinium-polykrikoides-bloom-in-the-east-sea-japan-sea
#5
Dae-Won Kim, Young-Heon Jo, Jong-Kuk Choi, Jang-Geun Choi, Hongsheng Bi
An anomalously large Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) was observed in the southwest coast of the East/Japan Sea (hereafter the East Sea) during the summer of 2013. During this time period, the presence of Cochlodinium polykrikoides (C. polykrikoides) was detected by the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and validated by in-situ observations. GOCI observations have been available since 2011, thus allowingto examine various stages of the physical condition of the developing C. polykrikoides bloom, thereby other multi-satellite and buoy measurements obtained between 2011 and 2013...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073532/toxigenic-algae-and-associated-phycotoxins-in-two-coastal-embayments-in-the-ebro-delta-nw-mediterranean
#6
Julia A Busch, Karl B Andree, Jorge Diogène, Margarita Fernández-Tejedor, Kerstin Toebe, Uwe John, Bernd Krock, Urban Tillmann, Allan D Cembella
Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) surveillance is complicated by high diversity of species and associated phycotoxins. Such species-level information on taxonomic affiliations and on cell abundance and toxin content is, however, crucial for effective monitoring, especially of aquaculture and fisheries areas. The aim addressed in this study was to determine putative HAB taxa and related phycotoxins in plankton from aquaculture sites in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean. The comparative geographical distribution of potentially harmful plankton taxa was established by weekly field sampling throughout the water column during late spring-early summer over two years at key stations in Alfacs and Fangar embayments within the Ebro Delta...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073530/variation-in-the-abundance-of-pseudo-nitzschia-and-domoic-acid-with-surf-zone-type
#7
Alan L Shanks, Steven G Morgan, Jamie MacMahan, Ad J H M Reniers, Raphael Kudela, Marley Jarvis, Jenna Brown, Atsushi Fujimura, Lisa Ziccarelli, Chris Griesemer
Most harmful algal blooms (HAB) originate away from the shore and, for them to endanger human health, they must be first transported to shore after which they must enter the surf zone where they can be feed upon by filter feeders. The last step in this sequence, entrance into the surf zone, depends on surf zone hydrodynamics. During two 30-day periods, we sampled Pseudo-nitzschia and particulate domoic acid (pDA) in and offshore of a more dissipative surf zone at Sand City, California (2010) and sampled Pseudo-nitzschia in and out of reflective surf zones at a beach and rocky shores at Carmel River State Beach, California (2011)...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073526/prevalence-of-algal-toxins-in-alaskan-marine-mammals-foraging-in-a-changing-arctic-and-subarctic-environment
#8
Kathi A Lefebvre, Lori Quakenbush, Elizabeth Frame, Kathy Burek Huntington, Gay Sheffield, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Anna Bryan, Preston Kendrick, Heather Ziel, Tracey Goldstein, Jonathan A Snyder, Tom Gelatt, Frances Gulland, Bobette Dickerson, Verena Gill
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073524/distribution-occurrence-and-biotoxin-composition-of-the-main-shellfish-toxin-producing-microalgae-within-european-waters-a-comparison-of-methods-of-analysis
#9
Sara E McNamee, Linda K Medlin, Jessica Kegel, Gary R McCoy, Robin Raine, Lucia Barra, Maria Valeria Ruggiero, Wiebe H C F Kooistra, Marina Montresor, Johannes Hagstrom, Eva Perez Blanco, Edna Graneli, Francisco Rodríguez, Laura Escalera, Beatriz Reguera, Simon Dittami, Bente Edvardsen, Joe Taylor, Jane M Lewis, Yolanda Pazos, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a natural global phenomena emerging in severity and extent. Incidents have many economic, ecological and human health impacts. Monitoring and providing early warning of toxic HABs are critical for protecting public health. Current monitoring programmes include measuring the number of toxic phytoplankton cells in the water and biotoxin levels in shellfish tissue. As these efforts are demanding and labour intensive, methods which improve the efficiency are essential. This study compares the utilisation of a multitoxin surface plasmon resonance (multitoxin SPR) biosensor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analytical methods such as high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for toxic HAB monitoring efforts in Europe...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073502/lethal-effects-of-ichthyotoxic-raphidophytes-chattonella-marina-c-antiqua-and-heterosigma-akashiwo-on-post-embryonic-stages-of-the-japanese-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata-martensii
#10
Leila Basti, Kiyohito Nagai, Jiyoji Go, Sho Okano, Tatsuya Oda, Yuji Tanaka, Satoshi Nagai
The inimical effects of the ichthyotoxic harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming raphidophytes Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella marina, and Chattonella antiqua on the early-life stages of the Japanese pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii were studied. Fertilized eggs and developing embryos were not affected following exposure to the harmful raphidophytes; however, all three algal species severely affected trochophores and D-larvae, early-stage D-larvae, and late-stage pre-settling larvae. Exposure to C. marina (5×10(2)cellsml(-1)), C...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073500/initial-skill-assessment-of-the-california-harmful-algae-risk-mapping-c-harm-system
#11
Clarissa R Anderson, Raphael M Kudela, Mati Kahru, Yi Chao, Leslie K Rosenfeld, Frederick L Bahr, David M Anderson, Tenaya A Norris
Toxic algal events are an annual burden on aquaculture and coastal ecosystems of California. The threat of domoic acid (DA) toxicity to human and wildlife health is the dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) concern for the region, leading to a strong focus on prediction and mitigation of these blooms and their toxic effects. This paper describes the initial development of the California Harmful Algae Risk Mapping (C-HARM) system that predicts the spatial likelihood of blooms and dangerous levels of DA using a unique blend of numerical models, ecological forecast models of the target group, Pseudo-nitzschia, and satellite ocean color imagery...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073497/development-of-a-quantitative-pcr-method-to-explore-the-historical-occurrence-of-a-nuisance-microalga-under-expansion
#12
Karin S L Johansson, Katharina Lührig, Jonatan Klaminder, Karin Rengefors
A number of marine and freshwater harmful algal bloom (HAB) species have colonized new areas and expanded their habitat range in recent years. Nevertheless it is notoriously difficult to establish when colonization first occurred, what the dispersal routes are, and to separate recent invasion from increases in existent but small populations. The freshwater raphidophyte Gonyostomum semen is a nuisance species that has expanded its habitat range and increased in abundance in northern Europe during the past decades...
June 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073496/the-re-eutrophication-of-lake-erie-harmful-algal-blooms-and-hypoxia
#13
REVIEW
Susan B Watson, Carol Miller, George Arhonditsis, Gregory L Boyer, Wayne Carmichael, Murray N Charlton, Remegio Confesor, David C Depew, Tomas O Höök, Stuart A Ludsin, Gerald Matisoff, Shawn P McElmurry, Michael W Murray, R Peter Richards, Yerubandi R Rao, Morgan M Steffen, Steven W Wilhelm
Lake Erie supplies drinking water to more than 11 million consumers, processes millions of gallons of wastewater, provides important species habitat and supports a substantial industrial sector, with >$50 billion annual income to tourism, recreational boating, shipping, fisheries, and other industries. These and other key ecosystem services are currently threatened by an excess supply of nutrients, manifested in particular by increases in the magnitude and extent of harmful planktonic and benthic algal blooms (HABs) and hypoxia...
June 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073449/harmful-algal-bloom-forecast-system-for-sw-ireland-part-ii-are-operational-oceanographic-models-useful-in-a-hab-warning-system
#14
Caroline Cusack, Tomasz Dabrowski, Kieran Lyons, Alan Berry, Guy Westbrook, Rafael Salas, Conor Duffy, Glenn Nolan, Joe Silke
This study investigated the application of a three-dimensional physical hydrodynamic model in a harmful algal bloom forecast system for Bantry Bay, southwest Ireland. Modelled oceanographic conditions were studied and used to help understand observed changes in the chemical and biological patterns from the national biotoxins and phytoplankton monitoring program. The study focused on two toxic events in 2013. An upwelling event was predicted by the model prior to the appearance and population increase of potentially toxic diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia, and associated domoic acid in shellfish...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073448/modeling-the-transport-pathways-of-harmful-algal-blooms-in-the-iberian-coast
#15
L Pinto, M Mateus, A Silva
The prediction of the path of harmful algal blooms (HABs) along the coast can be achieved using numerical models of ocean circulation in order to reproduce the hydrodynamics of the study area. With this setting, our work aimed at the (1) study of key past events to evaluate the model ability to reproduce the transport pathways of blooms along the Iberian coast, and (2) to assess the relevance of such strictly physical approach. The simulations described here rely on the advection of lagrangian elements after a point release in a hypothetical location for bloom initiation, and the subsequent assessment of the influence of the surface currents transport on the extent of the bloom...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073446/harmful-algal-bloom-forecast-system-for-sw-ireland-part-i-description-and-validation-of-an-operational-forecasting-model
#16
Tomasz Dabrowski, Kieran Lyons, Glenn Nolan, Alan Berry, Caroline Cusack, Joe Silke
A 3D primitive equation coastal ocean model for southwest Ireland, called the Bantry Bay model, was developed and implemented operationally. Validated model outputs have multiple uses. One of the incentives to develop the model was to explore the possible transport pathways that carry harmful algae blooms (HAB) into Bantry Bay. The model is nested offline in a regional North East Atlantic operational model. Surface forcing is taken from the half-degree Global Forecasting System, available at three-hourly intervals...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073445/distribution-and-dynamics-of-two-species-of-dinophyceae-producing-high-biomass-blooms-over-the-french-atlantic-shelf
#17
M Sourisseau, K Jegou, M Lunven, J Quere, F Gohin, P Bryere
The frequency and distribution of high biomass blooms produced by two dinoflagellate species were analysed along the French continental shelf from 1998 to 2012. Two species were specifically studied: Karenia mikimotoi and Lepidodinium chlorophorum. Based on remote-sensing reflectances at six channels (410, 430, 480, 530, 550 and 670nm), satellite indices were created to discriminate the species forming the blooms. A comparison with observations showed that the identification was good for both species in spite of a lower specificity for L...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073444/modelling-the-hydrodynamic-conditions-associated-with-dinophysis-blooms-in-galicia-nw-spain
#18
Manuel Ruiz-Villarreal, Luz M García-García, Marcos Cobas, Patricio A Díaz, Beatriz Reguera
The northwestern Iberian coast (Galician Rías and shelf) is frequently affected by toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) (mainly Dinophysis spp.), leading to lengthy harvesting closures in a region where aquaculture has a strong socioeconomic impact. The project ASIMUTH (http://www.asimuth.eu) aimed to develop forecasting capabilities to warn of impending HABs along the European Atlantic coast. Simulations with the ROMS model (hydrodynamical and ecological simulations complemented with Lagrangian particle tracking simulations) of the Galician coastal circulation have been performed in the framework of the ASIMUTH project to characterize and forecast oceanographic conditions before and during HAB periods...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073443/a-hab-warning-system-for-shellfish-harvesting-in-portugal
#19
A Silva, L Pinto, S M Rodrigues, H de Pablo, M Santos, T Moita, M Mateus
The development of sustainable shellfish aquaculture is highly dependent on the provision of reliable monitoring and predictive information on the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). The Portuguese HAB early warning system and shellfish closures presented here is a prototype, developed in the ASIMUTH project. It relies on weekly monitoring data composed of observations of HAB species and toxin concentrations within shellfish, and ocean circulation forecasts generated by an operational oceanographic model...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073441/applied-simulations-and-integrated-modelling-for-the-understanding-of-toxic-and-harmful-algal-blooms-asimuth-integrated-hab-forecast-systems-for-europe-s-atlantic-arc
#20
Julie Maguire, Caroline Cusack, Manuel Ruiz-Villarreal, Joe Silke, Deirdre McElligott, Keith Davidson
Reasons for the emergent interest in HABs are abundant, including concerns associated with human health, adverse effects on biological resources, economic losses attributed to recreation, tourism and seafood related industries, and the cost of maintaining public advisory services and monitoring programs for shellfish toxins and water quality. The impact of HABs can potentially be mitigated by early warning of their development. In this regard the project ASIMUTH (Applied Simulations and Integrated Modelling for the Understanding of Toxic and Harmful algal blooms) was borne in order to develop short term HAB alert systems for Atlantic Europe...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
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