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Ganeko Bernardo-Seisdedos, Eider Nuñez, Carolina Gomis, Covadonga Malo, Álvaro Villarroel, Oscar Millet
The Kv7.2 (KCNQ2) channel is the principal molecular component of the slow voltage-gated, noninactivating K+ M-current, a key controller of neuronal excitability. To investigate the calmodulin (CaM)-mediated Ca2+ gating of the channel, we used NMR spectroscopy to structurally and dynamically describe the association of helices h A and h B of Kv7.2 with CaM, as a function of Ca2+ concentration. The structures of the CaM/Kv7.2-hAB complex at two different calcification states are reported here. In the presence of a basal cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (10-100 nM), only the N-lobe of CaM is Ca2+ -loaded and the complex (representative of the open channel) exhibits collective dynamics on the millisecond time scale toward a low-populated excited state (1...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lingling Wu, Guojun Wen, Yudan Wang, Lei Huang, Jiang Zhou
Horizontal auger boring (HAB) is a widely used trenchless technology for the high-accuracy installation of gravity or pressure pipelines on line and grade. Differing from other pipeline installations, HAB requires a more precise and automated guidance system for use in a practical project. This paper proposes an economic and enhanced automated optical guidance system, based on optimization research of light-emitting diode (LED) light target and five automated image processing bore-path deviation algorithms...
February 15, 2018: Sensors
Inia M Soto, Mustafa Kemal Cambazoglu, Adam D Boyette, Kristina Broussard, Drew Sheehan, Stephan D Howden, Alan M Shiller, Brian Dzwonkowski, Laura Hode, Patrick J Fitzpatrick, Robert A Arnone, Paul F Mickle, Kimberly Cressman
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis have been documented along coastal waters of every state bordering the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Some Gulf Coast locations, such as Florida and Texas, suffer from recurrent intense and spatially large blooms, while others such as Mississippi seem to rarely observe them. The main objective of this work is to understand the dynamics that led to the K. brevis bloom in Mississippi coastal waters in fall 2015. Blooms of K. brevis from the Florida Panhandle region are often advected westward towards the Mississippi-Alabama coast; however there is interannual variability in their presence and intensity in Mississippi coastal waters...
February 2018: Harmful Algae
Yue Zhang, Zhiming Yu, Xiuxian Song, Yongquan Yuan, Xihua Cao
Cyst formation plays an important role in the resistance of dinoflagellates to adverse environments, and cyst germination is considered one of the causes of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Among the methods for mitigating HABs, modified clay (MC) is considered a promising strategy because of its high efficiency and low environmental impacts. The typical HAB species Alexandrium pacificum was focused on in this study to clarify the effects of MC on cyst formation and germination. The results showed that more than 90% of the vegetative cells were removed under the 0...
February 2018: Harmful Algae
Stéphane Karasiewicz, Elsa Breton, Alain Lefebvre, Tania Hernández Fariñas, Sébastien Lefebvre
The link between harmful algal blooms, phytoplankton community dynamics and global environmental change is not well understood. To tackle this challenging question, a new method was used to reveal how phytoplankton communities responded to environmental change with the occurrence of an harmful algae, using the coastal waters of the eastern English Channel as a case study. The great interannual variability in the magnitude and intensity of Phaeocystis spp. blooms, along with diatoms, compared to the ongoing gradual decrease in anthropogenic nutrient concentration and rebalancing of nutrient ratios; suggests that other factors, such as competition for resources, may also play an important role...
February 2018: Harmful Algae
Douglas Couet, Olivier Pringault, Chrystelle Bancon-Montigny, Nicolas Briant, Françoise Elbaz Poulichet, Sophie Delpoux, Ons Kefi-Daly Yahia, BenGharbia Hela, M'Rabet Charaf, Fabienne Hervé, Georges Rovillon, Zouher Amzil, Mohamed Laabir
Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to test the effects of copper (Cu2+) and butyltins (BuT) on the growth, photosynthetic activity and toxin content of two HABs (Harmful Algal Blooms) dinoflagellates, the planktonic Alexandrium catenella and the benthic Ostreopsis cf. ovata. Microalgae were exposed to increasing concentrations of Cu2+ (10-4 to 31 nM) or BuT (0.084 to 84 nM) for seven days. When considering the growth, EC50 values were 0.16 (±0.09) nM and 0.03 (±0.02) nM of Cu2+ for A. catenella and O...
January 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Musong Chen, Shiming Ding, Xiang Chen, Qin Sun, Xianfang Fan, Juan Lin, Mingyi Ren, Liyuan Yang, Chaosheng Zhang
Algal growth causes a drastic change in aquatic conditions over a diel cycle, which may induce sensitive feedback systems in sediments, causing P release. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed using a suction sampler (Rhizon) to observe changes in soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and soluble Fe(II) concentrations in the top 20 mm sediment layer on a 3-h time interval, at different phases of harmful algal bloom (HAB) development. The results showed that the algal blooms prevailed up to 15 days after incubation, after which the process of bloom collapse proceeded until the 70th day...
January 18, 2018: Water Research
Raquel A F Neves, Mariana Contins, Silvia M Nascimento
Blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata have been recorded with increasing frequency, intensity and geographic distribution. This dinoflagellate produces potent toxins that may cause mortality of marine invertebrates. Adults of sea urchins are commonly affected by O. cf. ovata exposure with evidence of spines loss and high mortality during periods of high dinoflagellate abundances. Here, we report on the effects of the toxic dinoflagellate O. cf. ovata on fertilization and early development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, a key ecological herbivore...
February 2, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Ji-Hye Jang, Yun Shang, Hyun Kyung Kang, Sun Young Kim, Beg Hab Kim, Kyoung Hee Nam
Seed germination begins the growth phases of plants and its rate is affected not only by plant hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroids (BRs), but also by environmental factors. In this study, we searched for additional chemical reagents that affect seed germination, using the det2-1 and ga1-3 mutants that showed reduced seed germination due to defective BR- or GA- biosynthesis, respectively. We found that the reducing reagent dithiothreitol (DTT) specifically enhanced seed germination of det2-1 compared with that of ga1-3...
February 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Jorge León-Muñoz, Mauricio A Urbina, René Garreaud, José Luis Iriarte
A harmful algal bloom (HAB) of the raphidophyta alga Pseudochattonella cf. verruculosa during the 2016 austral summer (February-March) killed nearly 12% of the Chilean salmon production, causing the worst mass mortality of fish and shellfish ever recorded in the coastal waters of western Patagonia. The HAB coincided with a strong El Niño event and the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode that altered the atmospheric circulation in southern South America and the adjacent Pacific Ocean. This led to very dry conditions and higher than normal solar radiation reaching the surface...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nanjing Ji, Lingxiao Lin, Ling Li, Liying Yu, Yaqun Zhang, Hao Luo, Meizhen Li, Xinguo Shi, Da-Zhi Wang, Senjie Lin
Despite numerous laboratory studies on physiologies of harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, physiologies of these algae during a natural bloom are understudied. Here, we investigated a bloom of the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo in the East China Sea in 2014 using metabarcode (18S rDNA) and metatranscriptome sequencing. Based on 18S rDNA analyses, the phytoplankton community shifted from high diversity in the pre-bloom stage to H. akashiwo predominance during the bloom. A sharp decrease in ambient dissolved inorganic phosphate and strong up-regulation of phosphate and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) uptake genes, including the rarely documented (ppGpp)ase, in H...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Lauren A Saag, Ashutosh R Tamhane, D Scott Batey, Michael J Mugavero, Ellen F Eaton
BACKGROUND: Mental health (MH) comorbidities reduce retention in care for persons living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with poor health outcomes. Optimizing retention in primary care is vital, as poor retention is associated with delayed receipt of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, ARV non-adherence, and poor health outcomes, including failure to suppress viral load, decreased CD4 counts, and clinically significant ARV drug resistance. We hypothesized that MH service utilization would be associated with improved retention in care for patients with HIV and MH comorbidities...
January 16, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Julie Ottoy, Livia De Picker, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Steven Deleye, Leonie Wyffels, Lauren Kosten, Bernard Sabbe, Violette Coppens, Maarten Timmers, Luc Van Nueten, Sarah Ceyssens, Sigrid Stroobants, Manuel Morrens, Steven Staelens
Activated microglia express the translocator protein (TSPO) on the outer mitochondrial membrane. 18F-PBR111 is a second-generation positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that specifically binds the TSPO, allowing in-vivo visualization and quantification of neuroinflammation. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the test-retest variability of 18F-PBR111 in healthy controls is acceptable to detect a psychosis-associated neuroinflammatory signal in schizophrenia. Methods: Dynamic 90-min 18F-PBR111 scans were obtained in 17 healthy male controls (HC) and 11 male schizophrenia patients during a psychotic episode (SP)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Ayda Hosseinkhani, Nasrin Asadi, Mehdi Pasalar, Mohammad M Zarshenas
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Its cause is unknown and it remains the most enigmatic of reproductive disorders. The extant written documents of Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) - with holistic approaches towards human health - contain remedies used for centuries. Before further experimental research on any of these treatments, it is appropriate to study current related scientific evidence on their possible pharmacological actions. This work aims to study PCOS and its treatments in TPM...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Roshan R Naik, Sergey V Sotnikov, Rebekka P Diepold, Stella Iurato, Patrick O Markt, Andrea Bultmann, Nadine Brehm, Tobias Mattheus, Beat Lutz, Angelika Erhardt, Elisabeth B Binder, Ulrike Schmidt, Florian Holsboer, Rainer Landgraf, Ludwig Czibere
TMEM132D is a candidate gene, where risk genotypes have been associated with anxiety severity along with higher mRNA expression in the frontal cortex of panic disorder patients. Concurrently, in a high (HAB) and low (LAB) trait anxiety mouse model, Tmem132d was found to show increased expression in the anterior cingulate cortex (aCC) of HAB as compared to LAB mice. To understand the molecular underpinnings underlying the differential expression, we sequenced the gene and found two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter differing between both lines which could explain the observed mRNA expression profiles using gene reporter assays...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Shiming Ding, Musong Chen, Mengdan Gong, Xianfang Fan, Boqiang Qin, Hai Xu, ShuaiShuai Gao, Zengfeng Jin, Daniel C W Tsang, Chaosheng Zhang
It is proposed that the internal loading of phosphorus (P) from sediments plays an important role in seasonal nitrogen (N) limitation for harmful algal blooms (HABs), although there is a lack of experimental evidence. In this study, an eutrophic bay from the large and shallow Lake Taihu was studied for investigating the contribution of internal P to N limitation over one-year field sampling (February 2016 to January 2017). A prebloom-bloom period was identified from February to August according to the increase in Chla concentration in the water column, during which the ratio of total N to total P (TN/TP) exponentially decreased with month from 43...
January 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ying-Ying Sun, Jing-Zeng Xing, Jian-Shuo Zhang, Wen-Jing Zhou, Yin-Fang Pu
Previous studies showed that methanol extracts from Porphyra yezoensis significantly inhibited Karenia mikimitoi and Skeletonema costatum. Five sesquiterpenoids (1-5) were successfully isolated from this marine macroalga through a combination of silica gel column chromatography and repeated preparative thin-layer chromatography in this paper. Their structure was identified as gossonorol (1), 7,10-epoxy-ar-bisabol-11-ol (2), cyclonerodiol (3), cadinol, (4) and 4-cadinen-1-ol (5) on the basis of spectroscopic data...
January 2, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Patricija Mozetič, Monica Cangini, Janja Francé, Mauro Bastianini, Fabrizio Bernardi Aubry, Mia Bužančić, Marina Cabrini, Federica Cerino, Marijeta Čalić, Raffaele D'Adamo, Dragana Drakulović, Stefania Finotto, Daniela Fornasaro, Federica Grilli, Romina Kraus, Nataša Kužat, Daniela Marić Pfannkuchen, Živana Ninčević Gladan, Marinella Pompei, Ana Rotter, Irene Servadei, Sanda Skejić
An inventory of phytoplankton diversity in 12 Adriatic ports was performed with the port baseline survey. Particular emphasis was put on the detection of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOP) because of their negative impact on ecosystem, human health, and the economy. Phytoplanktonic HAOP are identified as species, either native or non-indigenous (NIS), which can trigger harmful algal blooms (HAB). A list of 691 taxa was prepared, and among them 52 were classified as HAB and five as NIS. Records of toxigenic NIS (Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, Ostreopsis species including O...
December 30, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Andrew R Cook, Michal Valášek, Alison M Funston, Pavel Poliakov, Josef Michl, John R Miller
Optical electron transfer (intervalence) transitions in radical anions of p-carborane oligomers attest to delocalization of electrons between two p-carboranes cages or a p-carborane and a phenyl ring. Oligomers of the twelve vertex p-carborane (C2B10H12) cage, [12], with up to 3 cages were synthesized, as well as p-carboranes with one or two trimethylsilylphenyl groups, [6], attached to the carbon termini. Pulse radiolysis in THF produced radical anions, determined redox potentials by equilibria and measured their absorption spectra...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Chang Tian, Martina A Doblin, Katherine A Dafforn, Emma L Johnston, Haiyan Pei, Wenrong Hu
There is growing public concern about the global expansion of harmful algal bloom species (HABs), with dinoflagellate microalgae comprising the major portion of the harmful taxa. These motile, unicellular organisms have a lifecycle involving sexual reproduction and resting cyst formation whereby cysts can germinate from sediments and 'seed' planktonic populations. Thus, investigation of dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) distribution in sediments can provide significant insights into HAB dynamics and contribute to indices of habitat quality...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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