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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429062/detection-of-freshwater-cyanotoxins-and-measurement-of-masked-microcystins-in-tilapia-from-southeast-asian-aquaculture-farms
#1
Brett Greer, Ronald Maul, Katrina Campbell, Christopher T Elliott
Recently, there has been a rise in freshwater harmful algal blooms (HABs) globally, as well as increasing aquaculture practices. HABs can produce cyanotoxins, many of which are hepatotoxins. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for nine cyanotoxins across three classes including six microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a. The method was used to analyse free cyanotoxin(s) in muscle (n = 34), liver (n = 17) and egg (n = 9) tissue samples of 34 fish sourced from aquaculture farms in Southeast Asia...
April 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427011/biosensors-for-the-monitoring-of-harmful-algal-blooms
#2
REVIEW
Daniel A McPartlin, Jonathan H Loftus, Aoife S Crawley, Joe Silke, Caroline S Murphy, Richard J O'Kennedy
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a major global concern due to their propensity to cause environmental damage, healthcare issues and economic losses. In particular, the presence of toxic phytoplankton is a cause for concern. Current HAB monitoring programs often involve laborious laboratory-based analysis at a high cost and with long turnaround times. The latter also hampers the potential to develop accurate and reliable models that can predict HAB occurrence. However, a promising solution for this issue may be in the form of remotely deployed biosensors, which can rapidly and continuously measure algal and toxin levels at the point-of-need (PON), at a low cost...
April 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380578/ruminal-tryptophan-utilizing-bacteria-degrade-ergovaline-from-tall-fescue-seed-extract
#3
B E Harlow, J P Goodman, B C Lynn, M D Flythe, H Ji, G E Aiken
The objectives of this study were to evaluate degradation of ergovaline in a tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.] seed extract by rumen microbiota ex vivo and to identify specific bacteria capable of ergovaline degradation in vitro. Rumen cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated wether goats ( = 3), straining, and differential centrifugation. Suspensions were dispensed into anaerobic tubes with added Trypticase with or without extract (∼10 μg kg ergovaline). Suspensions were incubated for 48 h at 39°C...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366402/genome-complexity-of-harmful-microalgae
#4
REVIEW
Silvia Casabianca, Luca Cornetti, Samuela Capellacci, Cristiano Vernesi, Antonella Penna
During the past decade, next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have provided new insights into the diversity, dynamics, and metabolic pathways of natural microbial communities. But, these new techniques face challenges related to the genome size and level of genome complexity of the species under investigation. Moreover, the coverage depth and the short-read length achieved by NGS based approaches also represent a major challenge for assembly. These factors could limit the use of these high-throughput sequencing methods for species lacking a reference genome and characterized by a high level of complexity...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366393/a-novel-application-of-an-adaptable-modeling-approach-to-the-management-of-toxic-microalgal-bloom-events-in-coastal-areas
#5
Valentina Asnaghi, Danilo Pecorino, Ennio Ottaviani, Andrea Pedroncini, Rosa Maria Bertolotto, Mariachiara Chiantore
Harmful algal blooms have been increasing in frequency in recent years, and attention has shifted from describing to modeling and trying to predict these phenomena, since in many cases they pose a risk to human health and coastal activities. Predicting ecological phenomena is often time and resource consuming, since a large number of field collected data are required. We propose a novel approach that involves the use of modeled meteorological data as input features to predict the concentration of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366389/combined-physical-chemical-and-biological-factors-shape-alexandrium-ostenfeldii-blooms-in-the-netherlands
#6
Karen M Brandenburg, Lisette N de Senerpont Domis, Sylke Wohlrab, Bernd Krock, Uwe John, Yvonne van Scheppingen, Ellen van Donk, Dedmer B Van de Waal
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are globally expanding, compromising water quality worldwide. HAB dynamics are determined by a complex interplay of abiotic and biotic factors, and their emergence has often been linked to eutrophication, and more recently to climate change. The dinoflagellate Alexandrium is one of the most widespread HAB genera and its success is based on key functional traits like allelopathy, mixotrophy, cyst formation and nutrient retrieval migrations. Since 2012, dense Alexandrium ostenfeldii blooms (up to 4500cellsmL(-1)) have recurred annually in a creek located in the southwest of the Netherlands, an area characterized by intense agriculture and aquaculture...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363127/tissue-uptake-distribution-and-excretion-of-brevetoxin-3-after-oral-and-intratracheal-exposure-in-the-freshwater-turtle-trachemys-scripta-and-the-diamondback-terrapin-malaclemys-terrapin
#7
Courtney C Cocilova, Leanne J Flewelling, Gregory D Bossart, April A Granholm, Sarah L Milton
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occur nearly annually off the west coast of Florida and can impact both humans and wildlife, resulting in morbidity and increased mortality of marine animals including sea turtles. The key organism in Florida red tides is the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis that produces a suite of potent neurotoxins referred to as the brevetoxins (PbTx). Despite recent mortality events and rehabilitation efforts, still little is known about how the toxin directly impacts sea turtles, as they are not amenable to experimentation and what is known about toxin levels and distribution comes primarily from post-mortem data...
March 7, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363081/proposal-and-application-of-a-novel-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-scoring-system-in-the-florida-manatee-trichechus-manatus-latirostris
#8
Ashley Barratclough, Ray L Ball, Ruth Francis Floyd, Roger L Reep, Bobbi J Conner
  Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is an acquired disorder of hemostasis resulting in activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways. It is reported secondarily to multiple disease processes and can be associated with increased mortality. Previous research at Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo (LPZ) demonstrated that Florida manatees ( Trichechus manatus latirostris) with cold stress syndrome (CSS) demonstrated thromboembolic disease. The object of this retrospective study was to establish the presence and clinical relevance of DIC in Florida manatees admitted to LPZ for rehabilitation from 07 March 2010 to 15 August 2015...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349870/improvement-of-cyanobacterial-killing-biologically-derived-substances-bdss-using-an-ecologically-safe-and-cost-effective-naphthoquinone-derivative
#9
Jae-Hyoung Joo, Pengbin Wang, Bum Soo Park, Jeong-Hwan Byun, Hye Jeong Choi, Seong Hun Kim, Myung-Soo Han
In previous studies, naphthoquinone (NQ) compounds have been shown to be effective, selective, and ecologically safe algicides for controlling harmful algal blooming species (HABs) or winter bloom species, such as Stephanodiscus hantzschii. However, there are no reports on NQ-based algicides for use with cyanobacterial blooming species. In this study, we developed 31 NQ compounds to investigate algicides for mitigating cyanobacterial blooms. In addition, to better apply these compounds in the field, we reduced the number of production steps to develop a cost-effective algicide...
March 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316982/hidden-igg-antibodies-to-the-tumor-associated-thomsen-friedenreich-antigen-in-gastric-cancer-patients-lectin-reactivity-avidity-and-clinical-relevance
#10
Oleg Kurtenkov, Kersti Klaamas
Natural antibodies to the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF) are related to tumor immunosurveillance and cancer patients' survival. Hidden IgG antibodies (HAbs) to TF, their lectin reactivity, avidity, and clinical relevance were studied. HAbs were present in cancer patients and controls. A decreased level of IgG HAbs was detected in cancer. The HAbs level positively correlated with the sialospecific SNA lectin binding in purified total IgG (tIgG) in donors and cancer patients, indicating that HAbs are higher sialylated...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315825/effects-of-florida-red-tides-on-histone-variant-expression-and-dna-methylation-in-the-eastern-oyster-crassostrea-virginica
#11
Rodrigo Gonzalez-Romero, Victoria Suarez-Ulloa, Javier Rodriguez-Casariego, Daniel Garcia-Souto, Gabriel Diaz, Abraham Smith, Juan Jose Pasantes, Gary Rand, Jose M Eirin-Lopez
Massive algal proliferations known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) represent one of the most important threats to coastal areas. Among them, the so-called Florida Red Tides (FRTs, caused by blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and associated brevetoxins) are particularly detrimental in the southeastern U.S., causing high mortality rates and annual losses in excess of $40 million. The ability of marine organisms to cope with environmental stressors (including those produced during HABs) is influenced by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter resulting in phenotypic changes caused by heritable modifications in gene expression, without involving changes in the genetic (DNA) sequence...
March 7, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281907/persistence-of-antibodies-20%C3%A2-y-after-vaccination-with-a-combined-hepatitis-a-and-b-vaccine
#12
Pierre Van Damme, Geert Leroux-Roels, P Suryakiran, Nicolas Folschweiller, Olivier Van Der Meeren
Vaccination is the most effective and well-tolerated method of conferring long-term protection against hepatitis A and B viruses (HAV; HBV). Long-term studies are required to characterize the duration of protection and need for boosters. Following primary immunization of 150 and 157 healthy adults with 3-doses of combined hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine (HAB; Twinrix™, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) at 0-1-6 months in 2 separate studies, we measured vaccine-induced antibody persistence against HAV and HBV annually for 20 y (Study A: NCT01000324; Study B: NCT01037114)...
March 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225802/effect-of-various-nitrogen-conditions-on-population-growth-temporary-cysts-and-cellular-biochemical-compositions-of-karenia-mikimotoi
#13
Yan Zhao, Xuexi Tang, Xiaowei Zhao, You Wang
The harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi was exposed to different nitrogen (N) conditions, in order to study the population growth, temporary cyst production and cellular biochemical compositions in laboratory. The results indicated the population growth of K. mikimotoi was inhibited by different levels of N starvation but showed similar fast recovery after the resupplement of N, and temporary cysts were induced in the period of N starvation. K. mikimotoi grew well in inorganic (NO3-, NO2- and NH4+) and organic (urea) nitrogen sources, but the growth parameters (K, Tp, r) showed differences when simulated by Logistic model regressions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178885/validation-of-an-automatic-reference-region-extraction-for-the-quantification-of-18-f-dpa-714-in-dynamic-brain-pet-studies
#14
Daniel García-Lorenzo, Sonia Lavisse, Claire Leroy, Catriona Wimberley, Benedetta Bodini, Philippe Remy, Mattia Veronese, Federico Turkheimer, Bruno Stankoff, Michel Bottlaender
There is a great need for a non-invasive methodology enabling the quantification of translocator protein overexpression in PET clinical imaging. [(18)F]DPA-714 has emerged as a promising translocator protein radiotracer as it is fluorinated, highly specific and returned reliable quantification using arterial input function. Cerebellum gray matter was proposed as reference region for simplified quantification; however, this method cannot be used when inflammation involves cerebellum. Here we adapted and validated a supervised clustering (supervised clustering algorithm (SCA)) for [(18)F]DPA-714 analysis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160978/comparative-assessment-of-two-agriculturally-influenced-estuaries-similar-pressure-different-response
#15
Daniel A Lemley, Janine B Adams, Susan Taljaard
This study compared the spatio-temporal dynamics in two agriculturally-influenced South African estuaries - Gamtoos and Sundays - to investigate how contrasting hydrological alterations influence physical, chemical and biological responses. With the Gamtoos Estuary experiencing regular high flow conditions, a key difference between the two systems is the propensity for natural flushing events to occur; a mechanism largely eliminated from the highly-regulated Sundays Catchment. Phytoplankton blooms (>20Chl-aμgl(-1)) were persistent and seasonal in the Sundays, inducing summer bottom-water hypoxia (<2mgl(-1)), whilst those in the Gamtoos were episodic and flow-dependent...
February 1, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157929/estimation-of-position-and-velocity-for-a-low-dynamic-vehicle-in-near-space-using-nonresolved-photometric-and-astrometric-data
#16
Nan Jing, Chuang Li, Yaqin Chong
An estimation method for indirectly observable parameters for a typical low dynamic vehicle (LDV) is presented. The estimation method utilizes apparent magnitude, azimuth angle, and elevation angle to estimate the position and velocity of a typical LDV, such as a high altitude balloon (HAB). In order to validate the accuracy of the estimated parameters gained from an unscented Kalman filter, two sets of experiments are carried out to obtain the nonresolved photometric and astrometric data. In the experiments, a HAB launch is planned; models of the HAB dynamics and kinematics and observation models are built to use as time update and measurement update functions, respectively...
January 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142089/effects-of-bioactive-extracellular-compounds-and-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-produced-by-alexandrium-minutum-on-growth-and-behaviour-of-juvenile-great-scallops-pecten-maximus
#17
REVIEW
Elodie Borcier, Romain Morvezen, Pierre Boudry, Philippe Miner, Grégory Charrier, Jean Laroche, Hélène Hegaret
Dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium are a major cause of harmful algal blooms (HABs) that have increasingly disrupted coastal ecosystems for the last several decades. Microalgae from the genus Alexandrium are known to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) but also bioactive extracellular compounds (BEC) that can display cytotoxic, allelopathic, ichtyotoxic or haemolytic effects upon marine organisms. The objective of this experimental study was to assess the effects of PST and BEC produced by A. minutum upon juvenile great scallops Pecten maximus...
March 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118893/resolving-the-complex-relationship-between-harmful-algal-blooms-and-environmental-factors-in-the-coastal-waters-adjacent-to-the-changjiang-river-estuary
#18
Zheng-Xi Zhou, Ren-Cheng Yu, Ming-Jiang Zhou
The sea area adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary is the most notable region for harmful algal blooms (HABs(1)) in China as both diatom and dinoflagellate blooms have been recorded in this region. Affected by the Changjiang diluted water (CDW(2)) and currents from the open ocean (i.e., Taiwan warm current, TWC(3)), the environmental conditions in the coastal waters adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary are quite complex. To obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of HABs in this region, analyses based on field investigation data collected by the National Basic Research Priority Program (CEOHAB I(4)) were performed using principle component analysis (PCA(5)), multiple regression analysis (MRA(6)) and path analysis (PA(7))...
February 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115756/cielab-color-coordinates-versus-relative-proportions-of-myoglobin-redox-forms-in-the-description-of-fresh-meat-appearance
#19
B Hernández, C Sáenz, C Alberdi, J M Diñeiro
This work examined changes in color that can be explained solely on the basis of the total myoglobin content and the relative proportions of deoxymyoglobin, oxymyoglobin (OMb) and metmyoglobin (MMb) during storage of meat. Meat color was evaluated for L*, a*, b*, C* and hab. Total pigment content was measured from the reflex attenuance at 525 nm (A525). The relative proportions of each pigment was determined using two different methods: the Krzywicki method based on the reflex attenuance values at 473, 525, 572 and 700 nm and the KS method based on K/S ratios of the absorption and scattering coefficients (K/S)474 ÷ (K/S)525, (K/S)572 ÷ (K/S)525 and (K/S)610 ÷ (K/S)525...
December 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112340/-harmful-algal-blooms-habs-marine-ecosystems-and-human-health-in-the-chilean-patagonia
#20
Felipe C Cabello, Henry P Godfrey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
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