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Richard Johansen, Richard Beck, Jakub Nowosad, Christopher Nietch, Min Xu, Song Shu, Bo Yang, Hongxing Liu, Erich Emery, Molly Reif, Joseph Harwood, Jade Young, Dana Macke, Mark Martin, Garrett Stillings, Richard Stumpf, Haibin Su
This study evaluated the performances of twenty-nine algorithms that use satellite-based spectral imager data to derive estimates of chlorophyll-a concentrations that, in turn, can be used as an indicator of the general status of algal cell densities and the potential for a harmful algal bloom (HAB). The performance assessment was based on making relative comparisons between two temperate inland lakes: Harsha Lake (7.99 km2 ) in Southwest Ohio and Taylorsville Lake (11.88 km2 ) in central Kentucky. Of interest was identifying algorithm-imager combinations that had high correlation with coincident chlorophyll-a surface observations for both lakes, as this suggests portability for regional HAB monitoring...
June 2018: Harmful Algae
Amber Brown, Amanda Foss, Melissa A Miller, Quincy Gibson
Microcystins/Nodularins (MCs/NODs) are potent hepatotoxic cyanotoxins produced by harmful algal blooms (HABs) that occur frequently in the upper basin of the St. Johns River (SJR), Jacksonville, FL, USA. Areas downstream of bloom locations provide critical habitat for an estuarine population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Since 2010, approximately 30 of these dolphins have stranded and died within this impaired watershed; the cause of death was inconclusive for a majority of these individuals...
June 2018: Harmful Algae
Liang Chen, Yeke Wang, John P Giesy, Feng Chen, Ting Shi, Jun Chen, Ping Xie
Frequencies and durations of blooms of cyanobacteria are increasing. Some cyanobacteria can produce cyanotoxins including microcystins (MCs). MCs are the most common toxic products of hazardous algal blooms (HABs), with the greatest potential for exposure and to cause toxicity. Recently, MCs have been shown to disrupt endocrine functions. In this study, for the first time, effects of MC-LR on the hypothalamic-pituitary-inter-renal (HPI) axis during early embryonic development (embryos/larvae) of zebrafish (Danio rerio), were investigated...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Tori R Van Dyk, Kendra N Krietsch, Brian E Saelens, Catharine Whitacre, Shealan McAlister, Dean W Beebe
OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: Short sleep duration during adolescence is associated with increased dietary intake and greater risk for overweight/obesity. However, findings are mixed on the relationship between sleep and physical activity (PA) during the school year, when short sleep duration is most common. Furthermore, there is concern that increasing sleep duration may interfere with opportunities for PA, yet this has not been directly tested. This study examined the impact of an at-home experimental sleep extension protocol on PA during the school year among short-sleeping adolescents...
July 2018: Sleep Medicine
Christopher R McKeithan, Lukasz Wojtas, Randy W Larsen
Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between donors and acceptors in porous materials is a key element in the development of light harvesting applications. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are ideal materials for PET processes due to their tunable pore size and diversity in framework building units. Here, PET between excited [Ru(2,2'-bipyridine)3]2+ (RuBpy) and Co-carboxylate clusters composing the metal building blocks of a RWLC-2 metal organic framework is described. The lifetime of the RuBpy decreases from ∼600 ns in deaerated solution to 9...
June 5, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Hye-Eun Kang, Tae-Ho Yoon, Sunyoung Yoon, Hak Jun Kim, Hyun Park, Chang-Keun Kang, Hyun-Woo Kim
Microbial community structures of harmful algal bloom (HAB) caused by Heterosigma akashiwo in Geoje were analyzed using the MiSeq platform. To analyze phytoplankton communities without cross-reactivity with predominant bacteria, a new phytoplankton-specific 23S universal primer set was designed by modifying two previously used ones. The new universal primer set turned out to be a useful tool for the analysis of the phytoplankton community; it showed a high specificity for phytoplankton without cross-reactivity to bacterial sequences as well as the wide taxon coverage presenting from prokaryotic cyanobacteria to eukaryotic algae...
2018: PeerJ
Silvia Zieger, Günter Mistlberger, Lukas Troi, Alexander Lang, Fabio Confalonieri, Ingo Klimant
The occurrence and intensity of (harmful) algal blooms (HABs) have increased through the years due to rapidly changing environmental conditions. At the same time, the demand for low-cost instrumen-tation has increased substantially, enabling real-time monitoring and early stage detection of HABs. To meet this challenge, we have developed a compact multi-wavelength fluorometer for less than 400 USD. This is possible by using readily available, low-cost optical and electronic components. Its modular design results in a highly versatile and flexible monitoring tool...
June 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Federica Farabegoli, Lucía Blanco, Laura P Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Vieites, Ana García Cabado
Massive phytoplankton proliferation, and the consequent release of toxic metabolites, can be responsible for seafood poisoning outbreaks: filter-feeding mollusks, such as shellfish, mussels, oysters or clams, can accumulate these toxins throughout the food chain and present a threat for consumers' health. Particular environmental and climatic conditions favor this natural phenomenon, called harmful algal blooms (HABs); the phytoplankton species mostly involved in these toxic events are dinoflagellates or diatoms belonging to the genera Alexandrium , Gymnodinium , Dinophysis , and Pseudo-nitzschia ...
May 29, 2018: Marine Drugs
Christos-Moritz Loukas, Matthew C Mowlem, Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, Nicolas G Green
This paper presents a novel portable sample filtration/concentration system, designed for use on samples of microorganisms with very low cell concentrations and large volumes, such as water-borne parasites, pathogens associated with faecal matter, or toxic phytoplankton. The example application used for demonstration was the in-field collection and concentration of microalgae from seawater samples. This type of organism is responsible for Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), an example of which is commonly referred to as "red tides", which are typically the result of rapid proliferation and high biomass accumulation of harmful microalgal species in the water column or at the sea surface...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
Jianan Zhu, Zhiming Yu, Liyan He, Xihua Cao, Shuya Liu, Xiuxian Song
The data and experiences in mitigating harmful algal blooms (HABs) by modified clay (MC) show that a bloom does not continue after the dispersal of the MC, even though the density of the residual cells in the water is still high, at 20-30% of the initial cell density. This interesting phenomenon indicates that in addition to flocculation, MC has an additional control mechanism. Here, transcriptome sequencing technology was used to study the molecular mechanism of MC in controlling HABs. In residual cells treated with MC, the photosynthetic light reaction was the most affected physiological process...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Soumen Paul, Evan Gallagher, Jeih-San Liow, Sanche Mabins, Katharine Henry, Sami S Zoghbi, Roger N Gunn, William C Kreisl, Erica M Richards, Paolo Zanotti-Fregonara, Cheryl L Morse, Jinsoo Hong, Aneta Kowalski, Victor W Pike, Robert B Innis, Masahiro Fujita
Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has been widely imaged as a marker of neuroinflammation using several radioligands, including [11 C]PBR28. In order to study the effects of age, sex, and obesity on TSPO binding and to determine whether this binding can be accurately assessed using fewer radio high-performance liquid chromatography (radioHPLC) measurements of arterial blood samples, we created a database of 48 healthy subjects who had undergone [11 C]PBR28 scans (23 high-affinity binders (HABs) and 25 mixed-affinity binders (MABs), 20 F/28 M, age: 40...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Lei Cui, Xinxin Lu, Yuelei Dong, Jingyi Cen, Rongbo Cao, Lin Pan, Songhui Lu, Linjian Ou
The picoplanktonic pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens could trigger harmful algal blooms (HABs) to discolor water in brown, known as brown tide. Since 2009, large-scale brown tides, caused by A. anophagefferens, had been occurred in early summer for three consecutive years in the coastal waters of Qinhuangdao, China and resulted considerable deleterious effects on the scallop mariculture industry. The causes for the occurrence of brown tides were not fully understood. Therefore, we conducted a one-year survey from June 2013 to May 2014 to study the seasonal succession of the phytoplankton community, including A...
May 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Rebecca Bondü
The hostile attribution bias (HAB) is a well-established risk factor for aggression. It is considered part of the suspicious mindset that may cause highly victim-justice sensitive individuals to behave uncooperatively. Thus, links of victim justice sensitivity (JS) with negative behavior, such as aggression, may be better explained by HAB. The present study tested this hypothesis in N = 279 German adolescents who rated their JS, HAB, and physical, relational, verbal, reactive, and proactive aggression. Victim JS predicted physical, relational, verbal, reactive, and proactive aggression when HAB was controlled...
May 3, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Mélanie Roué, Hélène Taiana Darius, Mireille Chinain
The Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) technology, first introduced in 2004, uses porous synthetic resins capable of passively adsorbing toxins produced by harmful microalgae or cyanobacteria and dissolved in the water. This method allows for the detection of toxic compounds directly in the water column and offers numerous advantages over current monitoring techniques (e.g., shellfish or fish testing and microalgae/cyanobacteria cell detection), despite some limitations. Numerous laboratory and field studies, testing different adsorbent substrates of which Diaion® HP20 resin appears to be the most versatile substrate, have been carried out worldwide to assess the applicability of these passive monitoring devices to the detection of toxins produced by a variety of marine and freshwater microorganisms...
April 20, 2018: Toxins
Rodrigo Almeda, Sarah Cosgrove, Edward J Buskey
After oil spills and dispersant applications the formation of red tides or harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been observed, which can cause additional negative impacts in areas affected by oil spills. However, the link between oil spills and HABs is still unknown. Here, we present experimental evidence that demonstrates a connection between oil spills and HABs. We determined the effects of oil, dispersant-treated oil, and dispersant alone on the structure of natural plankton assemblages in the Northern Gulf of Mexico...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Hans W Paerl, Timothy G Otten, Raphael Kudela
Anthropogenic nutrient overenrichment, coupled with rising temperatures, and an increasing frequency of extreme hydrologic events (storms and droughts) are accelerating eutrophication and promoting the expansion of harmful algal blooms (HABs) across the freshwater-to-marine continuum. All HABs-with a focus here on cyanobacterial blooms-pose serious consequences for water supplies, fisheries, recreational uses, tourism, and property values. As nutrient loads grow in watersheds, they begin to compound the effects of legacy stores...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Rosa Isabel Figueroa, Marta Estrada, Esther Garcés
In coastal and offshore waters, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) currently threaten the well-being of coastal countries. These events, which can be localized or involve wide-ranging areas, pose risks to human health, marine ecosystems, and economic resources, such as tourism, fisheries, and aquaculture. Dynamics of HABs vary from one site to another, depending on the hydrographic and ecological conditions. The challenge in investigating HABs is that they are caused by organisms from multiple algal classes, each with its own unique features, including different life histories...
March 2018: Harmful Algae
Jae Hoon Noh, Wonkook Kim, Seung Hyun Son, Jae-Hyun Ahn, Young-Je Park
Accurate and timely quantification of widespread harmful algal bloom (HAB) distribution is crucial to respond to the natural disaster, minimize the damage, and assess the environmental impact of the event. Although various remote sensing-based quantification approaches have been proposed for HAB since the advent of the ocean color satellite sensor, there have been no algorithms that were validated with in-situ quantitative measurements for the red tide occurring in the Korean seas. Furthermore, since the geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) became available in June 2010, an algorithm that exploits its unprecedented observation frequency (every hour during the daytime) has been highly demanded to better track the changes in spatial distribution of red tide...
March 2018: Harmful Algae
Leila Basti, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Hajime Uchida, Takashi Kamiyama, Satoshi Nagai
Species of the harmful algal bloom (HAB) genera Dinophysis are causative of one of the most widespread and expanding HAB events associated with the human intoxication, diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). The effects of warming temperature on the physiology and toxinology of these mixotrophic species remain intractable due to their low biomass in nature and difficulties in establishing and maintaining them in culture. Hence, the present study investigated the influence of warming temperature, encompassing present and predicted climate scenarios, on growth and toxin production in a strain of the most cosmopolitan DSP-causative species, Dinophysis acuminata...
March 2018: Harmful Algae
Chih-Hsien Michelle Lin, Vyacheslav Lyubchich, Patricia M Glibert
The harmful dinoflagellate, Karlodnium veneficum, has been implicated in fish-kill and other toxic, harmful algal bloom (HAB) events in waters worldwide. Blooms of K. veneficum are known to be related to coastal nutrient enrichment but the relationship is complex because this HAB taxon relies not only on dissolved nutrients but also particulate prey, both of which have also changed over time. Here, applying cross-correlations of climate-related physical factors, nutrients and prey, with abundance of K. veneficum over a 10-year (2002-2011) period, a synthesis of the interactive effects of multiple factors on this species was developed for Chesapeake Bay, where blooms of the HAB have been increasing...
March 2018: Harmful Algae
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