keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

paralytic toxins

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326037/experimental-uptake-and-depuration-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-southern-rock-lobster-jasus-edwardsii
#1
Thomas Madigan, Navreet Malhi, Jessica Tan, Catherine McLeod, Ian Stewart, Tim Harwood, Grant Mann, Alison Turnbull
In October 2012, paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) were detected in the hepatopancreas of Southern Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) collected from the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. This resulted in the first commercial closure in Australia for this species. Questions were raised on how the toxins were transferred to the lobsters, how long the toxins would persist, whether PST-contaminated hepatopancreas posed a risk to human health, and what management strategies could be applied. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PST-contaminated mussels are a potential vector enabling toxin accumulation in J...
January 8, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301587/foodborne-botulism-due-to-ingestion-of-home-canned-green-beans-two-case-reports
#2
Dorothea Hellmich, Katja E Wartenberg, Stephan Zierz, Tobias J Mueller
BACKGROUND: Foodborne botulism is a life-threatening, rapidly progressive disease. It has an incidence of less than 10 cases per year in Germany and mostly affects several previously healthy people at the same time. The only specific treatment is the administration of botulism antitoxin. According to the German guidelines administration of antitoxin is recommended only in the first 24 hours after oral ingestion of the toxin. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old white woman and her 51-year-old white husband presented with paralysis of multiple cranial nerves and rapidly descending paralysis approximately 72 hours after ingestion of home-canned beans...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301317/correction-of-malocclusion-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-injection-into-masticatory-muscles
#3
REVIEW
Hyun Seok, Seong-Gon Kim
Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxin, and its injection in masticatory muscles induces muscle weakness and paralysis. This paralytic effect of BTX induces growth retardation of the maxillofacial bones, changes in dental eruption and occlusion state, and facial asymmetry. Using masticatory muscle paralysis and its effect via BTX, BTX can be used for the correction of malocclusion after orthognathic surgery and mandible fracture. The paralysis of specific masticatory muscles by BTX injection reduces the tensional force to the mandible and prevents relapse and changes in dental occlusion...
January 2, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288682/sources-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-accumulation-variability-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#4
Émilien Pousse, Jonathan Flye-Sainte-Marie, Marianne Alunno-Bruscia, Hélène Hégaret, Fred Jean
This study was designed to assess the contribution of feeding behavior to inter-individual variability of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) accumulation in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. For this purpose 42 oysters were exposed for 2 days to non-toxic algae and then for 2 other days to the PST producer Alexandrium minutum. Individual clearance rate (CR) of oysters was continuously monitored over the 4 days using an ecophysiological measurement system. Comparison of CR values when exposed to toxic and non toxic algae allowed to estimate a clearance rate inhibition index (CRII)...
December 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234985/ponticoccus-alexandrii-sp-nov-a-novel-bacterium-isolated-from-the-marine-toxigenic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-minutum
#5
Qiao Yang, Xiaoling Zhang, Lingzhi Li, Ruonan Zhang, Lijuan Feng, Jun Mu
During an investigation of the biodiversity of the cultivable bacterial community associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin-producing marine dinoflagellate, Alexandrium minutum a novel algal-associated bacterium, designated strain AT2-AT was isolated. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis showed that the strain is a member of the genus Ponticoccus, with high sequence similarity to Ponticoccus litoralis DSM 18986T (97.9%) and Ponticoccus lacteus JCM 30379T (96.0%). However, based on the data obtained for the physiological and biochemical characteristics, and low level of DNA-DNA relatedness analysis, the strain could be genotypically and phenotypically differentiated from two type strains of the genus Ponticoccus...
December 12, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182651/evidence-of-increased-toxic-alexandrium-tamarense-dinoflagellate-blooms-in-the-eastern-bering-sea-in-the-summers-of-2004-and-2005
#6
Masafumi Natsuike, Rui Saito, Amane Fujiwara, Kohei Matsuno, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Naonobu Shiga, Toru Hirawake, Takashi Kikuchi, Shigeto Nishino, Ichiro Imai
The eastern Bering Sea has a vast continental shelf, which contains various endangered marine mammals and large fishery resources. Recently, high numbers of toxic A. tamarense resting cysts were found in the bottom sediment surface of the eastern Bering Sea shelf, suggesting that the blooms have recently occurred. However, little is known about the presence of A. tamarense vegetative cells in the eastern Bering Sea. This study's goals were to detect the occurrence of A. tamarense vegetative cells on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and to find a relationship between environmental factors and their presence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146176/neosaxitoxin-a-paralytic-shellfish-poison-toxin-effectively-manages-bucked-shins-pain-as-a-local-long-acting-pain-blocker-in-an-equine-model
#7
Gricel Riquelme, Joaquín M Sepúlveda, Zaki Al Ghumgham, Miguel Del Campo, Cecilia Montero, Nestor Lagos
Local anesthesia is an effective method to control pain. Neosaxitoxin is a phycotoxin whose molecular mechanism includes a reversible inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels at the axonal level, impeding nerve impulse propagation. The present study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Neosaxitoxin as a local long-acting pain blocker in horse bucked shins, and it was found to effectively control pain. While Neosaxitoxin and Gonyautoxin, another Paralytic Shellfish Poison (PSP) toxin, have been successfully used in humans as long-lasting pain blockers, this finding marks the first time a PSP has been shown to have an established effect in veterinary medicine...
November 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144421/paralytic-shellfish-toxins-and-cyanotoxins-in-the-mediterranean-new-data-from-sardinia-and-sicily-italy
#8
Antonella Lugliè, Maria Grazia Giacobbe, Elena Riccardi, Milena Bruno, Silvia Pigozzi, Maria Antonietta Mariani, Cecilia Teodora Satta, Daniela Stacca, Anna Maria Bazzoni, Tiziana Caddeo, Pasqualina Farina, Bachisio Mario Padedda, Silvia Pulina, Nicola Sechi, Anna Milandri
Harmful algal blooms represent a severe issue worldwide. They affect ecosystem functions and related services and goods, with consequences on human health and socio-economic activities. This study reports new data on paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy), the largest Mediterranean islands where toxic events, mainly caused by Alexandrium species (Dinophyceae), have been ascertained in mussel farms since the 2000s. The toxicity of the A. minutum, A. tamarense and A. pacificum strains, established from the isolation of vegetative cells and resting cysts, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
November 16, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109054/assessing-the-presence-of-marine-toxins-in-bivalve-molluscs-from-southwest-india
#9
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Stephanie Rowland-Pilgrim, Lucy M Turner, Ashwin Rai, Moleyur N Venugopal, Indrani Karunasagar, Anna Godhe
The south west coast of India has been showing a steady increase in shellfish cultivation both for local consumption and fishery export, over recent years. Perna viridis and Crassostrea madrasensis are two species of bivalve molluscs which grow in some selected regions of southern Karnataka, close to the city of Mangalore. In the early 1980s, shellfish consumers in the region were affected by intoxication from Paralytic Shellfish Poison present in local bivalves (clams and oysters) resulting in hospitalisation of many, including one fatality...
November 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101884/application-of-activated-carbon-to-accelerate-detoxification-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-from-mussels-mytilus-galloprovincialis-and-scallops-chlamys-farreri
#10
Jiangbing Qiu, Hua Fan, Ting Liu, Xia Liang, Fanping Meng, Michael A Quilliam, Aifeng Li
Contamination of economic bivalves with paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) occurs frequently in many parts of the world, which potentially threatens consumer health and the marine aquaculture economy. It is the objective of this study to develop a suitable technology for accelerating detoxification of PST from shellfish using activated carbon (AC). The adsorption efficiency of PST by eight different AC materials and by different particle sizes of wood-based AC (WAC) were tested and compared. Then WAC particles (37-48µm) were fed to mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and scallops Chlamys farreri previously contaminated with PST through feeding with dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense ATHK...
November 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100123/comparative-studies-of-saxitoxin-stx-induced-cytotoxicity-in-neuro-2a-and-rtg-2%C3%A2-cell-lines-an-explanation-with-respect-to-changes-in-ros
#11
Zhongyuan Zhou, Xuexi Tang, Hongmei Chen, You Wang
Saxitoxin (STX), a paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) produced from toxic bloom-forming dinoflagellates, was selected to comparatively investigate the induction of cytotoxicity and apoptosis and a possible mechanism based on changes in the antioxidant defence system of two cellular strains: the mouse neuroblastoma cell line Neuro-2a and the rainbow trout fish cell line RTG-2. Increasing concentrations of STX (0-256 nM) presented little cytotoxic or apoptotic effects on the two cell lines. Measurements of cellular viability, lethal ratio and LDH leakage showed slight changes in Neuro-2a and RTG-2 cells (p > 0...
October 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054436/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-screening-of-candidate-therapeutics-to-restore-neurotransmission-in-nerve-terminals-intoxicated-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-a1
#12
Phillip H Beske, Aaron B Bradford, Katie M Hoffman, Sydney Mason, Patrick M McNutt
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceedingly potent neurological poisons that block cholinergic release in the peripheral nervous system and cause death by asphyxiation. While post-exposure prophylaxis can effectively eliminate toxin in the bloodstream, there are no clinically effective treatments to prevent or reverse disease once BoNT has entered the neuron. To address the need for post-symptomatic countermeasures, we designed and developed an in vitro assay based on whole-cell, patch-clamp electrophysiological monitoring of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents in synaptically active murine embryonic stem cell-derived neurons...
October 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042311/rational-design-of-botulinum-toxin-a1-mutants-with-improved-oxidative-stability
#13
Manuela López de la Paz, Daniel Scheps, Marcel Jurk, Fred Hofmann, Jürgen Frevert
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxic proteins to mankind known but applied in low doses trigger a localized muscle paralysis that is beneficial for the therapy of several neurological disorders and aesthetic treatment. The paralytic effect is generated by the enzymatic activity of the light chain (LC) that cleaves specifically one of the SNARE proteins responsible for neurotransmitter exocytosis. The activity of the LC in a BoNT-containing therapeutic can be compromised by denaturing agents present during manufacturing and/or in the cell...
October 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033792/spontaneous-and-evoked-activity-from-murine-ventral-horn-cultures-on-microelectrode-arrays
#14
Bryan J Black, Rahul Atmaramani, Joseph J Pancrazio
Motor neurons are the site of action for several neurological disorders and paralytic toxins, with cell bodies located in the ventral horn (VH) of the spinal cord along with interneurons and support cells. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have emerged as a high content assay platform for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. Here, we explored the spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of VH cultures derived from embryonic mouse spinal cord on multi-well plates of MEAs. Primary VH cultures from embryonic day 15-16 mice were characterized by expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by immunocytochemistry...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027912/guanidinium-toxins-and-their-interactions-with-voltage-gated-sodium-ion-channels
#15
REVIEW
Lorena M Durán-Riveroll, Allan D Cembella
Guanidinium toxins, such as saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their analogs, are naturally occurring alkaloids with divergent evolutionary origins and biogeographical distribution, but which share the common chemical feature of guanidinium moieties. These guanidinium groups confer high biological activity with high affinity and ion flux blockage capacity for voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV). Members of the STX group, known collectively as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are produced among three genera of marine dinoflagellates and about a dozen genera of primarily freshwater or brackish water cyanobacteria...
October 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026428/evaluation-of-the-physiological-activity-of-venom-from-the-eurasian-water-shrew-neomys-fodiens
#16
Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński, Leszek Rychlik
BACKGROUND: Animal toxins can have medical and therapeutic applications. Principally, toxins produced by insects, arachnids, snakes and frogs have been characterized. Venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been comprehensively investigated. Among shrews, only the venom of Blarina brevicauda has been analysed so far, and blarina toxin has been proven to be its main toxic component. It is assumed that Neomys fodiens employs its venom to hunt larger prey. However, the toxic profile, properties and mode of action of its venom are largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977469/rapid-and-sensitive-elisa-screening-assay-for-several-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-human-urine
#17
P Eangoor, A S Indapurkar, M Vakkalanka, J S Yeh, J S Knaack
Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by a group of paralytic shellfish toxins that are produced by dinoflagellates. Toxins in this group include saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin and gonyautoxins. A rapid diagnostic test to identify poisoning by these toxins can be helpful in guiding the appropriate treatment of victims. Additionally, quick receipt of diagnostic results can provide timely proof that shellfish harvesting should be stopped in a given area, thereby preventing additional exposures. We have developed and validated a rapid urinary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based screening test to diagnose exposure to several major paralytic shellfish toxins...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962984/effect-of-co2-on-growth-and-toxicity-of-alexandrium-tamarense-from-the-east-china-sea-a-major-producer-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins
#18
Min Pang, Jintao Xu, Pei Qu, Xuewei Mao, Zhenxing Wu, Ming Xin, Ping Sun, Zongxing Wang, Xuelei Zhang, Hongju Chen
In recent decades, the frequency and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs), as well as a profusion of toxic phytoplankton species, have significantly increased in coastal regions of China. Researchers attribute this to environmental changes such as rising atmospheric CO2 levels. Such addition of carbon into the ocean ecosystem can lead to increased growth, enhanced metabolism, and altered toxicity of toxic phytoplankton communities resulting in serious human health concerns. In this study, the effects of elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) on the growth and toxicity of a strain of Alexandrium tamarense (ATDH) widespread in the East and South China Seas were investigated...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918229/design-of-modified-botulinum-neurotoxin-a1-variants-with-a-shorter-persistence-of-paralysis-and-duration-of-action
#19
Daniel Scheps, Manuela López de la Paz, Marcel Jurk, Fred Hofmann, Jürgen Frevert
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are classified by their antigenic properties into seven serotypes (A-G) and in addition by their corresponding subtypes. They are further characterized by divergent onset and duration of effect. Injections of low doses of botulinum neurotoxins cause localized muscle paralysis that is beneficial for the treatment of several medical disorders and aesthetic indications. Optimizing the therapeutic properties could offer new treatment opportunities. This report describes a rational design approach to modify the pharmacological properties by mutations in the C-terminus of BoNT/A1 light chain (LC)...
December 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917804/development-and-validation-of-a-maleimide-based-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-the-detection-of-tetrodotoxin-in-oysters-and-mussels
#20
Laia Reverté, Maria Rambla-Alegre, Sandra Leonardo, Carlos Bellés, Katrina Campbell, Christopher T Elliott, Arjen Gerssen, Mirjam D Klijnstra, Jorge Diogène, Mònica Campàs
The recent detection of tetrodotoxins (TTXs) in puffer fish and shellfish in Europe highlights the necessity to monitor the levels of TTXs in seafood by rapid, specific, sensitive and reliable methods in order to protect human consumers. A previous immunoassay for TTX detection in puffer fish, based on the use of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for the immobilization of TTX on maleimide plates (mELISA), has been modified and adapted to the analysis of oyster and mussel samples. Changing dithiol for cysteamine-based SAMs enabled reductions in the assay time and cost, while maintaining the sensitivity of the assay...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
keyword
keyword
52183
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"