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paralytic toxins

M A Akulov, O R Orlova, T V Tabashnikova, V V Karnaukhov, A S Orlova
Surgical treatment of posterior cranial fossa and cerebellopontine angle tumors is associated with a risk of facial nerve dysfunction. The causes for facial muscle paresis include nerve compression by the tumor, destruction of the nerve structure by the tumor growing from nerve fibers, nerve injury during surgical removal of the tumor, etc. The first 3 months after facial nerve injury are a potential therapeutic window for the use of botulinum toxin type A (BTA). During this period, the drug is introduced both in the healthy side to improve the facial symmetry at rest and during mimetic movements and in the affected side to induce drug-induced ptosis...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Karl Dean, Steven Milligan, Mike Hamilton, Julie Thomas, Chris Poole, Jo Haycock, Jo Spelman-Marriott, Alice Watson, Katherine Hughes, Bridget Marr, Alan Dixon, Lewis Coates
At the start of 2018, multiple incidents of dog illnesses were reported following consumption of marine species washed up onto the beaches of eastern England after winter storms. Over a two-week period, nine confirmed illnesses including two canine deaths were recorded. Symptoms in the affected dogs included sickness, loss of motor control, and muscle paralysis. Samples of flatfish, starfish, and crab from the beaches in the affected areas were analysed for a suite of naturally occurring marine neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin...
February 26, 2018: Toxins
Eddie Garcia, Abdul H Zaid, Diane P Calello, Lisa McHugh, Grant Arzumanov, Najaf Asrar, Ari Sapin, Kristin G Fless
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by the neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The majority of cases are due to ingestion or injection drug use. Wound botulism from traumatic injury is exceedingly rare, with only one to two cases reported each year in the United States. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with diplopia, dysphagia, and progressive weakness 10 days after sustaining a gunshot wound to his right lower leg...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Nádia S Ferreira, Marco G N Cruz, Maria Teresa S R Gomes, Alisa Rudnitskaya
Potentiometric chemical sensors for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins have been developed. Four toxins typically encountered in Portuguese waters, namely saxitoxin, decarbamoyl saxitoxin, gonyautoxin GTX5 and C1&C2, were selected for the study. A series of miniaturized sensors with solid inner contact and plasticized polyvinylchloride membranes containing ionophores, nine compositions in total, were prepared and their characteristics evaluated. Sensors displayed cross-sensitivity to four studied toxins, i...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński, Leszek Rychlik
Anuran toxins released from the skin glands are involved in defence against predators and microorganisms. Secretion from parotoid macroglands of bufonid toads is a rich source of bioactive compounds with the cytotoxic, cardiotoxic and hemolytic activity. Bufadienolides are considered the most toxic components of the toad poison, whereas the protein properties are largely unknown. In the present work, we analysed the cardio-, myo-, and neurotropic activity of extract and the selected proteins from Bufo bufo parotoids in in vitro physiological bioassays carried out on two standard model organisms: beetles and frogs...
January 27, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Alison Turnbull, Navreet Malhi, Jessica Tan, D Tim Harwood, Thomas Madigan
Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) producing microalgal blooms have a significant economic impact on the Southern Rock Lobster ( Jasus edwardsii) fishery in Tasmania, Australia. The regulatory level of 0.8 mg of saxitoxin (STX) eq/kg in place for bivalve shellfish fisheries is applied to lobster hepatopancreas during blooms of toxic algae, resulting in harvest closures and ongoing risk management implications for the fishery. This cooking study was undertaken to inform a human health risk assessment, in conjunction with studies on the uptake and elimination of PST in J...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Mark W Lusty, Ryan B Wallace, Bennie Haynes, Zhihong Wang, Maggie Broadwater, Jonathan R Deeds, Steve L Morton, William Hastback, Leonora Porter, Karen Chytalo, Christopher J Gobler
Marine biotoxin-contaminated seafood has caused thousands of poisonings worldwide this century. Given these threats, there is an increasing need for improved technologies that can be easily integrated into coastal monitoring programs. This study evaluates approaches for monitoring toxins associated with recurrent toxin-producing Alexandrium and Dinophysis blooms on Long Island, NY, USA, which cause paralytic and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (PSP and DSP), respectively. Within contrasting locations, the dynamics of pelagic Alexandrium and Dinophysis cell densities, toxins in plankton, and toxins in deployed blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were compared with passive solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) samplers filled with two types of resin, HP20 and XAD-2...
January 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Thomas Madigan, Navreet Malhi, Jessica Tan, Catherine McLeod, Ian Stewart, Tim Harwood, Grant Mann, Alison Turnbull
In October 2012, paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) were detected in the hepatopancreas of Southern Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) collected from the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. This resulted in the first commercial closure in Australia for this species. Questions were raised on how the toxins were transferred to the lobsters, how long the toxins would persist, whether PST-contaminated hepatopancreas posed a risk to human health, and what management strategies could be applied. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PST-contaminated mussels are a potential vector enabling toxin accumulation in J...
January 8, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Dorothea Hellmich, Katja E Wartenberg, Stephan Zierz, Tobias J Mueller
BACKGROUND: Foodborne botulism is a life-threatening, rapidly progressive disease. It has an incidence of less than 10 cases per year in Germany and mostly affects several previously healthy people at the same time. The only specific treatment is the administration of botulism antitoxin. According to the German guidelines administration of antitoxin is recommended only in the first 24 hours after oral ingestion of the toxin. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old white woman and her 51-year-old white husband presented with paralysis of multiple cranial nerves and rapidly descending paralysis approximately 72 hours after ingestion of home-canned beans...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Hyun Seok, Seong-Gon Kim
Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxin, and its injection in masticatory muscles induces muscle weakness and paralysis. This paralytic effect of BTX induces growth retardation of the maxillofacial bones, changes in dental eruption and occlusion state, and facial asymmetry. Using masticatory muscle paralysis and its effect via BTX, BTX can be used for the correction of malocclusion after orthognathic surgery and mandible fracture. The paralysis of specific masticatory muscles by BTX injection reduces the tensional force to the mandible and prevents relapse and changes in dental occlusion...
January 2, 2018: Toxins
Émilien Pousse, Jonathan Flye-Sainte-Marie, Marianne Alunno-Bruscia, Hélène Hégaret, Fred Jean
This study was designed to assess the contribution of feeding behavior to inter-individual variability of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) accumulation in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. For this purpose 42 oysters were exposed for 2 days to non-toxic algae and then for 2 other days to the PST producer Alexandrium minutum. Individual clearance rate (CR) of oysters was continuously monitored over the 4 days using an ecophysiological measurement system. Comparison of CR values when exposed to toxic and non toxic algae allowed to estimate a clearance rate inhibition index (CRII)...
December 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Qiao Yang, Xiaoling Zhang, Lingzhi Li, Ruonan Zhang, Lijuan Feng, Jun Mu
During an investigation of the biodiversity of the cultivable bacterial community associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin-producing marine dinoflagellate, Alexandrium minutum a novel algal-associated bacterium, designated strain AT2-AT was isolated. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis showed that the strain is a member of the genus Ponticoccus, with high sequence similarity to Ponticoccus litoralis DSM 18986T (97.9%) and Ponticoccus lacteus JCM 30379T (96.0%). However, based on the data obtained for the physiological and biochemical characteristics, and low level of DNA-DNA relatedness analysis, the strain could be genotypically and phenotypically differentiated from two type strains of the genus Ponticoccus...
December 12, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Masafumi Natsuike, Rui Saito, Amane Fujiwara, Kohei Matsuno, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Naonobu Shiga, Toru Hirawake, Takashi Kikuchi, Shigeto Nishino, Ichiro Imai
The eastern Bering Sea has a vast continental shelf, which contains various endangered marine mammals and large fishery resources. Recently, high numbers of toxic A. tamarense resting cysts were found in the bottom sediment surface of the eastern Bering Sea shelf, suggesting that the blooms have recently occurred. However, little is known about the presence of A. tamarense vegetative cells in the eastern Bering Sea. This study's goals were to detect the occurrence of A. tamarense vegetative cells on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and to find a relationship between environmental factors and their presence...
2017: PloS One
Gricel Riquelme, Joaquín M Sepúlveda, Zaki Al Ghumgham, Miguel Del Campo, Cecilia Montero, Nestor Lagos
Local anesthesia is an effective method to control pain. Neosaxitoxin is a phycotoxin whose molecular mechanism includes a reversible inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels at the axonal level, impeding nerve impulse propagation. The present study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Neosaxitoxin as a local long-acting pain blocker in horse bucked shins, and it was found to effectively control pain. While Neosaxitoxin and Gonyautoxin, another Paralytic Shellfish Poison (PSP) toxin, have been successfully used in humans as long-lasting pain blockers, this finding marks the first time a PSP has been shown to have an established effect in veterinary medicine...
January 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Antonella Lugliè, Maria Grazia Giacobbe, Elena Riccardi, Milena Bruno, Silvia Pigozzi, Maria Antonietta Mariani, Cecilia Teodora Satta, Daniela Stacca, Anna Maria Bazzoni, Tiziana Caddeo, Pasqualina Farina, Bachisio Mario Padedda, Silvia Pulina, Nicola Sechi, Anna Milandri
Harmful algal blooms represent a severe issue worldwide. They affect ecosystem functions and related services and goods, with consequences on human health and socio-economic activities. This study reports new data on paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy), the largest Mediterranean islands where toxic events, mainly caused by Alexandrium species (Dinophyceae), have been ascertained in mussel farms since the 2000s. The toxicity of the A. minutum, A. tamarense and A. pacificum strains, established from the isolation of vegetative cells and resting cysts, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
November 16, 2017: Microorganisms
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Stephanie Rowland-Pilgrim, Lucy M Turner, Ashwin Rai, Moleyur N Venugopal, Indrani Karunasagar, Anna Godhe
The south west coast of India has been showing a steady increase in shellfish cultivation both for local consumption and fishery export, over recent years. Perna viridis and Crassostrea madrasensis are two species of bivalve molluscs which grow in some selected regions of southern Karnataka, close to the city of Mangalore. In the early 1980s, shellfish consumers in the region were affected by intoxication from Paralytic Shellfish Poison present in local bivalves (clams and oysters) resulting in hospitalisation of many, including one fatality...
November 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Jiangbing Qiu, Hua Fan, Ting Liu, Xia Liang, Fanping Meng, Michael A Quilliam, Aifeng Li
Contamination of economic bivalves with paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) occurs frequently in many parts of the world, which potentially threatens consumer health and the marine aquaculture economy. It is the objective of this study to develop a suitable technology for accelerating detoxification of PST from shellfish using activated carbon (AC). The adsorption efficiency of PST by eight different AC materials and by different particle sizes of wood-based AC (WAC) were tested and compared. Then WAC particles (37-48µm) were fed to mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and scallops Chlamys farreri previously contaminated with PST through feeding with dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense ATHK...
November 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zhongyuan Zhou, Xuexi Tang, Hongmei Chen, You Wang
Saxitoxin (STX), a paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) produced from toxic bloom-forming dinoflagellates, was selected to comparatively investigate the induction of cytotoxicity and apoptosis and a possible mechanism based on changes in the antioxidant defence system of two cellular strains: the mouse neuroblastoma cell line Neuro-2a and the rainbow trout fish cell line RTG-2. Increasing concentrations of STX (0-256 nM) presented little cytotoxic or apoptotic effects on the two cell lines. Measurements of cellular viability, lethal ratio and LDH leakage showed slight changes in Neuro-2a and RTG-2 cells (p > 0...
October 14, 2017: Chemosphere
Phillip H Beske, Aaron B Bradford, Katie M Hoffman, Sydney Mason, Patrick M McNutt
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceedingly potent neurological poisons that block cholinergic release in the peripheral nervous system and cause death by asphyxiation. While post-exposure prophylaxis can effectively eliminate toxin in the bloodstream, there are no clinically effective treatments to prevent or reverse disease once BoNT has entered the neuron. To address the need for post-symptomatic countermeasures, we designed and developed an in vitro assay based on whole-cell, patch-clamp electrophysiological monitoring of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents in synaptically active murine embryonic stem cell-derived neurons...
October 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Manuela López de la Paz, Daniel Scheps, Marcel Jurk, Fred Hofmann, Jürgen Frevert
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxic proteins to mankind known but applied in low doses trigger a localized muscle paralysis that is beneficial for the therapy of several neurological disorders and aesthetic treatment. The paralytic effect is generated by the enzymatic activity of the light chain (LC) that cleaves specifically one of the SNARE proteins responsible for neurotransmitter exocytosis. The activity of the LC in a BoNT-containing therapeutic can be compromised by denaturing agents present during manufacturing and/or in the cell...
October 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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