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paralytic toxins

Camille Detree, Gustavo Núñez-Acuña, Steven Roberts, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Saxitoxin (STX), a principal phycotoxin contributing to paralytic shellfish poisoning, is largely produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium. This toxin affects a wide range of species, inducing massive deaths in fish and other marine species. However, marine bivalves can resist and accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons. Despite numerous studies on the impact of STX in marine bivalves, knowledge regarding STX recognition at molecular level by benthic species remains scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genes that interact with STX in the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis...
2016: PloS One
Katie O'Neill, Ian F Musgrave, Andrew Humpage
Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogs, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are a group of potent neurotoxins well known for their role in acute paralytic poisoning by preventing the generation of action potentials in neuronal cells. They are found in both marine and freshwater environments globally and although acute exposure from the former has previously received more attention, low dose extended exposure from both sources is possible and to date has not been investigated. Given the known role of cellular electrical activity in neurodevelopment this pattern of exposure may be a significant public health concern...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Roy W A Peake, Victoria Y Zhang, Nina Azcue, Christina E Hartigan, Aida Shkreta, Jasmina Prabhakara, Charles B Berde, Mark D Kellogg
Neosaxitoxin, a member of the saxitoxin family of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, has shown potential as an effective, long-acting, anesthetic. We describe the development and validation of a highly sensitive method for measurement of neosaxitoxin in human plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and provide evidence for its use in a human pharmacokinetic study. Samples were prepared using cation exchange solid phase extraction followed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and MS/MS detection in positive electrospray ionization mode...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Abdulrahman Al Muftah, Andrew I Selwood, Amanda J Foss, Hareb Mohammed S J Al-Jabri, Malcolm Potts, Mete Yilmaz
Harmful Algal Bloom species are ubiquitous and their blooms occur in the Arabian Gulf. In this study, two cruises were performed in 2012 and 2013 to collect phytoplankton samples from 4 sites in the Arabian Gulf. Toxin analyses of phytoplankton samples for 32 algal toxins from 5 different toxin groups were conducted on the samples using both enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), diarrhetic shellfish toxin (DST), amnesic shellfish toxin (AST), cyclic imines (CIs) and polyether-lactone toxins in freeze-dried phytoplankton samples...
September 21, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Jie Cheng, Xiaogang Xun, Yifan Kong, Shuyue Wang, Zhihui Yang, Yajuan Li, Dexu Kong, Shi Wang, Lingling Zhang, Xiaoli Hu, Zhenmin Bao
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70s) family members are present in virtually all living organisms and perform a fundamental role against different types of environmental stressors and pathogenic organisms. Marine bivalves live in highly dynamic environments and may accumulate paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a class of well-known neurotoxins closely associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we provide a systematic analysis of Hsp70 genes (PyHsp70s) in the genome of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), an important aquaculture species in China, through in silico analysis using transcriptome and genome databases...
September 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Muhd Danish-Daniel, Gan Han Ming, Mohd Ezhar Mohd Noor, Yik Sung Yeong, Gires Usup
Mameliella alba strain UMTAT08 was isolated from clonal culture of paralytic shellfish toxin producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium tamiyavanichii. Genome of the strain UMTAT08 was sequenced in order to gain insights into the dinoflagellate-bacteria interactions. The draft genome sequence of strain UMTAT08 contains 5.84Mbp with an estimated G + C content of 65%, 5717 open reading frames, 5 rRNAs and 49 tRNAs. It contains genes related to nutrients uptake, quorum sensing and environmental tolerance related genes...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Nicolaus G Adams, Alison Robertson, Lynn M Grattan, Steve Pendleton, Sparkle Roberts, J Kathleen Tracy, Vera L Trainer
The Makah Tribe of Neah Bay, Washington, has historically relied on the subsistence harvest of coastal seafood, including shellfish, which remains an important cultural and ceremonial resource. Tribal legend describes visitors from other tribes that died from eating shellfish collected on Makah lands. These deaths were believed to be caused by paralytic shellfish poisoning, a human illness caused by ingestion of shellfish contaminated with saxitoxins, which are produced by toxin-producing marine dinoflagellates on which the shellfish feed...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
Lynn M Grattan, Sailor Holobaugh, J Glenn Morris
The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries...
July 2016: Harmful Algae
Olga I Belykh, Irina V Tikhonova, Anton V Kuzmin, Ekaterina G Sorokovikova, Galina A Fedorova, Igor V Khanaev, Tatyana A Sherbakova, Oleg A Timoshkin
Cyanobacteria were screened from the surface of diseased sponges, stone and bedrock in Lake Baikal for the presence of saxitoxin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In sequel, eight paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) variants were identified using a MALDI mass spectrometry. Microscopic examination found that Tolypothrix distorta dominated in the biofouling samples. PCR and sequencing detected sxtA gene involved in saxitoxin biosynthesis, thereby providing evidence of the PST producing potential of Baikal cyanobacterial communities inhabiting different substrates...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Minsheng Li, Xiaoyan Chen, Yuan Guo, Bingyu Zhang, Fengxiang Tang, Xiaoping Wu
The profiling of the most lethal paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) in freshwater has increased the need to establish an alternative analytical method with high sensitivity and resolution. In this paper, a coupling technique of field-amplified sample injection (FASI) and CE with end-column amperometric detection (CE-AD) was developed to improve the detection sensitivity and separation of PSTs by electrokinetically injecting a water plug of analytes to the capillary filled with a high-conductivity BGE...
August 27, 2016: Electrophoresis
Paul M D'Agostino, Vivek S Javalkote, Rabia Mazmouz, Russell Pickford, Pravin R Puranik, Brett A Neilan
UNLABELLED: The mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are a group of small molecules with a diverse ecological distribution among microorganisms. MAAs have a range of physiological functions, including protection against UV radiation, making them important from a biotechnological perspective. In the present study, we identified a putative MAA (mys) gene cluster in two New Zealand isolates of Scytonema cf. crispum (UCFS10 and UCFS15). Homology to "Anabaena-type" mys clusters suggested that this cluster was likely to be involved in shinorine biosynthesis...
October 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Pierina Visciano, Maria Schirone, Miriam Berti, Anna Milandri, Rosanna Tofalo, Giovanna Suzzi
Harmful algal blooms are natural phenomena caused by the massive growth of phytoplankton that may contain highly toxic chemicals, the so-called marine biotoxins causing illness and even death to both aquatic organisms and humans. Their occurrence has been increased in frequency and severity, suggesting a worldwide public health risk. Marine biotoxins can accumulate in bivalve molluscs and regulatory limits have been set for some classes according to European Union legislation. These compounds can be distinguished in water- and fat-soluble molecules...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Delu Zhang, Siyi Liu, Jing Zhang, Jian Kong Zhang, Chunxiang Hu, Yongding Liu
Aphantoxins, neurotoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) generated by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, are a threat to environmental safety and human health in eutrophic waters worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of neurotoxin function have been studied; however, the effects of these neurotoxins on oxidative stress, ion transport, gas exchange, and branchial ultrastructure in fish gills are not fully understood. Aphantoxins extracted from A. flos-aquae DC-1 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography...
August 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Keith Harrison, Sarah Johnson, Andrew D Turner
Six different commercial rapid screening assays for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning toxins were assessed with the analysis of shellfish samples from GB. The performance of each kit was assessed through comparison with the current regulatory HPLC method. Samples assessed consisted of a wide variety of shellfish species of importance to the shellfish industry in GB. These had been sourced over a number of years and with a wide variety of geographical origins. One lateral flow immunoassay was found to provide a quick qualitative assessment of PSP toxicity, with a low proportion of false negative results for PSP-positive samples, but with higher numbers of false positives...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Veronica Rey, Ana M Botana, Mercedes Alvarez, Alvaro Antelo, Luis M Botana
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) traditionally have been analyzed by liquid chromatography with either pre- or post-column derivatization and always with a silica-based stationary phase. This technique resulted in different methods that need more than one run to analyze the toxins. Furthermore, tetrodotoxin (TTX) was recently found in bivalves of northward locations in Europe due to climate change, so it is important to analyze it along with PST because their signs of toxicity are similar in the bioassay. The methods described here detail a new approach to eliminate different runs, by using a new porous graphitic carbon stationary phase...
2016: Toxins
Rebecca Coleman, Sharon W Lemire, William Bragg, Alaine Garrett, Geovannie Ojeda-Torres, Elizabeth Hamelin, Rudolph C Johnson, Jerry Thomas
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is an extremely potent paralytic toxin responsible for yearly illness and death around the world. A clinical measurement is necessary to confirm exposure because symptoms of TTX intoxication cannot be distinguished from other paralytic toxins. Our group has developed an online solid phase extraction hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method for the analysis of TTX in human urine with tandem mass spectrometry. The reportable range for the method was 2.80 - 249 ng/mL in urine with precision and accuracy within 15% as determined for all quality control samples...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Tadashi Nakatani, Mitsuru Shimizu, Tetsuo Yamano
The contents and composition of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in skin, muscle, and internal organs of two samples of marine puffer fish Canthigaster rivulata from Wakayama prefecture, Japan, were analyzed. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) were used for the analysis of TTX and PSTs, respectively. For both samples, TTX and two analogues of PSTs, saxitoxin (STX) and decarbamoyl STX (dcSTX), were detected at levels over the limit of quantization (LOQ) only in the skin...
2016: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
Lorena M Durán-Riveroll, Allan D Cembella, Christine J Band-Schmidt, José J Bustillos-Guzmán, José Correa-Basurto
Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogs are paralytic alkaloid neurotoxins that block the voltage-gated sodium channel pore (Nav), impeding passage of Na⁺ ions into the intracellular space, and thereby preventing the action potential in the peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscle. The marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces an array of such toxins, including the recently discovered benzoyl analogs, for which the mammalian toxicities are essentially unknown. We subjected STX and its analogs to a theoretical docking simulation based upon two alternative tri-dimensional models of the Nav1...
2016: Toxins
De Lu Zhang, Si Yi Liu, Jing Zhang, Jian Kun Zhang, Chun Xiang Hu, Yong Ding Liu
Aphantoxins from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae are frequently identified in eutrophic waterbodies worldwide. These toxins severely endanger environmental safety and human health due to the production of paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs). Although the molecular mechanisms of aphantoxin neurotoxicity have been studied, many questions remain to be resolved such as in vivo alterations in branchial histology and neurotransmitter inactivation induced by these neurotoxins. Aphantoxins extracted from a naturally isolated strain of A...
July 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
B Müller, G F Volk, O Guntinas-Lichius
BACKGROUND: Facial palsy and vertigo, as symptoms of vestibular schwannoma (VS) or consequences of its therapy, have a significant impact on patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVE: This review analyzed current literature on the topic and deduced recommendations for rehabilitation of facial palsy and vertigo. METHODS: The present review describes a PubMed-based search of the literature of the past 10 years. RESULTS: There is no evidence-based drug therapy for the treatment of acute facial palsy after VS surgery...
April 12, 2016: HNO
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