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paralytic toxins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778932/dynamics-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-and-their-metabolites-during-timecourse-exposure-of-scallops-chlamys-farreri-and-mussels-mytilus-galloprovincialis-to-alexandrium-pacificum
#1
Jiangbing Qiu, Fanping Meng, Ling Ding, Yijia Che, Pearse McCarron, Daniel G Beach, Aifeng Li
New C-11 hydroxyl metabolites of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) have been reported in shellfish. To gain further information on these metabolites, as well as the potential for formation of phase-II metabolites and acyl esters of PSTs, bivalves were fed with the PSTs-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum (strain ATHK). Through independent experiments, scallops (Chlamys farreri) were fed for 9 days and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) for 5 days plus an additional 5 days of depuration, with representative samples taken throughout...
May 16, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767301/capillary-electrophoresis-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-multiclass-analysis-of-polar-marine-toxins
#2
Daniel G Beach, Elliott S Kerrin, Krista Thomas, Michael A Quilliam, Pearse McCarron
Polar marine toxins are more challenging to analyze by mass spectrometry-based methods than lipophilic marine toxins, which are now routinely measured in shellfish by multiclass reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods. Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-MS/MS is a technique that is well suited for the analysis of polar marine toxins, and has the potential of providing very high resolution separation. Here, we present a CE-MS/MS method developed, with use of a custom-built interface, for the sensitive multiclass analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins, tetrodotoxins, and domoic acid in seafood...
May 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735058/exposure-assessment-to-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-through-the-shellfish-consumption-in-korea
#3
Choonshik Shin, Hyejin Jo, Sheen-Hee Kim, Gil-Jin Kang
Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by saxitoxin and its analogues. The paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are produced by marine dinoflagellates and can be accumulated in filter feeding shellfish, such as mussel, clam, oyster and ark shell. The worldwide regulatory limits for PSTs in shellfish are set at 80 μg STX eq./100 g meat and this is widely accepted as providing adequate public health protection. In this study, we have determined five individual PSTs (STX, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3 and GTX4) in shellfish using LC-MS/MS and assessed the human acute and chronic exposures to PSTs through shellfish consumption...
June 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705148/use-of-the-receptor-binding-assay-for-determination-of-paralytic-shellfish-poisoning-toxins-in-bivalve-molluscs-from-great-britain-and-the-assessment-of-method-performance-in-oysters
#4
Andrew D Turner, Maggie Broadwater, Frances Van Dolah
A receptor binding assay (RBA) for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity is formally validated through collaborative study and approved for regulatory monitoring use in the US for mussels and clams. However, to date, the method has not been tested on bivalve molluscs originating from European waters and no validation studies have been conducted for oysters, a shellfish species of great importance globally. This study firstly reports the work conducted to assess the performance of the assay in comparison with a regulatory chemical detection method for a range of shellfish species originating from Great Britain...
April 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705145/paralytic-shellfish-toxin-producing-aphanizomenon-gracile-strains-isolated-from-lake-iznik-turkey
#5
Mete Yilmaz, Amanda J Foss, Andrew I Selwood, Mihriban Özen, Michael Boundy
Aphanizomenon gracile is one of the most widespread Paralytic Shellfish Toxin (PST) producing cyanobacteria in freshwater bodies in the Northern Hemisphere. It has been shown to produce various PST congeners, including saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) and gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5) in Europe, North America and Asia. Three cyanobacteria strains were isolated in Lake Iznik in northwestern Turkey. Morphological characterization of these strains suggested all three strains conformed to classical taxonomic identification of A...
April 26, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684130/genomic-insights-into-the-evolution-and-ecology-of-botulinum-neurotoxins
#6
Michael J Mansfield, Andrew C Doxey
Clostridial neurotoxins, which include botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins, have evolved a remarkably sophisticated structure and molecular mechanism fine-tuned for the targeting and cleavage of vertebrate neuron substrates leading to muscular paralysis. How and why did this toxin evolve? From which ancestral proteins are BoNTs derived? And what is, or was, the primary ecological role of BoNTs in the environment? In this article, we examine these questions in light of recent studies identifying homologs of BoNTs in the genomes of non-clostridial bacteria, including Weissella, Enterococcus, and Chryseobacterium...
April 19, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670604/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-a-toxigenic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-catenella-and-its-non-toxigenic-mutant-exposed-to-a-cell-cycle-inhibitor-colchicine
#7
Shu-Fei Zhang, Yong Zhang, Lin Lin, Da-Zhi Wang
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of potent neurotoxic alkaloids mainly produced by marine dinoflagellates and their biosynthesis is associated with the cell cycle. Study shows that colchicine can cease cell division and inhibit PST production of dinoflagellates. However, the molecular mechanism behind this linkage is unknown. Here, we applied the iTRAQ-based proteomic approach to investigate protein expression profiles of a toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T) and its non-toxigenic mutant (ACHK-NT) when treated with colchicine...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653309/bioactive-extracellular-compounds-produced-by-the-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-minutum-are-highly-detrimental-for-oysters
#8
J Castrec, P Soudant, L Payton, D Tran, P Miner, C Lambert, N Le Goïc, A Huvet, V Quillien, F Boullot, Z Amzil, H Hégaret, C Fabioux
Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp., known as producers of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are regularly detected on the French coastline. PSTs accumulate into harvested shellfish species, such as the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and can cause strong disorders to consumers at high doses. The impacts of Alexandrium minutum on C. gigas have often been attributed to its production of PSTs without testing separately the effects of the bioactive extracellular compounds (BECs) with allelopathic, hemolytic, cytotoxic or ichthyotoxic properties, which can also be produced by these algae...
March 29, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623844/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assessment-of-silver-nanoparticles-against-clostridium-botulinum-type-a-botulinum
#9
Mohammad Aminianfar, Siavash Parvardeh, Mohsen Soleimani
BACKGROUND: Clostridium botulinum causes botulism, resulting from the ingestion of a botulinal toxin, which is a serious paralytic illness. Due to strong antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles' products, the applications of silver nanoparticles in the field of healthcare in particular are being expanded. Therefore, the objective of current study was to assess a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of botulism toxicity using silver nanoparticles. METHODS: A preliminary test was conducted, based on the ranges that produce illness in laboratory animals, to determine absolute lethal dose (LD100) of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in mice...
April 3, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621672/oyster-transcriptome-response-to-alexandrium-exposure-is-related-to-saxitoxin-load-and-characterized-by-disrupted-digestion-energy-balance-and-calcium-and-sodium-signaling
#10
Audrey M Mat, Christophe Klopp, Laura Payton, Céline Jeziorski, Morgane Chalopin, Zouher Amzil, Damien Tran, Gary H Wikfors, Hélène Hégaret, Philippe Soudant, Arnaud Huvet, Caroline Fabioux
Harmful Algal Blooms are worldwide occurrences that can cause poisoning in human seafood consumers as well as mortality and sublethal effets in wildlife, propagating economic losses. One of the most widespread toxigenic microalgal taxa is the dinoflagellate Genus Alexandrium, that includes species producing neurotoxins referred to as PST (Paralytic Shellfish Toxins). Blooms cause shellfish harvest restrictions to protect human consumers from accumulated toxins. Large inter-individual variability in toxin load within an exposed bivalve population complicates monitoring of shellfish toxicity for ecology and human health regulation...
March 27, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602502/blurred-lines-multiple-freshwater-and-marine-algal-toxins-at-the-land-sea-interface-of-san-francisco-bay-california
#11
Melissa B Peacock, Corinne M Gibble, David B Senn, James E Cloern, Raphael M Kudela
San Francisco Bay (SFB) is a eutrophic estuary that harbors both freshwater and marine toxigenic organisms that are responsible for harmful algal blooms. While there are few commercial fishery harvests within SFB, recreational and subsistence harvesting for shellfish is common. Coastal shellfish are monitored for domoic acid and paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), but within SFB there is no routine monitoring for either toxin. Dinophysis shellfish toxins (DSTs) and freshwater microcystins are also present within SFB, but not routinely monitored...
March 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597338/dose-response-modelling-of-paralytic-shellfish-poisoning-psp-in-humans
#12
Nathalie Arnich, Anne Thébault
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by a group of marine toxins with saxitoxin (STX) as the reference compound. Symptoms in humans after consumption of contaminated shellfish vary from slight neurological and gastrointestinal effects to fatal respiratory paralysis. A systematic review was conducted to identify reported cases of human poisoning associated with the ingestion of shellfish contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). Raw data were collected from 143 exposed individuals (113 with symptoms, 30 without symptoms) from 13 studies...
March 28, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578428/unilateral-frontalis-muscle-paralysis-management-with-botulinum-toxin-a-case-reports
#13
A Goldman, U Wollina
Unilateral frontalis muscle palsy is a debilitating disease with a heterogeneous etiology. Congenital or acquired unilateral paralysis of the frontalis muscle causes ipsilateral brow ptosis and contralateral hypermobility of the non-paralytic frontalis muscle, resulting in a bizarre asymmetry and emotional embarrassment. We present five patients with unilateral frontal muscle paralysis, two males and three females, aged between 32 and 68, treated with botulinum toxin A injection to the contralateral (non-affected) side...
February 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543223/-facial-nerve-injury-in-neurosurgery-a-rehabilitation-potential-of-botulinum-therapy
#14
M A Akulov, O R Orlova, T V Tabashnikova, V V Karnaukhov, A S Orlova
Surgical treatment of posterior cranial fossa and cerebellopontine angle tumors is associated with a risk of facial nerve dysfunction. The causes for facial muscle paresis include nerve compression by the tumor, destruction of the nerve structure by the tumor growing from nerve fibers, nerve injury during surgical removal of the tumor, etc. The first 3 months after facial nerve injury are a potential therapeutic window for the use of botulinum toxin type A (BTA). During this period, the drug is introduced both in the healthy side to improve the facial symmetry at rest and during mimetic movements and in the affected side to induce drug-induced ptosis...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495385/fatal-canine-intoxications-linked-to-the-presence-of-saxitoxins-in-stranded-marine-organisms-following-winter-storm-activity
#15
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Karl Dean, Steven Milligan, Mike Hamilton, Julie Thomas, Chris Poole, Jo Haycock, Jo Spelman-Marriott, Alice Watson, Katherine Hughes, Bridget Marr, Alan Dixon, Lewis Coates
At the start of 2018, multiple incidents of dog illnesses were reported following consumption of marine species washed up onto the beaches of eastern England after winter storms. Over a two-week period, nine confirmed illnesses including two canine deaths were recorded. Symptoms in the affected dogs included sickness, loss of motor control, and muscle paralysis. Samples of flatfish, starfish, and crab from the beaches in the affected areas were analysed for a suite of naturally occurring marine neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin...
February 26, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449118/shot-by-a-gun-%C3%A2-missed-by-a-provider
#16
Eddie Garcia, Abdul H Zaid, Diane P Calello, Lisa McHugh, Grant Arzumanov, Najaf Asrar, Ari Sapin, Kristin G Fless
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by the neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The majority of cases are due to ingestion or injection drug use. Wound botulism from traumatic injury is exceedingly rare, with only one to two cases reported each year in the United States. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with diplopia, dysphagia, and progressive weakness 10 days after sustaining a gunshot wound to his right lower leg...
April 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426529/potentiometric-chemical-sensors-for-the-detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins
#17
Nádia S Ferreira, Marco G N Cruz, Maria Teresa S R Gomes, Alisa Rudnitskaya
Potentiometric chemical sensors for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins have been developed. Four toxins typically encountered in Portuguese waters, namely saxitoxin, decarbamoyl saxitoxin, gonyautoxin GTX5 and C1&C2, were selected for the study. A series of miniaturized sensors with solid inner contact and plasticized polyvinylchloride membranes containing ionophores, nine compositions in total, were prepared and their characteristics evaluated. Sensors displayed cross-sensitivity to four studied toxins, i...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382576/toxic-activity-and-protein-identification-from-the-parotoid-gland-secretion-of-the-common-toad-bufo-bufo
#18
Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński, Leszek Rychlik
Anuran toxins released from the skin glands are involved in defence against predators and microorganisms. Secretion from parotoid macroglands of bufonid toads is a rich source of bioactive compounds with the cytotoxic, cardiotoxic and hemolytic activity. Bufadienolides are considered the most toxic components of the toad poison, whereas the protein properties are largely unknown. In the present work, we analysed the cardio-, myo-, and neurotropic activity of extract and the selected proteins from Bufo bufo parotoids in in vitro physiological bioassays carried out on two standard model organisms: beetles and frogs...
February 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356586/fate-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-southern-rock-lobster-jasus-edwardsii-during-cooking-concentration-composition-and-distribution
#19
Alison Turnbull, Navreet Malhi, Jessica Tan, D Tim Harwood, Thomas Madigan
Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) producing microalgal blooms have a significant economic impact on the Southern Rock Lobster ( Jasus edwardsii) fishery in Tasmania, Australia. The regulatory level of 0.8 mg of saxitoxin (STX) eq/kg in place for bivalve shellfish fisheries is applied to lobster hepatopancreas during blooms of toxic algae, resulting in harvest closures and ongoing risk management implications for the fishery. This cooking study was undertaken to inform a human health risk assessment, in conjunction with studies on the uptake and elimination of PST in J...
February 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342840/evaluation-of-rapid-early-warning-approaches-to-track-shellfish-toxins-associated-with-dinophysis-and-alexandrium-blooms
#20
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Mark W Lusty, Ryan B Wallace, Bennie Haynes, Zhihong Wang, Maggie Broadwater, Jonathan R Deeds, Steve L Morton, William Hastback, Leonora Porter, Karen Chytalo, Christopher J Gobler
Marine biotoxin-contaminated seafood has caused thousands of poisonings worldwide this century. Given these threats, there is an increasing need for improved technologies that can be easily integrated into coastal monitoring programs. This study evaluates approaches for monitoring toxins associated with recurrent toxin-producing Alexandrium and Dinophysis blooms on Long Island, NY, USA, which cause paralytic and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (PSP and DSP), respectively. Within contrasting locations, the dynamics of pelagic Alexandrium and Dinophysis cell densities, toxins in plankton, and toxins in deployed blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were compared with passive solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) samplers filled with two types of resin, HP20 and XAD-2...
January 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
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