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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209476/the-role-of-a-psp-producing-alexandrium-bloom-in-an-unprecedented-diamondback-terrapin-malaclemys-terrapin-mortality-event-in-flanders-bay-new-york-usa
#1
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Robert J Ossiboff, Craig A Burnell, Carlton D Rauschenberg, Kevin Hynes, Russell L Burke, Elizabeth M Bunting, Kim Durham, Christopher J Gobler
Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are a threatened or endangered species in much of their range along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Over an approximately three-week period from late April to mid-May 2015, hundreds of adult diamondback terrapins were found dead on the shores of Flanders Bay, Long Island, New York, USA. Concurrent with the mortality event, elevated densities of the paralytic shellfish toxin (PST)-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense (>10(4) cells L(-1)) and high levels of PST in bivalves (maximal levels = 540 μg STX eq...
February 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208796/recent%C3%A2-trends%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-marine%C3%A2-phycotoxins%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-australian%C3%A2-coastal%C3%A2-waters
#2
Penelope Ajani, D Tim Harwood, Shauna A Murray
Phycotoxins, which are produced by harmful microalgae and bioaccumulate in the  marine food web, are of growing concern for Australia. These harmful algae pose a threat to  ecosystem and human health, as well as constraining the progress of aquaculture, one of the fastest  growing food sectors in the world. With better monitoring, advanced analytical skills and an  increase in microalgal expertise, many phycotoxins have been identified in Australian coastal  waters in recent years...
February 9, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186342/development-and-validation-of-a-high-throughput-online-solid-phase-extraction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-detection-of-gonyautoxins1-4-and-gonyautoxins2-3-in-human-urine
#3
Rebecca Coleman, Sharon W Lemire, William Bragg, Alaine Garrett, Geovannie Ojeda-Torres, Rebekah Wharton, Elizabeth Hamelin, Jerry Thomas, Rudolph C Johnson
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), including gonyautoxins and saxitoxins, are produced by multiple species of microalgae and dinoflagellates, and are bioaccumulated by shellfish and other animals. Human exposure to PSTs typically occurs through ingestion of recreationally-harvested contaminated shellfish and results in non-specific symptomology. Confirmation of exposure to PSTs has often relied on the measurement of saxitoxin, the most toxic congener; however, gonyautoxins (GTXs), the sulfated carbamate derivatives of saxitoxin, may be present in shellfish at higher concentrations...
February 10, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142089/effects-of-bioactive-extracellular-compounds-and-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-produced-by-alexandrium-minutum-on-growth-and-behaviour-of-juvenile-great-scallops-pecten-maximus
#4
REVIEW
Elodie Borcier, Romain Morvezen, Pierre Boudry, Philippe Miner, Grégory Charrier, Jean Laroche, Hélène Hegaret
Dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium are a major cause of harmful algal blooms (HABs) that have increasingly disrupted coastal ecosystems for the last several decades. Microalgae from the genus Alexandrium are known to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) but also bioactive extracellular compounds (BEC) that can display cytotoxic, allelopathic, ichtyotoxic or haemolytic effects upon marine organisms. The objective of this experimental study was to assess the effects of PST and BEC produced by A. minutum upon juvenile great scallops Pecten maximus...
March 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118883/distinctly-different-behavioral-responses-of-a-copepod-temora-longicornis-to-different-strains-of-toxic-dinoflagellates-alexandrium-spp
#5
Jiayi Xu, Per Juel Hansen, Lasse Tor Nielsen, Bernd Krock, Urban Tillmann, Thomas Kiørboe
Zooplankton responses to toxic algae are highly variable, even towards taxonomically closely related species or different strains of the same species. Here, the individual level feeding behavior of a copepod, Temora longicornis, was examined which offered 4 similarly sized strains of toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp. and a non-toxic control strain of the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum. The strains varied in their cellular toxin concentration and composition and in lytic activity. High-speed video observations revealed four distinctly different strain-specific feeding responses of the copepod during 4h incubations: (i) the 'normal' feeding behavior, in which the feeding appendages were beating almost constantly to produce a feeding current and most (90%) of the captured algae were ingested; (ii) the beating activity of the feeding appendages was reduced by ca...
February 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106838/molecular-characterization-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-and-their-relations-with-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-bioaccumulation-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#6
Floriane Boullot, Justine Castrec, Adeline Bidault, Natanael Dantas, Laura Payton, Mickael Perrigault, Damien Tran, Zouher Amzil, Pierre Boudry, Philippe Soudant, Hélène Hégaret, Caroline Fabioux
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) bind to voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and block conduction of action potential in excitable cells. This study aimed to (i) characterize Nav sequences in Crassostrea gigas and (ii) investigate a putative relation between Nav and PST-bioaccumulation in oysters. The phylogenetic analysis highlighted two types of Nav in C. gigas: a Nav1 (CgNav1) and a Nav2 (CgNav2) with sequence properties of sodium-selective and sodium/calcium-selective channels, respectively. Three alternative splice transcripts of CgNav1 named A, B and C, were characterized...
January 19, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073526/prevalence-of-algal-toxins-in-alaskan-marine-mammals-foraging-in-a-changing-arctic-and-subarctic-environment
#7
Kathi A Lefebvre, Lori Quakenbush, Elizabeth Frame, Kathy Burek Huntington, Gay Sheffield, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Anna Bryan, Preston Kendrick, Heather Ziel, Tracey Goldstein, Jonathan A Snyder, Tom Gelatt, Frances Gulland, Bobette Dickerson, Verena Gill
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073524/distribution-occurrence-and-biotoxin-composition-of-the-main-shellfish-toxin-producing-microalgae-within-european-waters-a-comparison-of-methods-of-analysis
#8
Sara E McNamee, Linda K Medlin, Jessica Kegel, Gary R McCoy, Robin Raine, Lucia Barra, Maria Valeria Ruggiero, Wiebe H C F Kooistra, Marina Montresor, Johannes Hagstrom, Eva Perez Blanco, Edna Graneli, Francisco Rodríguez, Laura Escalera, Beatriz Reguera, Simon Dittami, Bente Edvardsen, Joe Taylor, Jane M Lewis, Yolanda Pazos, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a natural global phenomena emerging in severity and extent. Incidents have many economic, ecological and human health impacts. Monitoring and providing early warning of toxic HABs are critical for protecting public health. Current monitoring programmes include measuring the number of toxic phytoplankton cells in the water and biotoxin levels in shellfish tissue. As these efforts are demanding and labour intensive, methods which improve the efficiency are essential. This study compares the utilisation of a multitoxin surface plasmon resonance (multitoxin SPR) biosensor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analytical methods such as high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for toxic HAB monitoring efforts in Europe...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073499/physiological-and-transcriptional-responses-to-inorganic-nutrition-in-a-tropical-pacific-strain-of-alexandrium-minutum-implications-for-the-saxitoxin-genes-and-toxin-production
#9
Kieng Soon Hii, Po Teen Lim, Nyuk Fong Kon, Yoshinobu Takata, Gires Usup, Chui Pin Leaw
Saxitoxins (STXs) constitute a family of potent sodium channel blocking toxins, causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), and are produced by several species of marine dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria. Two STX-core genes, sxtA and sxtG, have been well elucidated in Alexandrium but the expression of these genes under various nutritional modes in tropical species remains unclear. This study investigates the physiological responses of a tropical Pacific strain of Alexandrium minutum growing with nitrate or ammonium, and with various nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) supply ratios...
June 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073476/health-impacts-from-cyanobacteria-harmful-algae-blooms-implications-for-the-north-american-great-lakes
#10
REVIEW
Wayne W Carmichael, Gregory L Boyer
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms (cHABs) have significant socioeconomic and ecological costs, which impact drinking water, fisheries, agriculture, tourism, real estate, water quality, food web resilience and habitats, and contribute to anoxia and fish kills. Many of these costs are well described, but in fact are largely unmeasured. Worldwide cHABs can produce toxins (cyanotoxins), which cause acute or chronic health effects in mammals (including humans) and other organisms. There are few attempts to characterize the full health-related effects other than acute incidences, which may go unrecorded...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073466/quantity-of-the-dinoflagellate-sxta4-gene-and-cell-density-correlates-with-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-production-in-alexandrium-ostenfeldii-blooms
#11
Henna Savela, Kirsi Harju, Lisa Spoof, Elin Lindehoff, Jussi Meriluoto, Markus Vehniäinen, Anke Kremp
Many marine dinoflagellates, including several species of the genus Alexandrium, Gymnodinium catenatum, and Pyrodinium bahamense are known for their capability to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which can cause severe, most often food-related poisoning. The recent discovery of the first PST biosynthesis genes has laid the foundation for the development of molecular detection methods for monitoring and study of PST-producing dinoflagellates. In this study, a probe-based qPCR method for the detection and quantification of the sxtA4 gene present in Alexandrium spp...
February 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073439/the-competitive-dynamics-of-toxic-alexandrium-fundyense-and-non-toxic-alexandrium-tamarense-the-role-of-temperature
#12
Lisa K Eckford-Soper, Eileen Bresnan, Jean-Pierre Lacaze, David H Green, Keith Davidson
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium produces paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. The genus is globally distributed, with Scottish waters being of particular interest due to the co-occurrence of different species and strains. In Scottish waters, Alexandrium was historically thought to be dominated by the highly toxic (Group I) Alexandrium fundyense. However, the morphologically indistinguishable (Group III) Alexandrium tamarense has recently also been found to co-occur, raising important questions in relation to Alexandrium biogeography...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058244/occurrence-of-harmful-algal-species-and-shellfish-toxicity-in-sardinia-italy
#13
Anna Maria Bazzoni, Alessandro Graziano Mudadu, Giuseppa Lorenzoni, Igor Arras, Antonella Lugliè, Barbara Vivaldi, Valentina Cicotelli, Giovanna Sanna, Giuseppe Tedde, Salvatore Ledda, Enrico Alesso, Edoardo Marongiu, Sebastiano Virgilio
Sardinia (Italy, north-western Mediterranean) is a commercially important producer of edible bivalve molluscs. Since the early 2000s, it was subjected to recurring cases of mussel farm closures due to toxic algal poison. Here, we present the studies on toxin concentrations and the associated potentially toxic phytoplankton distribution and abundances carried out by a regular monitoring programme in Sardinian shellfish areas, from January to May 2015. Diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins were detected in several bivalve molluscs samples, while paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins were present just once, without exceeding the legal limits...
September 20, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007383/paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-phytoplankton-and-shellfish-samples-collected-from-the-bohai-sea-china
#14
Yang Liu, Ren-Cheng Yu, Fan-Zhou Kong, Zhen-Fan Chen, Li Dai, Yan Gao, Qing-Chun Zhang, Yun-Feng Wang, Tian Yan, Ming-Jiang Zhou
Phytoplankton and shellfish samples collected periodically from 5 representative mariculture zones around the Bohai Sea, Laishan (LS), Laizhou (LZ), Hangu (HG), Qinhuangdao (QHD) and Huludao (HLD), were analysed for paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) using an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Toxins were detected in 13 out of 20 phytoplankton samples, and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1/2) were predominant components of PSTs in phytoplankton samples with relatively low toxin content. However, two phytoplankton samples with high PST content collected from QHD and LS had unique toxin profiles characterized by high-potency carbamoyl toxins (GTX1/4) and decarbamoyl toxins (dcGTX2/3 and dcSTX), respectively...
December 19, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003062/bioactive-compounds-of-marine-dinoflagellate-isolates-from-western-greenland-and-their-phylogenetic-association-within-the-genus-alexandrium
#15
Urban Tillmann, Bernd Krock, Tilman J Alpermann, Allan Cembella
The diversity and biogeography of populations of the toxigenic marine dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium, a major global cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), are represented by only a few studies based upon a low number of cultured isolates and remain poorly described in Arctic and sub-Arctic waters. Multiple clonal isolates (n=22) of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex, and a single isolate of A. tamutum, were collected from the water column while on board an oceanographic expedition to the west coast of Greenland...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003058/effect-of-the-endoparasite-amoebophrya-sp-on-toxin-content-and-composition-in-the-paralytic-shellfish-poisoning-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-fundyense-dinophyceae
#16
Sunju Kim, Myung Gil Park
Members of the Amoebophrya ceratii complex are endoparasitic dinoflagellates that parasitize a number of their dinoflagellate relatives, including toxic and/or harmful algal bloom-forming species. Despite many studies on the occurrence, prevalence, biology and molecular phylogeny of Amoebophrya spp., little attention has been given to toxin dynamics of host population following parasitism. Using Amoebophrya sp. infecting the paralytic shellfish toxin (PSP)-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, we addressed the following questions: (1) does parasitism by Amoebophrya sp...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956245/neurotoxins-in-a-water-supply-reservoir-an-alert-to-environmental-and-human-health
#17
Sabrina Loise de Morais Calado, Juliana Wojciechowski, Gustavo Souza Santos, Valéria Freitas de Magalhães, André Andrian Padial, Marta Margarete Cestari, Helena Cristina da Silva de Assis
Reservoirs are important source of power generation, recreation, and water supply. Nevertheless, human activities have favored the bloom of toxic cyanobacteria in many reservoirs, which has resulted in environmental, social, and economic problems. This study aims to evaluate the water quality of a reservoir in South Brazil through the analysis of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins PSTs (Paralytic Shellfish Toxins) and biomarkers of environmental contamination in fish. For this purpose, water samples and fish (Geophagus brasiliensis) (Perciformes: Cichlidae) were collected from September 2013 to May 2014...
December 10, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914887/comparative-performance-of-four-immunological-test-kits-for-the-detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-tasmanian-shellfish
#18
Juan José Dorantes-Aranda, Katrina Campbell, Andrew Bradbury, Christopher T Elliott, D Tim Harwood, Shauna A Murray, Sarah C Ugalde, Katrina Wilson, Megan Burgoyne, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff
Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Group 1) seriously impacted the Tasmanian shellfish industry during 2012 and 2015, necessitating product recalls and intensive paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) product testing. The performance of four commercial PST test kits, Abraxis™, Europroxima™, Scotia™ and Neogen™, was compared with the official AOAC LC-FLD method for contaminated mussels and oysters. Abraxis and Europroxima kits underestimated PST in 35-100% of samples when using standard protocols but quantification improved when concentrated extracts were further diluted (underestimation ≤18%)...
January 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907126/variability-in-the-sxt-gene-clusters-of-psp-toxin-producing-aphanizomenon-gracile-strains-from-norway-spain-germany-and-north-america
#19
Andreas Ballot, Leonardo Cerasino, Vladyslava Hostyeva, Samuel Cirés
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin production has been detected worldwide in the cyanobacterial genera Anabaena, Lyngbya, Scytonema, Cuspidothrix and Aphanizomenon. In Europe Aphanizomenon gracile and Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi are the only known producers of PSP toxins and are found in Southwest and Central European freshwater bodies. In this study the PSP toxin producing Aphanizomenon sp. strain NIVA-CYA 851 was isolated from the Norwegian Lake Hillestadvannet. In a polyphasic approach NIVA-CYA 851 was morphologically and phylogenetically classified, and investigated for toxin production...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862045/capillary-electrophoresis-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-combined-with-metal-tag-for-ultrasensitively-determining-trace-saxitoxin-in-seafood
#20
Ye He, Fan Mo, Danlong Chen, LiangJun Xu, Yongning Wu, FengFu Fu
As one of paralytic shellfish toxins, the saxitoxin (STX) in the aqueous environment can be accumulated by most shellfish, and thus harms human health through the food chain. Therefore, it is crucial to determine trace STX in seafood samples in order to ensure the safety of seafood consumption. In this study, we developed a novel indirect method for ultrasensitively determining trace STX in seafood by using CE-ICP-MS together with Eu(3+) chelate labeling. We demonstrated that diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N″,N″-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) can couple with STX and simultaneously chelate with Eu(3+) to realize metallic labeling of STX, and thus realize the ultrasensitive quantification of trace STX with CE-ICP-MS...
November 10, 2016: Electrophoresis
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