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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711010/the-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-saxitoxin-enters-the-cytoplasm-and-induces-apoptosis-of-oyster-immune-cells-through-a-caspase-dependent-pathway
#1
Celina Abi-Khalil, Darren S Finkelstein, Genevieve Conejero, Justin Du Bois, Delphine Destoumieux-Garzon, Jean Luc Rolland
Exposure of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (A. catenella) was previously demonstrated to cause apoptosis of hemocytes in the oyster species Crassostrea gigas. In this work, a coumarin-labeled saxitoxin appeared to spread throughout the cytoplasm of the hemocytes. PSTs, including saxitoxin, were also shown to be directly responsible for inducing apoptosis in hemocytes, a process dependent on caspase activation and independent of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. A series of in vitro labelling and microscopy experiments revealed that STX and analogs there of induced nuclear condensation, phosphatidylserine exposure, membrane permeability, and DNA fragmentation of hemocytes...
July 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692343/pulsotype-diversity-of-clostridium-botulinum-strains-containing-serotypes-a-and-or-b-genes
#2
Jessica L Halpin, Lavin Joseph, Janet K Dykes, Loretta McCroskey, Elise Smith, Denise Toney, Steven Stroika, Kelley Hise, Susan Maslanka, Carolina Lúquez
Clostridium botulinum strains are prevalent in the environment and produce a potent neurotoxin that causes botulism, a rare but serious paralytic disease. In 2010, a national PulseNet database was established to curate C. botulinum pulsotypes and facilitate epidemiological investigations, particularly for serotypes A and B strains frequently associated with botulism cases in the United States. Between 2010 and 2014 we performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using a PulseNet protocol, uploaded the resulting PFGE patterns into a national database, and analyzed data according to PulseNet criteria (UPGMA clustering, Dice coefficient, 1...
July 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678186/whole-transcriptomic-analysis-provides-insights-into-molecular-mechanisms-for-toxin-biosynthesis-in-a-toxic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-catenella-achk-t
#3
Yong Zhang, Shu-Fei Zhang, Lin Lin, Da-Zhi Wang
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a group of neurotoxic alkaloids, are the most potent biotoxins for aquatic ecosystems and human health. Marine dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria are two producers of PSTs. The biosynthesis mechanism of PSTs has been well elucidated in cyanobacteria; however, it remains ambiguous in dinoflagellates. Here, we compared the transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T) at different toxin biosynthesis stages within the cell cycle using RNA-seq...
July 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661471/development-and-validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-coupled-with-dispersive-solid-phase-extraction-for-simultaneous-quantification-of-eight-paralytic-shellfish-poisoning-toxins-in-shellfish
#4
Xianli Yang, Lei Zhou, Yanglan Tan, Xizhi Shi, Zhiyong Zhao, Dongxia Nie, Changyan Zhou, Hong Liu
In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of eight paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, including saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), gonyautoxins (GTX1-4) and the N-sulfo carbamoyl toxins C1 and C2, in sea shellfish. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile/water (80:20, v/v) with 0.1% formic and purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) with C18 silica and acidic alumina. Qualitative and quantitative detection for the target toxins were conducted under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by using the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode after chromatographic separation on a TSK-gel Amide-80 HILIC column with water and acetonitrile...
June 29, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616979/proposed-biotransformation-pathways-for-new-metabolites-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-based-on-field-and-experimental-mussel-samples
#5
Ling Ding, Jiangbing Qiu, Aifeng Li
A seafood poisoning event occurred in Qinhuangdao, China, in April 2016. Subsequently, the causative mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were harvested and analyzed to reveal a high concentration [∼10 758 μg of saxitoxin (STX) equiv kg(-1)] of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), including gonyautoxin (GTX)1/4 and GTX2/3, as well as new metabolites 11-hydroxy-STX (M2), 11,11-dihydroxy-STX (M4), open-ring 11,11-dihydroxy-STX (M6), 11-hydroxy-neosaxitoxin (NEO) (M8), and 11,11-dihydroxy-NEO (M10). To understand the origin and biotransformation pathways of these new metabolites, uncontaminated mussels (M...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587138/toxin-variability-estimations-of-68-alexandrium-ostenfeldii-dinophyceae-strains-from-the-netherlands-reveal-a-novel-abundant-gymnodimine
#6
Helge Martens, Urban Tillmann, Kirsi Harju, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Luciana Tartaglione, Bernd Krock
Alexandrium ostenfeldii is a toxic dinoflagellate that has recently bloomed in Ouwerkerkse Kreek, The Netherlands, and which is able to cause a serious threat to shellfish consumers and aquacultures. We used a large set of 68 strains to the aim of fully characterizing the toxin profiles of the Dutch A. ostenfeldii in consideration of recent reports of novel toxins. Alexandrium ostenfeldii is known as a causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning, and consistently in the Dutch population we determined the presence of several paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) including saxitoxin (STX), GTX2/3 (gonyautoxins), B1 and C1/C2...
May 26, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566174/role-of-the-other-babinski-sign-in-hyperkinetic-facial-disorders
#7
Sara Varanda, Sofia Rocha, Margarida Rodrigues, Álvaro Machado, Gisela Carneiro
BACKGROUND: The "other Babinski sign" consists in the co-contraction of the orbicularis and frontalis muscles, causing an eyebrow elevation during ipsilateral eye closure. It cannot be voluntarily reproduced. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To determine the utility of this sign in the differential diagnosis of hyperkinetic facial disorders. METHODS: The presence of the sign was assessed in consecutive patients with blepharospasm, primary hemifacial spasm or post-paralytic facial syndrome treated in a botulinum toxin outpatient clinic...
July 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534855/rbc-adherence-of-immune-complexes-containing-botulinum-toxin-improves-neutralization-and-macrophage-uptake
#8
Fetweh H Al-Saleem, Rashmi Sharma, Rama Devudu Puligedda, Md Elias, Chandana Devi Kattala, Paul M Simon, Lance L Simpson, Scott K Dessain
In the paralytic disease botulism, the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) passes through the bloodstream to reach and inactivate neuromuscular junctions. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) may be useful BoNT countermeasures, as mAb combinations can rapidly clear BoNT from the blood circulation. We have previously shown that the BoNT-neutralizing potency of mAbs can be improved through red blood cell (RBC) immunoadherence. For example, a fusion protein (FP) that adheres biotinylated mAbs to the RBC surface enabled a pair of mAbs to neutralize 5000 LD50 BoNT/A in the mouse protection assay...
May 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532167/how-the-marine-biotoxins-affect-human-health
#9
Silvia Morabito, Serena Silvestro, Caterina Faggio
Several marine microalgae produce dangerous toxins very damaging to human health, aquatic ecosystems and coastal resources. These Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in recent decades seem greatly increased regarding frequency, severity and biogeographical level, causing serious health risks as a consequence of the consumption of contaminated seafood. Toxins can cause various clinically described syndromes, characterised by a wide range of symptoms: amnesic (ASP), diarrhoetic (DSP), azaspirazid (AZP), neurotoxic (NSP) and paralytic (PSP) shellfish poisonings and ciguatera fish poisoning...
May 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516259/-poisoning-caused-by-marine-biotoxins
#10
REVIEW
Philipp Hess
This paper presents a short summary of the knowledge on marine biotoxins. As toxins are known for their acute effects, they have been classified here according to the effects they cause in acute human poisoning incidents. Toxins may thus be distinguished into those that affect the nervous system (paralytic and other neurotoxins), memory (amnesic poisons), and the digestive system (diarrhetic toxins). Furthermore, newly emerging toxins, such as ciguatoxins or shark toxins, and factors that lead to the introduction of toxins in new areas, are presented...
May 17, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495477/quantification-of-saxitoxin-in-human-blood-by-elisa
#11
Rebekah E Wharton, Melanie C Feyereisen, Andrea L Gonzalez, Nicole L Abbott, Elizabeth I Hamelin, Rudolph C Johnson
Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent marine toxin that causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) which can result in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Low lethal doses, rapid onset of PSP symptoms, and brief STX half-life in vivo require sensitive and rapid diagnostic techniques to monitor human exposures. Our laboratory has validated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative detection of STX from 0.020 to 0.80 ng/mL in human whole blood and from 0.06 to 2.0 ng/mL in dried human blood which is simple, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective...
July 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472048/multispecies-mass-mortality-of-marine-fauna-linked-to-a-toxic-dinoflagellate-bloom
#12
Michel Starr, Stéphane Lair, Sonia Michaud, Michael Scarratt, Michael Quilliam, Denis Lefaivre, Michel Robert, Andrew Wotherspoon, Robert Michaud, Nadia Ménard, Gilbert Sauvé, Sylvie Lessard, Pierre Béland, Lena Measures
Following heavy precipitation, we observed an intense algal bloom in the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) that coincided with an unusually high mortality of several species of marine fish, birds and mammals, including species designated at risk. The algal species was identified as Alexandrium tamarense and was determined to contain a potent mixture of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Significant levels of PST were found in the liver and/or gastrointestinal contents of several carcasses tested as well as in live planktivorous fish, molluscs and plankton samples collected during the bloom...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455330/regulation-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-synthesis-and-toxin-complex-formation-by-arginine-and-glucose-in-clostridium-botulinum-atcc-3502
#13
Chase M Fredrick, Guangyun Lin, Eric A Johnson
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), produced by neurotoxigenic clostridia, is the most potent biological toxin known and the causative agent of the paralytic disease botulism. The nutritional, environmental, and genetic regulation of BoNT synthesis, activation, stability, and toxin complex (TC) formation is not well studied. Previous studies indicated that growth and BoNT formation were affected by arginine and glucose in Clostridium botulinum types A and B. In the present study, C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was grown in toxin production medium (TPM) with different levels of arginine and glucose and of three products of arginine metabolism, citrulline, proline, and ornithine...
July 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441004/insights-into-the-mechanisms-by-which-clostridial-neurotoxins-discriminate-between-gangliosides
#14
Joshua R Burns, Gregory S Lambert, Michael R Baldwin
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. Entry of toxins into neurons is mediated through initial interactions with gangliosides, followed by binding to a protein co-receptor. Herein, we aimed to understand the mechanism through which individual neurotoxins recognize the carbohydrate motif of gangliosides. Using cell-based and in vitro binding assays, in conjunction with structure-driven site-directed mutagenesis, a conserved hydrophobic residue within the BoNTs that contributes to both affinity and specificity toward Sia5-containing gangliosides was identified...
May 23, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425396/development-and-single-laboratory-validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-quantitation-of-tetrodotoxin-in-mussels-and-oysters
#15
Andrew D Turner, Michael J Boundy, Monika Dhanji Rapkova
In recent years, evidence has grown for the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in bivalve mollusks, leading to the potential for consumers of contaminated products to be affected by Tetrodotoxin Shellfish Poisoning (TSP). A single-laboratory validation was conducted for the hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC) tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis of TTX in common mussels and Pacific oysters-the bivalve species that have been found to contain TTXs in the United Kingdom in recent years. The method consists of a single-step dispersive extraction in 1% acetic acid, followed by a carbon SPE cleanup step before dilution and instrumental analysis...
April 20, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374313/differential-mobility-spectrometry-for-improved-selectivity-in-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins
#16
Daniel G Beach
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are neurotoxins produced by dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning in humans. PST quantitation by LC-MS is challenging because of their high polarity, lability as gas-phase ions, and large number of potentially interfering analogues. Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) has the potential to improve the performance of LC-MS methods for PSTs in terms of selectivity and limits of detection. This work describes a comprehensive investigation of the separation of 16 regulated PSTs by DMS and the development of highly selective LC-DMS-MS methods for PST quantitation...
August 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359039/spatiotemporal-patterns-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-and-their-relationships-with-environmental-variables-in-british-columbia-canada-from-2002-to-2012
#17
Stephen Finnis, Nikolas Krstic, Lorraine McIntyre, Trisalyn A Nelson, Sarah B Henderson
BACKGROUND: Harmful algal blooms produce paralytic shellfish toxins that accumulate in the tissues of filter feeding shellfish. Ingestion of these toxic shellfish can cause a serious and potentially fatal condition known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The coast of British Columbia is routinely monitored for shellfish toxicity, and this study uses data from the monitoring program to identify spatiotemporal patterns in shellfish toxicity events and their relationships with environmental variables...
July 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349703/comparative-effectiveness-of-botulinum-toxin-versus-non-surgical-treatments-for-treating-lateral-epicondylitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Yu-Ching Lin, Wei-Ting Wu, Yu-Chun Hsu, Der-Sheng Han, Ke-Vin Chang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effectiveness of botulinum toxin compared with non-surgical treatments in patients with lateral epicondylitis. METHODS: Data sources including PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Airity Library from the earliest record to February 2017 were searched. Study design, patients' characteristics, dosage/brand of botulinum toxin, injection techniques, and measurements of pain and hand grip strength were retrieved. The standardized mean differences (SMDs) in pain relief and grip strength reduction were calculated at the following time points: 2-4, 8-12, and 16 weeks or more after injection...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291204/-staged-complex-treatment-of-paralytic-lagophthalmos-case-report
#19
M B Gushchina, S A Mal'kov, E V Kovshun, N S Yuzhakova
Paralytic lagophthalmos, resulting from facial nerve palsy, is a difficult medical and social issue that requires cooperation of different specialists. Complications that arise in paralytic lagophthalmos may cause significant vision loss and even eye loss. Various techniques of paralytic lagophthalmos correction are used to protect the cornea and restore eyelid anatomy and functions. These comprise palliative (conservative), surgical, and alternative treatments (such as botulinum toxin type A therapy). Surgical treatment of paralytic lagophthalmos patients often has to be staged and complex...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260503/in-vivo-neutralization-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-e-using-rabbit-polyclonal-antibody-developed-against-bont-e-light-chain
#20
Sarita Sarita, Ponmariappan Sarkaraisamy, Arti Sharma, D V Kamboj, A K Jain
Clostridium botulinum is an obligate anaerobic, Gram positive bacterium that secretes extremely toxic substances known as botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) that cause serious paralytic illness called botulism. Based upon the serological properties, these neurotoxin have been classified into seven serotypes designated from A to G. Due to extreme toxicity of BoNTs, these neurotoxins have been designated as category A biowarfare agents. There is no commercial neutralizing antibody available for the treatment of botulism...
March 1, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
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