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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602256/rise-and-fall-of-toxic-benthic-freshwater-cyanobacteria-anabaena-spp-in-the-eel-river-buoyancy-and-dispersal
#1
Keith Bouma-Gregson, Mary E Power, Myriam Bormans
Benthic cyanobacteria in rivers produce cyanotoxins and affect aquatic food webs, but knowledge of their ecology lags behind planktonic cyanobacteria. The buoyancy of benthic Anabaena spp. mats was studied to understand implications for Anabaena dispersal in the Eel River, California. Field experiments were used to investigate the effects of oxygen bubble production and dissolution on the buoyancy of Anabaena dominated benthic mats in response to light exposure. Samples of Anabaena dominated mats were harvested from the South Fork Eel River and placed in settling columns to measure floating and sinking velocities, or deployed into in situ ambient and low light treatments to measure the effect of light on flotation...
June 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555622/zooming-in-on-the-phycosphere-the-ecological-interface-for-phytoplankton-bacteria-relationships
#2
REVIEW
Justin R Seymour, Shady A Amin, Jean-Baptiste Raina, Roman Stocker
By controlling nutrient cycling and biomass production at the base of the food web, interactions between phytoplankton and bacteria represent a fundamental ecological relationship in aquatic environments. Although typically studied over large spatiotemporal scales, emerging evidence indicates that this relationship is often governed by microscale interactions played out within the region immediately surrounding individual phytoplankton cells. This microenvironment, known as the phycosphere, is the planktonic analogue of the rhizosphere in plants...
May 30, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532167/how-the-marine-biotoxins-affect-human-health
#3
Silvia Morabito, Serena Silvestro, Caterina Faggio
Several marine microalgae produce dangerous toxins very damaging to human health, aquatic ecosystems and coastal resources. These Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in recent decades seem greatly increased regarding frequency, severity and biogeographical level, causing serious health risks as a consequence of the consumption of contaminated seafood. Toxins can cause various clinically described syndromes, characterised by a wide range of symptoms: amnesic (ASP), diarrhoetic (DSP), azaspirazid (AZP), neurotoxic (NSP) and paralytic (PSP) shellfish poisonings and ciguatera fish poisoning...
May 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472048/multispecies-mass-mortality-of-marine-fauna-linked-to-a-toxic-dinoflagellate-bloom
#4
Michel Starr, Stéphane Lair, Sonia Michaud, Michael Scarratt, Michael Quilliam, Denis Lefaivre, Michel Robert, Andrew Wotherspoon, Robert Michaud, Nadia Ménard, Gilbert Sauvé, Sylvie Lessard, Pierre Béland, Lena Measures
Following heavy precipitation, we observed an intense algal bloom in the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) that coincided with an unusually high mortality of several species of marine fish, birds and mammals, including species designated at risk. The algal species was identified as Alexandrium tamarense and was determined to contain a potent mixture of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Significant levels of PST were found in the liver and/or gastrointestinal contents of several carcasses tested as well as in live planktivorous fish, molluscs and plankton samples collected during the bloom...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392838/global-gene-expression-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-the-diseased-ocular-surface-of-the-human-eye-with-a-potential-to-form-biofilm
#5
Konduri Ranjith, Kotakonda Arunasri, Gundlapally Sathyanarayana Reddy, HariKrishna Adicherla, Savitri Sharma, Sisinthy Shivaji
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli, the gastrointestinal commensal, is also known to cause ocular infections such as conjunctivitis, keratitis and endophthalmitis. These infections are normally resolved by topical application of an appropriate antibiotic. But, at times these E. coli are resistant to the antibiotic and this could be due to formation of a biofilm. In this study ocular E. coli from patients with conjunctivitis, keratitis or endophthalmitis were screened for their antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation potential...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366387/the-physiological-adaptations-and-toxin-profiles-of-the-toxic-alexandrium-fundyense-on-the-eastern-bering-sea-and-chukchi-sea-shelves
#6
Masafumi Natsuike, Hiroshi Oikawa, Kohei Matsuno, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Ichiro Imai
Abundant cyst distributions of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense (previous A. tamarense north American clade) were recently observed on the north Chukchi Sea shelf and on the eastern Bering Sea shelf, suggesting that A. fundyense is both highly adapted to the local environments in the high latitude areas and might cause toxin contamination of plankton feeders. However, little is known about the physiological characteristics and toxin profiles of A. fundyense in these areas, which are characterized by low water temperatures, weak sunlight, and more or less permanent ice cover during winter...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324231/occurrence-and-virulence-properties-of-vibrio-and-salinivibrio-isolates-from-tropical-lagoons-of-the-southern-caribbean-sea
#7
Milagro Fernández-Delgado, Paula Suárez, Sandra Giner, Virginia Sanz, Jessy Peña, Damarys Sánchez, M Alexandra García-Amado
The Vibrionaceae are Gram-negative bacteria present in marine and estuarine environments worldwide, including several species known as important pathogens to humans and aquatic organisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the occurrence and virulence properties of Vibrio and Salinivibrio isolated from lagoons at Cuare Wildlife Refuge and Margarita Island in the southern Caribbean Sea. Water, plankton and oyster samples were collected during October 2011 and March 2012 and examined by specific PCR and culture methods...
March 21, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273342/robust-dinoflagellata-phylogeny-inferred-from-public-transcriptome-databases
#8
Dana C Price, Debashish Bhattacharya
Dinoflagellates are dominant members of the plankton and play key roles in ocean ecosystems as primary producers, predators, parasites, coral photobionts, and causative agents of algal blooms that produce toxins harmful to humans and commercial fisheries. These unicellular protists exhibit remarkable trophic and morphological diversity and include species with some of the largest reported nuclear genomes. Despite their high ecological and economic importance, comprehensive genome (or transcriptome) based dinoflagellate trees of life are few in number...
June 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118886/amphidoma-languida-amphidomatacea-dinophyceae-with-a-novel-azaspiracid-toxin-profile-identified-as-the-cause-of-molluscan-contamination-at-the-atlantic-coast-of-southern-spain
#9
Urban Tillmann, David Jaén, Lourdes Fernández, Marc Gottschling, Matthias Witt, Juan Blanco, Bernd Krock
Azaspiracids (AZA) are a group of food poisoning phycotoxins that are known to accumulate in shellfish. They are produced by some species of the planktonic dinophycean taxon Amphidomataceae. Azaspiracids have been first discovered in Ireland but are now reported in shellfish from numerous global sites thus showing a wide distribution. In shellfish samples collected in 2009 near Huelva (Spain), AZA was also found along the Andalusian Atlantic coast for the first time. Analysis using LC-MS/MS revealed the presence of two different AZA analogues in different bivalve shellfish species (Chamelea gallina, Cerastoderma edule, Donax trunculus, and Solen vagina)...
February 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073532/toxigenic-algae-and-associated-phycotoxins-in-two-coastal-embayments-in-the-ebro-delta-nw-mediterranean
#10
Julia A Busch, Karl B Andree, Jorge Diogène, Margarita Fernández-Tejedor, Kerstin Toebe, Uwe John, Bernd Krock, Urban Tillmann, Allan D Cembella
Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) surveillance is complicated by high diversity of species and associated phycotoxins. Such species-level information on taxonomic affiliations and on cell abundance and toxin content is, however, crucial for effective monitoring, especially of aquaculture and fisheries areas. The aim addressed in this study was to determine putative HAB taxa and related phycotoxins in plankton from aquaculture sites in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean. The comparative geographical distribution of potentially harmful plankton taxa was established by weekly field sampling throughout the water column during late spring-early summer over two years at key stations in Alfacs and Fangar embayments within the Ebro Delta...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073504/distribution-of-dinophysis-species-and-their-association-with-lipophilic-phycotoxins-in-plankton-from-the-argentine-sea
#11
Elena Fabro, Gastón O Almandoz, Martha Ferrario, Urban Tillmann, Allan Cembella, Bernd Krock
Dinophysis is a cosmopolitan genus of marine dinoflagellates, considered as the major proximal source of diarrheic shellfish toxins and the only producer of pectenotoxins (PTX). From three oceanographic expeditions carried out during autumn, spring and late summer along the Argentine Sea (∼38-56°S), lipophilic phycotoxins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in size-fractionated plankton samples. Lipophilic toxin profiles were associated with species composition by microscopic analyses of toxigenic phytoplankton...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073482/an-overview-of-diversity-occurrence-genetics-and-toxin-production-of-bloom-forming-dolichospermum-anabaena-species
#12
REVIEW
Xiaochuang Li, Theo W Dreher, Renhui Li
The new genus name Dolichospermum, for most of the planktonic former members of the genus Anabaena, is one of the most ubiquitous bloom-forming cyanobacterial genera. Its dominance and persistence have increased in recent years, due to eutrophication from anthropogenic activities and global climate change. Blooms of Dolichospermum species, with their production of secondary metabolites that commonly include toxins, present a worldwide threat to environmental and public health. In this review, recent advances of the genus Dolichospermum are summarized, including taxonomy, genetics, bloom occurrence, and production of toxin and taste-and-odor compounds...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073469/effect-of-the-toxin-microcystin-content-of-microcystis-on-copepod-grazing
#13
Kemal Ali Ger, Elisabeth J Faassen, Maria Grazia Pennino, Miquel Lürling
Although phytoplankton chemical defense may regulate plankton dynamics, demonstrating an ecologically relevant anti-grazer cue is challenging. Presented here is a novel approach to evaluate the quantitative effect of microcystin (MC), the most studied group of cyanobacterial metabolites, on grazing by the common copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis. A temperature-induced gradient in the intracellular MC concentration of three different Microcystis strains enabled the comparison of grazing pressure on cells of the same cyanobacterial strain producing different amounts of MC, in a diet with alternative food (Chlamydomonas)...
February 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043022/spliced-leader-based-analyses-reveal-the-effects-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-on-gene-expression-in-the-copepod-pseudodiaptomus-poplesia
#14
Yunyun Zhuang, Feifei Yang, Donghui Xu, Hongju Chen, Huan Zhang, Guangxing Liu
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of toxic and carcinogenic pollutants that can adversely affect the development, growth and reproduction of marine organisms including copepods. However, knowledge on the molecular mechanisms regulating the response to PAH exposure in marine planktonic copepods is limited. In this study, we investigated the survival and gene expression of the calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus poplesia upon exposure to two PAHs, 1, 2-dimethylnaphthalene (1, 2-NAPH) and pyrene...
February 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003061/azadinium-poporum-from-the-argentine-continental-shelf-southwestern-atlantic-produces-azaspiracid-2-and-azaspiracid-2-phosphate
#15
Urban Tillmann, C Marcela Borel, Facundo Barrera, Rubén Lara, Bernd Krock, Gastón O Almandoz, Matthias Witt, Nicole Trefault
The marine dinophycean genus Azadinium has been identified as the primary source of azaspiracids (AZA), a group of lipophilic phycotoxins known to accumulate in shellfish. Blooms of Azadinium in the southern Atlantic off Argentina have been described from the 1990s, but due to a lack of cultures, the diversity of South-Atlantic Azadinium has not yet been fully explored and their toxin production potential is completely unknown. During a spring 2010 research cruise covering the El Rincón (ER) estuarine system (North Patagonian coast, Argentina, Southwestern Atlantic) a search was conducted for the presence of Azadinium...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974734/antibiofilm-and-anti-%C3%AE-lactamase-activities-of-burdock-root-extract-and-chlorogenic-acid-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#16
Satish Kumar Rajasekharan, Samiraj Ramesh, Ann Susan Satish, Jintae Lee
Small phytochemicals have been successfully adopted as antibacterial chemotherapies and are being increasingly viewed as potential antibiofilm agents. Some of these molecules are known to repress biofilm and toxin production by certain bacterial and yeast pathogens, but information is lacking with regard to the genes allied with biofilm formation. The present study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of burdock root extract (BRE) and of chlorogenic acid (CGA; a component of BRE) on clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884783/secondary-multidrug-efflux-pump-mutants-alter-escherichia-coli-biofilm-growth-in-the-presence-of-cationic-antimicrobial-compounds
#17
Denice C Bay, Carol A Stremick, Carmine J Slipski, Raymond J Turner
Escherichia coli possesses many secondary active multidrug resistance transporters (MDTs) that confer overlapping substrate resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials via proton and/or sodium motive force. It is uncertain whether redundant MDTs uniquely alter cell survival when cultures grow planktonically or as biofilms. In this study, the planktonic and biofilm growth and antimicrobial resistance of 13 E. coli K-12 single MDT gene deletion strains in minimal and rich media were determined. Antimicrobial tolerance to tetracycline, tobramycin and benzalkonium were also compared for each ΔMDT strain...
April 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856621/trophic-state-and-geographic-gradients-influence-planktonic-cyanobacterial-diversity-and-distribution-in-new-zealand-lakes
#18
Susanna A Wood, Marcia Y Maier, Jonathan Puddick, Xavier Pochon, Anastasija Zaiko, Daniel R Dietrich, David P Hamilton
Cyanobacteria are commonly associated with eutrophic lakes, where they often form blooms and produce toxins. However, they are a ubiquitous component of phytoplankton in lakes of widely varying trophic status. We hypothesised that cyanobacterial diversity would vary among lakes of differing trophic status, but that the relative importance of geographical and hydromorphological characteristics driving these patterns would differ across trophic groups. DNA from 143 New Zealand lakes that spanned a range of geographic, hydromorphological and trophic gradients was analysed using automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis and screened for genes involved in cyanotoxin production...
February 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818282/isolation-of-bacteriophages-and-their-application-to-control-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-planktonic-and-biofilm-models
#19
Magdalena Kwiatek, Sylwia Parasion, Paweł Rutyna, Lidia Mizak, Romuald Gryko, Marcin Niemcewicz, Alina Olender, Małgorzata Łobocka
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently identified as a cause of diverse infections and chronic diseases. It forms biofilms and has natural resistance to several antibiotics. Strains of this pathogen resistant to new-generation beta-lactams have emerged. Due to the difficulties associated with treating chronic P. aeruginosa infections, bacteriophages are amongst the alternative therapeutic options being actively researched. Two obligatorily lytic P. aeruginosa phages, vB_PaeM_MAG1 (MAG1) and vB_PaeP_MAG4 (MAG4), have been isolated and characterized...
April 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808174/essential-oils-and-eugenols-inhibit-biofilm-formation-and-the-virulence-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#20
Yong-Guy Kim, Jin-Hyung Lee, Giyeon Gwon, Soon-Il Kim, Jae Gyu Park, Jintae Lee
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) has caused foodborne outbreaks worldwide and the bacterium forms antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. We investigated the abilities of various plant essential oils and their components to inhibit biofilm formation by EHEC. Bay, clove, pimento berry oils and their major common constituent eugenol at 0.005% (v/v) were found to markedly inhibit EHEC biofilm formation without affecting planktonic cell growth. In addition, three other eugenol derivatives isoeugenol, 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol, and 4-ethylguaiacol had antibiofilm activity, indicating that the C-1 hydroxyl unit, the C-2 methoxy unit, and C-4 alkyl or alkane chain on the benzene ring of eugenol play important roles in antibiofilm activity...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
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