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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118886/amphidoma-languida-amphidomatacea-dinophyceae-with-a-novel-azaspiracid-toxin-profile-identified-as-the-cause-of-molluscan-contamination-at-the-atlantic-coast-of-southern-spain
#1
Urban Tillmann, David Jaén, Lourdes Fernández, Marc Gottschling, Matthias Witt, Juan Blanco, Bernd Krock
Azaspiracids (AZA) are a group of food poisoning phycotoxins that are known to accumulate in shellfish. They are produced by some species of the planktonic dinophycean taxon Amphidomataceae. Azaspiracids have been first discovered in Ireland but are now reported in shellfish from numerous global sites thus showing a wide distribution. In shellfish samples collected in 2009 near Huelva (Spain), AZA was also found along the Andalusian Atlantic coast for the first time. Analysis using LC-MS/MS revealed the presence of two different AZA analogues in different bivalve shellfish species (Chamelea gallina, Cerastoderma edule, Donax trunculus, and Solen vagina)...
February 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073532/toxigenic-algae-and-associated-phycotoxins-in-two-coastal-embayments-in-the-ebro-delta-nw-mediterranean
#2
Julia A Busch, Karl B Andree, Jorge Diogène, Margarita Fernández-Tejedor, Kerstin Toebe, Uwe John, Bernd Krock, Urban Tillmann, Allan D Cembella
Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) surveillance is complicated by high diversity of species and associated phycotoxins. Such species-level information on taxonomic affiliations and on cell abundance and toxin content is, however, crucial for effective monitoring, especially of aquaculture and fisheries areas. The aim addressed in this study was to determine putative HAB taxa and related phycotoxins in plankton from aquaculture sites in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean. The comparative geographical distribution of potentially harmful plankton taxa was established by weekly field sampling throughout the water column during late spring-early summer over two years at key stations in Alfacs and Fangar embayments within the Ebro Delta...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073504/distribution-of-dinophysis-species-and-their-association-with-lipophilic-phycotoxins-in-plankton-from-the-argentine-sea
#3
Elena Fabro, Gastón O Almandoz, Martha Ferrario, Urban Tillmann, Allan Cembella, Bernd Krock
Dinophysis is a cosmopolitan genus of marine dinoflagellates, considered as the major proximal source of diarrheic shellfish toxins and the only producer of pectenotoxins (PTX). From three oceanographic expeditions carried out during autumn, spring and late summer along the Argentine Sea (∼38-56°S), lipophilic phycotoxins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in size-fractionated plankton samples. Lipophilic toxin profiles were associated with species composition by microscopic analyses of toxigenic phytoplankton...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073482/an-overview-of-diversity-occurrence-genetics-and-toxin-production-of-bloom-forming-dolichospermum-anabaena-species
#4
REVIEW
Xiaochuang Li, Theo W Dreher, Renhui Li
The new genus name Dolichospermum, for most of the planktonic former members of the genus Anabaena, is one of the most ubiquitous bloom-forming cyanobacterial genera. Its dominance and persistence have increased in recent years, due to eutrophication from anthropogenic activities and global climate change. Blooms of Dolichospermum species, with their production of secondary metabolites that commonly include toxins, present a worldwide threat to environmental and public health. In this review, recent advances of the genus Dolichospermum are summarized, including taxonomy, genetics, bloom occurrence, and production of toxin and taste-and-odor compounds...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073469/effect-of-the-toxin-microcystin-content-of-microcystis-on-copepod-grazing
#5
Kemal Ali Ger, Elisabeth J Faassen, Maria Grazia Pennino, Miquel Lürling
Although phytoplankton chemical defense may regulate plankton dynamics, demonstrating an ecologically relevant anti-grazer cue is challenging. Presented here is a novel approach to evaluate the quantitative effect of microcystin (MC), the most studied group of cyanobacterial metabolites, on grazing by the common copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis. A temperature-induced gradient in the intracellular MC concentration of three different Microcystis strains enabled the comparison of grazing pressure on cells of the same cyanobacterial strain producing different amounts of MC, in a diet with alternative food (Chlamydomonas)...
February 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043022/spliced-leader-based-analyses-reveal-the-effects-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-on-gene-expression-in-the-copepod-pseudodiaptomus-poplesia
#6
Yunyun Zhuang, Feifei Yang, Donghui Xu, Hongju Chen, Huan Zhang, Guangxing Liu
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of toxic and carcinogenic pollutants that can adversely affect the development, growth and reproduction of marine organisms including copepods. However, knowledge on the molecular mechanisms regulating the response to PAH exposure in marine planktonic copepods is limited. In this study, we investigated the survival and gene expression of the calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus poplesia upon exposure to two PAHs, 1, 2-dimethylnaphthalene (1, 2-NAPH) and pyrene...
February 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003061/azadinium-poporum-from-the-argentine-continental-shelf-southwestern-atlantic-produces-azaspiracid-2-and-azaspiracid-2-phosphate
#7
Urban Tillmann, C Marcela Borel, Facundo Barrera, Rubén Lara, Bernd Krock, Gastón O Almandoz, Matthias Witt, Nicole Trefault
The marine dinophycean genus Azadinium has been identified as the primary source of azaspiracids (AZA), a group of lipophilic phycotoxins known to accumulate in shellfish. Blooms of Azadinium in the southern Atlantic off Argentina have been described from the 1990s, but due to a lack of cultures, the diversity of South-Atlantic Azadinium has not yet been fully explored and their toxin production potential is completely unknown. During a spring 2010 research cruise covering the El Rincón (ER) estuarine system (North Patagonian coast, Argentina, Southwestern Atlantic) a search was conducted for the presence of Azadinium...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974734/anti-biofilm-and-anti-%C3%AE-lactamase-activities-of-burdock-root-extract-and-chlorogeneic-acid-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#8
Satish Kumar Rajasekharan, Samiraj Ramesh, Ann Susan Satish, Jintae Lee
Small phytochemicals have been successfully adopted as antibacterial chemotherapies and are being increasingly viewed as potential antibiofilm agents. Some of these molecules are known to repress biofilm and toxin production by certain bacterial and yeast pathogens, but information is lacking with regard to the genes allied with biofilm formation. The present study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of burdock root extract (BRE) and of chlorogenic acid (CGA; a component of BRE) on clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884783/secondary-multidrug-efflux-pump-mutants-alter-escherichia-coli-biofilm-growth-in-the-presence-of-cationic-antimicrobial-compounds
#9
Denice C Bay, Carol A Stremick, Carmine J Slipski, Raymond J Turner
Escherichia coli possesses many secondary active multidrug resistance transporters (MDTs) that confer overlapping substrate resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials via proton and/or sodium motive force. It is uncertain whether redundant MDTs uniquely alter cell survival when cultures grow planktonically or as biofilms. In this study, the planktonic and biofilm growth and antimicrobial resistance of 13 E. coli K-12 single MDT gene deletion strains in minimal and rich media were determined. Antimicrobial tolerance to tetracycline, tobramycin and benzalkonium were also compared for each ΔMDT strain...
November 22, 2016: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856621/trophic-state-and-geographic-gradients-influence-planktonic-cyanobacterial-diversity-and-distribution-in-new-zealand-lakes
#10
Susanna A Wood, Marcia Y Maier, Jonathan Puddick, Xavier Pochon, Anastasija Zaiko, Daniel R Dietrich, David P Hamilton
Cyanobacteria are commonly associated with eutrophic lakes, where they often form blooms and produce toxins. However, they are a ubiquitous component of phytoplankton in lakes of widely varying trophic status. We hypothesised that cyanobacterial diversity would vary among lakes of differing trophic status, but that the relative importance of geographical and hydromorphological characteristics driving these patterns would differ across trophic groups. DNA from 143 New Zealand lakes that spanned a range of geographic, hydromorphological and trophic gradients was analysed using automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis and screened for genes involved in cyanotoxin production...
February 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818282/isolation-of-bacteriophages-and-their-application-to-control-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-planktonic-and-biofilm-models
#11
Magdalena Kwiatek, Sylwia Parasion, Paweł Rutyna, Lidia Mizak, Romuald Gryko, Marcin Niemcewicz, Alina Olender, Małgorzata Łobocka
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently identified as a cause of diverse infections and chronic diseases. It forms biofilms and has natural resistance to several antibiotics. Strains of this pathogen resistant to new-generation beta-lactams have emerged. Due to the difficulties associated with treating chronic P. aeruginosa infections, bacteriophages are amongst the alternative therapeutic options being actively researched. Two obligatorily lytic P. aeruginosa phages, vB_PaeM_MAG1 (MAG1) and vB_PaeP_MAG4 (MAG4), have been isolated and characterized...
November 4, 2016: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808174/essential-oils-and-eugenols-inhibit-biofilm-formation-and-the-virulence-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#12
Yong-Guy Kim, Jin-Hyung Lee, Giyeon Gwon, Soon-Il Kim, Jae Gyu Park, Jintae Lee
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) has caused foodborne outbreaks worldwide and the bacterium forms antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. We investigated the abilities of various plant essential oils and their components to inhibit biofilm formation by EHEC. Bay, clove, pimento berry oils and their major common constituent eugenol at 0.005% (v/v) were found to markedly inhibit EHEC biofilm formation without affecting planktonic cell growth. In addition, three other eugenol derivatives isoeugenol, 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol, and 4-ethylguaiacol had antibiofilm activity, indicating that the C-1 hydroxyl unit, the C-2 methoxy unit, and C-4 alkyl or alkane chain on the benzene ring of eugenol play important roles in antibiofilm activity...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670247/human-tear-fluid-reduces-culturability-of-contact%C3%A2-lens-associated-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms-but-induces-expression-of-the-virulence-associated-type-iii-secretion-system
#13
Yvonne T Wu, Connie Tam, Lucia S Zhu, David J Evans, Suzanne M J Fleiszig
PURPOSE: The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a significant virulence determinant for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a rodent model, we found that contact lens (CL)-related corneal infections were associated with lens surface biofilms. Here, we studied the impact of human tear fluid on CL-associated biofilm growth and T3SS expression. METHODS: P. aeruginosa biofilms were formed on contact lenses for up to 7 days with or without human tear fluid, then exposed to tear fluid for 5 or 24 h...
January 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589801/presence-of-the-cyanotoxin-microcystin-in-arctic-lakes-of-southwestern-greenland
#14
Jessica V Trout-Haney, Zachary T Wood, Kathryn L Cottingham
Cyanobacteria and their toxins have received significant attention in eutrophic temperate and tropical systems where conspicuous blooms of certain planktonic taxa release toxins into fresh water, threatening its potability and safe use for recreation. Although toxigenic cyanobacteria are not confined to high nutrient environments, bloom-forming species, or planktonic taxa, these other situations are studied les often studied. For example, toxin production in picoplankton and benthic cyanobacteria-the predominant photoautotrophs found in polar lakes-is poorly understood...
2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572439/pronounced-daily-succession-of-phytoplankton-archaea-and-bacteria-following-a-spring-bloom
#15
David M Needham, Jed A Fuhrman
Marine phytoplankton perform approximately half of global carbon fixation, with their blooms contributing disproportionately to carbon sequestration(1), and most phytoplankton production is ultimately consumed by heterotrophic prokaryotes(2). Therefore, phytoplankton and heterotrophic community dynamics are important in modelling carbon cycling and the impacts of global change(3). In a typical bloom, diatoms dominate initially, transitioning over several weeks to smaller and motile phytoplankton(4). Here, we show unexpected, rapid community variation from daily rRNA analysis of phytoplankton and prokaryotic community members following a bloom off southern California...
2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468846/the-influence-of-hydrological-conditions-on-phytoplankton-community-structure-and-cyanopeptide-concentration-in-dammed-lowland-river
#16
Magdalena Grabowska, Hanna Mazur-Marzec
Study results show continuous summer-autumn dominance of toxic cyanobacteria in plankton not only in the strongly eutrophicated lowland Siemianówka reservoir, but also along 130 km of Narew river below the lake. The negative effects of eutrophication of the reservoir reach far outside its boundaries. One of the symptoms of eutrophication was a mass development of cyanobacteria, including the toxin-producing Planktothrix agardhii. In the reservoir, the biomass of the species strongly correlated with the concentration of microcystins...
August 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462503/mathematical-analysis-of-a-nutrient-plankton-system-with-delay
#17
Mehbuba Rehim, Zhenzhen Zhang, Ahmadjan Muhammadhaji
A mathematical model describing the interaction of nutrient-plankton is investigated in this paper. In order to account for the time needed by the phytoplankton to mature after which they can release toxins, a discrete time delay is incorporated into the system. Moreover, it is also taken into account discrete time delays which indicates the partially recycled nutrient decomposed by bacteria after the death of biomass. In the first part of our analysis the sufficient conditions ensuring local and global asymptotic stability of the model are obtained...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27219503/effects-of-bt-transgenic-rice-cultivation-on-planktonic-communities-in-paddy-fields-and-adjacent-ditches
#18
Yongbo Liu, Fang Liu, Chao Wang, Zhanjun Quan, Junsheng Li
The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132244/seasonality-and-toxins-effects-on-oxidative-nitrosative-metabolism-in-digestive-glands-of-the-bivalve-mytilus-edulis-platensis
#19
Paula Mariela González, Susana Puntarulo
The hypothesis presented here is that oxidative and/or nitrosative metabolism in the bivalve Mytilus edulis platensis is altered by the presence of planktonic toxins. Digestive glands (DG) were isolated from specimens collected in the Argentinean Sea during summer, winter and spring (in the presence of harmful planktonic toxins). The labile iron pool content was not significantly different in DG from animals collected in summer and winter, but was 2.3-fold increased in samples from spring compared to summer collected mollusks...
October 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090772/chemical-ecology-of-marine-plankton
#20
Emily R Schwartz, Remington X Poulin, Nazia Mojib, Julia Kubanek
Covering: January 2013 to online publication December 2014This review summarizes recent research in the chemical ecology of marine pelagic ecosystems, and aims to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the field in the time period covered. In order to highlight the role of chemical cues and toxins in plankton ecology this review has been organized by ecological interaction types starting with intraspecific interactions, then interspecific interactions (including facilitation and mutualism, host-parasite, allelopathy, and predator-prey), and finally community and ecosystem-wide interactions...
July 28, 2016: Natural Product Reports
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