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Mayumi Sato, Atsuko Miyagi, Shozo Yoneyama, Seiki Gisusi, Yoshihiko Tokuji, Maki Kawai-Yamada
Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa [Dicks.] Gray) is generally cultured using the sawdust of broadleaf trees. The maitake strain Gf433 has high production efficiency, with high-quality of fruiting bodies even when 30% of the birch sawdust on the basal substrate is replaced with conifer sawdust. We performed metabolome analysis to investigate the effect of different cultivation components on the metabolism of Gf433 and Mori52 by performing CE-MS on their fruiting bodies in different cultivation conditions to quantify the levels of amino acids, organic acids, and phosphorylated organic acids...
December 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Lei Duan, Xiao-Lu Wu, Fei Zhao, Rong Zeng, Ke-Hu Yang
Polysaccharide extracted from the Maitake mushroom (MP) is considered as a potential anticancer agent. The present study was performed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of MP and vitamin C (VC) alone and in combination on the viability of human neuroglioma M059 K cells in vitro. A combination of MP (1.0 mg/mL) and VC (0.4 mmol/L) led to a 53.10% reduction in cell viability and this treatment induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and apoptosis occurred in 38.54% of the cells. Results of Hoechst 33258 staining and Western blot showed apoptotic cells appeared and changes in the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (upregulation of Bax and caspase-3, downregulation of Bcl-2, and activation of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase)...
October 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
Yuki Masuda, Yoshiaki Nakayama, Akihiro Tanaka, Kenta Naito, Morichika Konishi
Maitake α-glucan, YM-2A, isolated from Grifola frondosa, has been characterized as a highly α-1,6-branched α-1,4 glucan. YM-2A has been shown to possess an anti-virus effect in mice; however, it does not directly inhibit growth of the virus in vitro, indicating that the anti-virus effect of YM-2A might be associated with modulation of the host immune system. In this study, we found that oral administration of YM-2A could inhibit tumor growth and improve survival rate in two distinct mouse models of colon-26 carcinoma and B16 melanoma...
2017: PloS One
Meng Meng, Dai Cheng, Lirong Han, Yuanyuan Chen, Chunling Wang
A new polysaccharide had been successfully isolated from maitake mushroom (Grifola Frondosa)-GFP. HPLC and Monosaccharide analysis showed that the average molecular weight of GFP was 155kDa and it was mainly composed of rhamnose, xylose, mannose, glucose, molar ratio of 1.00: 1.04: 1.11: 6.21. FTIR, methylation analysis and NMR were used to analyze the structural characterization of GFP. Structural analysis results revealed that its backbone consisted of (1→4)-linked methylation, Glcp residues were major structural polysaccharide GFP units, accounting of the polysaccharide backbone speculate GFP every→3)-Glcp-(1→and one→3,4)-Glcp-(1→connected interval with a small amount of 1→, 1→4, 1→6 glycosidic linkage...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Miriam Sari, Reinhard Hambitzer, Jan I Lelley, Katharina Toepler, Nicole Teusch, Anna Nickisch-Hartfiel
β-glucans from Basidiomycetes like Grifola frondosa (the maitake mushroom) are well known for their health benefits. Polysaccharide preparations from medicinal mushrooms such as G. frondosa have been successfully tested in a vast number of studies. Many mushroom extracts have been developed and today are merchandized for use medicinally and commercially. Studies could show that, in particular, chemical structural features such as the molecular size of β-glucans significantly influence their bioactivity. Thus it is highly important to explore the composition and structural properties of β-glucans extracted from medicinal mushrooms and their effects on human tumor cell viability...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Jovana Vunduk, Anita Klaus, Maja Kozarski, Radovan Dordevic, Zoran Miladinovic, Ljubinko Jovanovic, Miomir Niksic, Leonardus Johannes Lambertus Donatus Van Griensven
Kaolinite and the modified natural zeolite minazel plus (M+) were used as supplements in substrate used for the production of the medicinal mushroom Grifola frondosa. Growth stimulation, expressed as yield and biological efficiency, was observed when M+ (1%) was added. The production cycle was shortened by half as a result of the zeolites' ion-exchange ability, stimulation of enzyme activity, and water retain capacity. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry of fruiting bodies showed the absence of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead), whereas the concentration of calcium increased greatly and the concentrations of iron, magnesium, and zinc increased moderately under the influence of M+...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Eliana Noelia Alonso, María Julia Ferronato, Norberto Ariel Gandini, María Eugenia Fermento, Diego Javier Obiol, Alejandro López Romero, Julián Arévalo, María Emilia Villegas, María Marta Facchinetti, Alejandro Carlos Curino
D-Fraction is protein-bound β-1,6 and β-1,3 glucans (proteoglucan) extracted from the edible and medicinal mushroom Grifola frondosa (Maitake). The antitumoral effect of D-Fraction has long been exclusively attributed to their immunostimulatory capacity. However, in recent years increasing evidence showed that D-Fraction directly affects the viability of canine and human tumor cells, independent of the immune system. Previously, we have reported that D-Fraction modulates the expression of genes associated with cell proliferation, cell death, migration, invasion, and metastasis in MCF7 human breast cancer cells...
January 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
Chen Zhao, Xue-Mei Tian, Guang-Yuan Wang, Ai-Rong Song, Wen-Xing Liang
A new Grifola frondosa mutant, M270, was successfully isolated for high production of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) using cosmic radiation-induced mutagenesis. We found that the mutant M270 had a clearer and thicker EPS layer (~10 µm) adhering to mycelia than those of its parent strain 265 after Congo red staining. In the 20-L batch fermentation for M270, 10.3 g/L of EPS and 17.9 g/L of dry mycelia biomass were obtained after 204 hours of fermentation. Furthermore, a main water-soluble fraction (EP1) in the EPS was purified from M270 and then confirmed to be heteroglycan-protein complex with 91% (w/w) total carbohydrates and 9% (w/w) total proteins...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Agustina Roldan-Deamicis, Eliana Alonso, Belén Brie, Diego Aguilera Braico, Gabriela Andrea Balogh
The understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the immune tolerance induced by the tumoral microenvironment is fundamental to prevent cancer development or to treat cancer patients using immunotherapy. Actually, there are investigations about "addressed-drugs" against cancer cells without affecting normal cells. It could be ideal to find selective and specific compounds that only recognize and destroy tumor cells without damaging the host normal cells. For thousands of years, mushrooms have been used for medicinal purposes because of their curative properties...
September 2016: Cancer Medicine
Hongkun Bao, Pengzhan Ran, Ming Zhu, Lijuan Sun, Bai Li, Yangyang Hou, Jun Nie, Liping Shan, Hongliang Li, Shangyong Zheng, Xiufeng Xu, Chunjie Xiao, Jing Du
Proteo-β-glucan from Maitake (PGM) is a strong immune regulator, and its receptor is called Dectin-1. Cumulative evidence suggests that AMPA receptors are important for the treatment of depression. Here, we report that PGM treatment leads to a significant antidepressant effect in the tail suspension test and forced swim test after sixty minutes of treatment in mice. After five consecutive days of PGM treatment, this antidepressant effect remained. PGM treatment did not show a hyperactive effect in the open field test...
2016: Scientific Reports
Fei Zhao, Yong-Feng Wang, Lei Song, Jia-Xin Jin, Ya-Qing Zhang, Hong-Yun Gan, Ke-Hu Yang
The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect of a combination of D-fraction polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa (DFP) and vitamin C (VC) on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro. DFP is a bioactive extract from the maitake mushroom. Anticancer activity was demonstrated using various concentrations of DFP alone or in combination with VC against the human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cell line. To investigate the anticancer mechanism, studies designed to detect cell apoptosis were conducted. Results from the MTT assay indicated that a combination of DFP (0...
June 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Marta López-García, María Sonia Dopico García, José Manuel López Vilariño, María Victoria González Rodríguez
In this work MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy was investigated to characterise the β-glucan profiles of several commercial health supplements, without any derivatisation or purification pre-treatment. The effect of two solvents (water and dimethyl sulfoxide) and two MALDI matrices (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone) was first evaluated on dextran standards. MALDI-TOF was found as a useful and quick technique to obtain structural information of diverse food supplements based on mushroom extracts...
May 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Ya-Hui Chen, Chien-Hsing Lee, Tai-Hao Hsu, Hui-Chen Lo
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease with impaired glucose, protein and lipid metabolism, low-grade chronic inflammation, and immune dysfunction, is a global public health crisis. We previously demonstrated that Grifola frondosa has bioactivities in improving glycemic responses in diabetic rats. Herein, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of the submerged-culture mycelia and broth of G. frondosa on the peripheral blood cells (PBL) and splenocytes. Male Wistar rats were administered with saline (normal rats) or streptozotocin plus nicotinamide (T2DM rats) and were intragastrically administered with placebo, fermented mycelia, broth, or mycelia plus broth (1 g kg-1 day-1) for two weeks...
2015: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Chun Xiao, Qingping Wu, Yizhen Xie, Jumei Zhang, Jianbin Tan
Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that Grifola frondosa polysaccharides (GFPs) showed hypoglycemic effects. This study aimed to investigate which polysaccharide-enriched fractions of GFPs were the main active constituents, and to disclose their hypoglycemic mechanism. F2 and F3 were obtained from GFPs and their hypoglycemic effects were investigated. Fasting serum glucose (FSG) levels, fasting serum insulin (FSI) levels and a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured, and the hepatic mRNA levels of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) were determined by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
November 2015: Food & Function
Yuki Masuda, Daiki Nawa, Yoshiaki Nakayama, Morichika Konishi, Hiroaki Nanba
The maturation of dendritic cells into more-immunostimulatory dendritic cells by stimulation with different combinations of immunologic agents is expected to provide efficient, adoptive immunotherapy against cancer. Soluble β-glucan maitake D-fraction, extracted from the maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa, acts as a potent immunotherapeutic agent, eliciting innate and adoptive immune responses, thereby contributing to its antitumor activity. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of maitake D-fraction, in combination with a Toll-like receptor agonist, to treat tumors in a murine model...
December 2015: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Huiyun Hou, Xuejun Cao
In this paper, a recycling aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) based on two pH-response copolymers PADB and PMDM were used in purification of β-Glucan from Grifola frondosa. The main parameters, such as polymer concentration, type and concentration of salt, extraction temperature and pH, were investigated to optimize partition conditions. The results demonstrated that β-Glucan was extracted into PADB-rich phase, while impurities were extracted into PMDM-rich phase. In this 2.5% PADB/2.5% PMDM ATPS, 7.489 partition coefficient and 96...
July 31, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. A
Kathleen M Wesa, Susanna Cunningham-Rundles, Virginia M Klimek, Emily Vertosick, Marci I Coleton, K Simon Yeung, Hong Lin, Stephen Nimer, Barrie R Cassileth
BACKGROUND: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis with dysplastic bone marrow leading to peripheral cytopenia, risk of infection, and progression to acute myelogenous leukemia. Maitake mushroom beta-glucan, a dietary supplement, stimulates hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor production, and recovery of peripheral blood leukocytes after bone marrow injury. This phase II trial examined the effects of Maitake on innate immune function in MDS...
February 2015: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Vaclav Vetvicka, Jana Vetvickova
BACKGROUND: The role of glucan in stimulation of immune reactions has been studied for several decades. In this report, we focused on the effects of orally administered glucan Maitake and Shiitake on immune reactions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured phagocytosis, NK cell activity, and secretion of IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) after 14 days of oral application of tested glucans. For comparison, active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) was used in all reactions...
February 2014: Annals of Translational Medicine
Hong Lei, Shuzhen Guo, Juncheng Han, Qin Wang, Xiaoxiang Zhang, Wutong Wu
The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of an α-glucan (designed here as MT-α-glucan) from fruit body of maitake (Grifola frondosa) on diabetic mouse model induced by streptozotocin and high-fat-diet were evaluated, and its effect on immune function of diabetic mice was investigated. Treatment with MT-α-glucan (300 or 100 mg kg(-1)) could decrease the levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acid, the proliferative response of macrophages and IL-1, NO production by macrophages significantly...
June 5, 2012: Carbohydrate Polymers
S C Jong, J M Birmingham
This review contains the most recent information on the various substances isolated and Identified in the maitake mushroomGrifola, their source and significance. The majority of the references concern the anti-tumour polysaccharides that have been extracted from fruiting bodies and mycelia, but certain species can also act as metabolic regulators and contain enzymes, essential amino acids, lipids and vitamins. The use of edible fungi in the development and application of beneficial biological activities ofters an advantage in that the active principle is safe and can be tolerated by humans...
September 1990: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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