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Morteza Modarresi Asem, Iman Sheikh Oveisi, Mona Janbozorgi
Retinal blood vessels indicate some serious health ramifications, such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. Thanks to modern imaging technology, high-resolution images provide detailed information to help analyze retinal vascular features before symptoms associated with such conditions fully develop. Additionally, these retinal images can be used by ophthalmologists to facilitate diagnosis and the procedures of eye surgery. A fuzzy noise reduction algorithm was employed to enhance color images corrupted by Gaussian noise...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Xinqi Huang, Xiao Cen, Jun Liu
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of protraction facemask (PFM) on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of skeletal Class III malocclusion patients. METHOD: Literature searches were carried out electronically in five English and three Chinese databases (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE (via Ovid), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP Database)...
March 12, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Jing Yu, Ning Xu, Ying Zhao, Jinlu Yu
The anterior choroidal artery (AChA) is a critical artery in brain physiology and function. The AChA is involved in many diseases, including aneurysm, brain infarct, Moyamoya disease (MMD), brain tumor, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), etc. The AChA is vulnerable to damage during the treatment of these diseases and is thus a very important vessel. However, a comprehensive systematic review of the importance of the AChA is currently lacking. In this study, we used the PUBMED database to perform a literature review of the AChA to increase our understanding of its role in neurophysiology...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Junko Takeshita, Daniel B Shin, Alexis Ogdie, Joel M Gelfand
The risk of infection among patients with psoriasis of varying severity in a broadly representative population remains poorly understood. Using The Health Improvement Network (THIN), an electronic medical records database representative of the general United Kingdom population, we performed a cohort study to determine the risks of serious infection, opportunistic infection, and herpes zoster among patients with versus without psoriasis and according to psoriasis severity. We identified 187,258 patients with mild, and 12,442 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis based on treatment patterns...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Hervé Ouanezar, William G Blakeney, Charles Latrobe, Adnan Saithna, Levi Reina Fernandes, Jean Romain Delaloye, Mathieu Thaunat, Bertrand Sonnery-Cottet
PURPOSE: Repairs of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus can be technically challenging. In contrast to medial meniscus repairs, the capsule around the posterior segment attachment of the lateral meniscus is quite thin. This study evaluates the clinical results of an arthroscopic all-inside repair technique for unstable, vertical, lateral meniscus tears, using a suture repair placed directly into the popliteus tendon. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from the SANTI database was performed...
March 3, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Lucia Cea-Soriano, Luis A García-Rodríguez, Kimberly G Brodovicz, Elvira Masso Gonzalez, Dorothee B Bartels, Sonia Hernández-Díaz
AIMS: To evaluate the association between use of non-insulin antidiabetics in early pregnancy and the risk of miscarriages, stillbirths and major structural malformations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 1,511 pregnancies in women with pre-gestational diabetes linked to livebirths was identified using electronic medical records from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) for the period 1995 to 2012. Information on prescriptions, foetal outcomes, and potential confounders was ascertained from both codes and free text in THIN database...
March 2, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
F Christiaan K Dolk, Koen B Pouwels, David R M Smith, Julie V Robotham, Timo Smieszek
Objectives: To analyse antibiotic prescribing behaviour in English primary care with particular regard to which antibiotics are prescribed and for which conditions. Methods: Primary care data from 2013-15 recorded in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database were analysed. Records with a prescription for systemic antibiotics were extracted and linked to co-occurring diagnostic codes, which were used to attribute prescriptions to clinical conditions. We further assessed which antibiotic classes were prescribed and which conditions resulted in the greatest share of prescribing...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
David R M Smith, F Christiaan K Dolk, Koen B Pouwels, Morag Christie, Julie V Robotham, Timo Smieszek
Objectives: To assess the appropriateness of prescribing systemic antibiotics for different clinical conditions in primary care, and to quantify 'ideal' antibiotic prescribing proportions in conditions for which antibiotic treatment is sometimes but not always indicated. Methods: Prescribing guidelines were consulted to define the appropriateness of antibiotic therapy for the conditions that resulted in antibiotic prescriptions between 2013 and 2015 in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) primary care database...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Koen B Pouwels, F Christiaan K Dolk, David R M Smith, Julie V Robotham, Timo Smieszek
Objectives: Previous work based on guidelines and expert opinion identified 'ideal' prescribing proportions-the overall proportion of consultations that should result in an antibiotic prescription-for common infectious conditions. Here, actual condition-specific prescribing proportions in primary care in England were compared with ideal prescribing proportions identified by experts. Methods: All recorded consultations for common infectious conditions (cough, bronchitis, exacerbations of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sore throat, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, lower respiratory tract infection, upper respiratory tract infection, influenza-like illness, urinary tract infection, impetigo, acne, gastroenteritis) for 2013-15 were extracted from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Koen B Pouwels, F Christiaan K Dolk, David R M Smith, Timo Smieszek, Julie V Robotham
Objectives: Primary care practices in England differ in antibiotic prescribing rates, and, anecdotally, prescribers justify high prescribing rates based on their individual case mix. The aim of this paper was to explore to what extent factors such as patient comorbidities explain this variation in antibiotic prescribing. Methods: Primary care consultation and prescribing data recorded in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database in 2013 were used. Boosted regression trees (BRTs) and negative binomial regression (NBR) models were used to evaluate associations between predictors and antibiotic prescribing rates...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Timo Smieszek, Koen B Pouwels, F Christiaan K Dolk, David R M Smith, Susan Hopkins, Mike Sharland, Alastair D Hay, Michael V Moore, Julie V Robotham
Objectives: To identify and quantify inappropriate systemic antibiotic prescribing in primary care in England, and ultimately to determine the potential for reduction in prescribing of antibiotics. Methods: Primary care data from 2013-15 recorded in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database were used. Potentially inappropriate prescribing events in the database were identified by: (i) comparing prescribing events against treatment guidelines; (ii) comparing actual proportions of consultations resulting in prescription for a set of conditions with the ideal proportions derived from expert opinion; and (iii) identifying high prescribers and their number of prescriptions above an age- and body-system-specific benchmark...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ferozkhan Jadhakhan, Tom Marshall, Ronan Ryan, Paramjit Gill
BACKGROUND: The risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to be elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus but the risk of young adults aged 18 to 40 years with impaired glucose tolerance/impaired fasting glucose (IGT/IFG) developing CKD is not well characterised. Furthermore, progression of IGT/IFG to diabetes and subsequent CKD development is not well understood. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database, a large dataset of electronic patient records...
February 26, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Hajar Ben Mohimd, Loubna Bahije, Fatima Zaoui, Abdelali Halimi, Hicham Benyahia
INTRODUCTION: Relapse in orthodontics, and particularly, mandibular anterior crowding is an unforeseeable phenomenon and a quite embarrassing situation for the orthodontist, as it may be interpreted by the patient as a treatment failure. Relapse may be inherent to various factors (periodontal, anatomical, muscular, occlusal, residual growth, third molars development…), which must be imperatively acknowledged in order to be managed during orthodontic treatment and therefore ensure an optimal control on the stability of the achieved final outcomes...
February 22, 2018: International Orthodontics
Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar, Nuredin Mohammed, Konstantinos A Toulis, G Neil Thomas, Parth Narendran
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Our objectives were to explore whether the phenomenon of HbA1c 'tracking' occurs in individuals with type 1 diabetes, how long after diagnosis does tracking take to stabilise, and whether there is an effect of sex and age at diagnosis on tracking. METHODS: A total of 4525 individuals diagnosed with type 1 diabetes between 1 January 1995 and 1 May 2015 were identified from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Mixed models were applied to assess the variability of HbA1c levels over time with random effects on general practices (primary care units) and individuals within practices...
February 24, 2018: Diabetologia
Ed Whalen, Manfred Hauben, Andrew Bate
INTRODUCTION: Signal detection remains a cornerstone activity of pharmacovigilance. Routine quantitative signal detection primarily focuses on screening of spontaneous reports. In striving to enhance quantitative signal detection capability further, other data streams are being considered for their potential contribution as sources of emerging signals, one of which is longitudinal observational databases, including electronic medical record (EMR) and transactional insurance claims databases...
February 21, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
M Sébastien, B Ange-Line, A Mirna, C Martin, S Elisabeth, G Cyril, G Anne-Marie, C Aude, C Perrine, H Delphine, F Anne, H Nada, V Antonio, T-M-T Frédéric, P Christophe, D Yannis, T-R Christel, F Laurence
Marfanoid habitus (MH) combined with intellectual disability (ID) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of overlapping disorders. We performed exome sequencing in 33 trios and 31 single probands to identify novel genes specific to MH-ID. After the search for variants in OMIM genes and non-OMIM genes with classical approaches, we searched for variants in non-disease-causing genes whose pLI was above 0.9 (ExAC Consortium data), in which truncating variants were found in at least 3 unrelated patients, in order to identity novel MH-ID genes...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Genetics
José Carlos Bouso, Rafael G Dos Santos, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles, Jaime E C Hallak
Serotonergic psychedelics act as agonists at cortical 5-HT2A receptors and seem to induce personality changes. We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing the effects of these drugs on personality. Papers published from 1985-2016 were included from PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases. Three hundred and sixty-nine studies were identified, and 18 were included. Specific personality traits, such as Absorption and Self-Transcendence, seem to influence the effects of psychedelics, and psychedelic drug users and nonusers appear to differ in some personality traits...
February 13, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Carme Uribe, Barbara Segura, Hugo Cesar Baggio, Alexandra Abos, Anna Isabel Garcia-Diaz, Anna Campabadal, Maria Jose Marti, Francesc Valldeoriola, Yaroslau Compta, Eduard Tolosa, Carme Junque
INTRODUCTION: Cortical brain atrophy detectable with MRI in non-demented advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) is well characterized, but its presence in early disease stages is still under debate. We aimed to investigate cortical atrophy patterns in a large sample of early untreated PD patients using a hypothesis-free data-driven approach. METHODS: Seventy-seven de novo PD patients and 50 controls from the Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative database with T1-weighted images in a 3-tesla Siemens scanner were included in this study...
February 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Alexander P Marston, Glenn Merritt, Jonathan M Morris, Shelagh A Cofer
OBJECTIVES: The suprazygomatic maxillary nerve block is associated with improved post-operative pain management after select craniofacial surgical procedures. This study's objective is to better define the impact of pediatric facial skeletal growth on techniques for accessing the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF). METHODS: Pediatric patients with prior thin-slice maxillofacial computed tomography imaging were identified in an institutional radiology database. Aquarius image-processing software (Ver...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
John R Cutcliffe, Graham Sloan, Marie Bashaw
According to the international, extant literature published during the last 20 years or so, clinical supervision (CS) in nursing is now a reasonably common phenomenon. Nevertheless, what appears to be noticeably 'thin on the ground' in this body of literature are empirical evaluations of CS, especially those pertaining to client outcomes. Accordingly, the authors undertook a systematic review of empirical evaluations of CS in nursing to determine the state of the science. Adopting the approach documented by Stroup et al...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
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