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Meghan K Cain, Zhiyong Zhang, Ke-Hai Yuan
Nonnormality of univariate data has been extensively examined previously (Blanca et al., Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 9(2), 78-84, 2013; Miceeri, Psychological Bulletin, 105(1), 156, 1989). However, less is known of the potential nonnormality of multivariate data although multivariate analysis is commonly used in psychological and educational research. Using univariate and multivariate skewness and kurtosis as measures of nonnormality, this study examined 1,567 univariate distriubtions and 254 multivariate distributions collected from authors of articles published in Psychological Science and the American Education Research Journal...
October 17, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Martin Carberry, John Harden
Early identification of patients with sepsis is key to the delivery of the sepsis 6 bundle including antibiotic therapy within an hour.[1-3] Demand versus capacity challenges in the Emergency Department (ED) led to delays in antibiotic and sepsis 6 delivery. An alerting tool was developed that provided criteria for Scottish Ambulance Service (SAS) Paramedics to alert the ED of potential sepsis patients. Data from patients presenting to the ED prior to the alerting process commencing (n=50) and during alerting (n=50) were analysed, a questionnaire was used to ascertain feedback from all staff groups; nurses doctors, and paramedics (n=38)...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Holy Akwar, Harold Kloeze, Shamir Mukhi
PURPOSE: To validate the utility and effectiveness of a standardized tool for prioritization of information sources for early detection of diseases. METHODS: The tool was developed with input from diverse public health experts garnered through survey. Ten raters used the tool to evaluate ten information sources and reliability among raters was computed. The Proc mixed procedure with random effect statement and SAS Macros were used to compute multiple raters' Fleiss Kappa agreement and Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance...
2016: Online Journal of Public Health Informatics
Eli Raneses, Joyce C Pressley
BACKGROUND: Recent efforts to pass rear seat belt laws for adults have been hampered by large gaps in the scientific literature. This study examines driver, vehicle, crash, and passenger characteristics associated with mortality in rear-seated adult passengers. METHODS: The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) 2010 to 2011 was used to examine motor vehicle occupant mortality in rear-seated adult passengers 18 years and older. Side crash vehicle safety ratings were assessed in a subset analysis of vehicles struck on the same side as the rear-seated passenger...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Xiaojia He, Donee' McAlliser, Winfred G Aker, Huey-Min Hwang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are among the most widely manufactured nanomaterials on a global scale. However, prudent and vigilant surveillance, incumbent upon the scientific community with the advent of new technologies, has revealed potentially undesirable effects of TiO2 NPs on biological systems and the natural environment during their application and discharge. Such effects are likely best evaluated by first assessing the fate of the TiO2 NPs in natural environments. In this study, the effects of terrestrial humic acid (HA) and tannic acid (TA), two major members of the collective: dissolved organic matter (DOM), on the cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs to Escherichia coli were investigated in the presence and absence of natural sunlight...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Andrey Karpenko, Vladimir Starodubtsev, Pavel Ignatenko, Alexander Gostev
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to compare immediate and long-term results of endovascular interventions for the treatment of steno-occlusive disease of subclavian arteries (SAs) depending on the length of lesion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2010 and 2013, we performed 245 endovascular procedures to treat patients with atherosclerotic steno-occlusive disease of SAs. All patients were examined and subdivided according to the received results into 2 groups: 125 patients with stenosis of SA were included in the first group and 120 patients with occlusion of SA were included in the second group...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Jin Xiao, Yonghwi Moon, Lihua Li, Elena Rustchenko, Hironao Wakabayashi, Xiaoyi Zhao, Changyong Feng, Steven R Gill, Sean McLaren, Hans Malmstrom, Yanfang Ren, Robert Quivey, Hyun Koo, Dorota T Kopycka-Kedzierawski
INTRODUCTION: Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. METHODS: Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam...
2016: PloS One
Zhongyi Yang, Huiyu Yuan, Xiaoping Xu, Bingxin Gu, Mingwei Wang, Jianping Zhang, Yongping Zhang, Yingjian Zhang
The purpose of the preliminary study was to investigate whether high specific activity (SA) of (18) F-fluoroestradiol was optimal in breast cancer diagnosis. Imaging at variable SA was conducted in a ZR-75-1 xenograft model of estrogen-receptor positive human breast cancer in 6 mice. The region of interest was manually drawn, and the percent of injected dose per gram of the tumor and muscle in the regions of interest were recorded. Tumor-to-muscle ratio (T/M) was calculated and compared in each group with different SAs...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Neil M Drummond, Alexandra Leguerrier, Anthony N Carlsen
During a simple reaction time (RT) task, movements can be initiated early and involuntarily through presentation of a loud startling acoustic stimulus (SAS), a phenomenon termed the StartReact effect. In order to infer that activity in startle-related structures led to the early response triggering, it is important to observe a concurrent startle reflex in sternocleidomastoid. It is generally accepted that to consistently elicit a startle reflex, the SAS must be both intense and unpredictable. However, it remains unclear what effect explicit foreknowledge of an impending SAS has on the effectiveness of a SAS to elicit a startle reflex when preparing a motor response...
October 13, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Don D Sin, Zafar Zafari, Gerard Criner, John E Connett, Stephen Lazarus, Meilan Han, Fernando Martinez, Richard Albert
Exacerbations are a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Evidence suggests the presence of substantial between-individual variability (heterogeneity) in exacerbation rates. The question of whether individuals vary in their tendency towards experiencing severe (versus mild) exacerbations, or whether there is an association between exacerbation rate and severity, has not yet been studied. We used data from the MACRO Study, a 1-year randomized trial of the use of azithromycin for prevention of COPD exacerbations (United States and Canada, 2006-2010; n = 1,107, mean age = 65...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Robert T Tashjian, Daniel T Lilly, Aaron M Isaacson, Cory E Georgopoulos, Stephen P Bettwieser, Robert T Burks, Patrick E Greis, Angela P Presson, Erin K Granger, Yue Zhang
Reported rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after shoulder arthroplasty (SA) range from 0.2% to 13%. Few studies have evaluated the incidence of VTE in a large patient population from a single institution. We conducted a study to determine the incidence of VTE (deep venous thrombosis [DVT] and pulmonary embolism [PE]) in a large series of SAs. Cases of SAs performed at our institution between January 1999 and May 2012 were retrospectively reviewed for development of symptomatic VTE within the first 90 days after surgery...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Soumitra Sen, Philip Grgurich, Amanda Tulolo, Andrew Smith-Freedman, Yuxiu Lei, Anthony Gray, James Dargin
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the efficacy of symptom-triggered therapy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in the intensive care unit (ICU). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a symptom-triggered benzodiazepine protocol utilizing Riker Sedation Agitation Scale (SAS) scoring for the treatment of AWS in the ICU. METHODS: We performed a before-and-after study in a medical ICU. A protocol incorporating SAS scoring and symptom-triggered benzodiazepine dosing was implemented in place of a protocol that utilized the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA-Ar) scale and fixed benzodiazepine dosing...
October 12, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Wei-Te Wu, Su-Shan Tsai, Yu-Jen Lin, Ming-Hsiu Lin, Trong-Neng Wu, Tung-Sheng Shih, Saou-Hsing Liou
BACKGROUND: Professional drivers' work under conditions predisposes them for development of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the effect of SDB on CVD risk among professional drivers has never been investigated. A cohort study was used to evaluate the effectiveness of overnight pulse oximeter as a sleep apnea screening tool to assess the 8-year risk of CVD events. METHODS: The Taiwan Bus Driver Cohort Study (TBDCS) recruited 1014 professional drivers in Taiwan since 2005...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Karen-Helene Støverud, Hans Petter Langtangen, Geir Andre Ringstad, Per Kristian Eide, Kent-Andre Mardal
PURPOSE: Previous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies have demonstrated that the Chiari malformation is associated with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the cervical part of the subarachnoid space (SAS), but the flow in the SAS of the posterior cranial fossa has received little attention. This study extends previous modelling efforts by including the cerebellomedullary cistern, pontine cistern, and 4th ventricle in addition to the cervical subarachnoid space. METHODS: The study included one healthy control, Con1, and two patients with Chiari I malformation, P1 and P2...
2016: PloS One
Salla Atkins, Weirong Yan, Elnta Meragia, Hassan Mahomed, Senia Rosales-Klintz, Donald Skinner, Merrick Zwarenstein
BACKGROUND: As blended learning (BL; a combination of face-to-face and e-learning methods) becomes more commonplace, it is important to assess whether students find it useful for their studies. ARCADE HSSR and ARCADE RSDH (African Regional Capacity Development for Health Systems and Services Research; Asian Regional Capacity Development for Research on Social Determinants of Health) were unique capacity-building projects, focusing on developing BL in Africa and Asia on issues related to global health...
2016: Global Health Action
Wen-Chi Wu, Shyuemeng Luu, Dih-Ling Luh
BACKGROUND: Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between defending behaviors and mental health among bullies, victims, bully-victims and bystanders...
October 10, 2016: BMC Public Health
T V Narayan, S Shilpashree
CONTEXT: Leukoplakia is classified under the term potentially malignant disorder. This term does not suggest the clinician or the patient about the severity of the disease to undergo a malignant transformation. Thus, there arises a need to identify the risk factors associated with malignant transformation (MT) to predict it at the earliest. AIMS: To generate evidence regarding the clinicopathologic factors affecting MT in oral leukoplakias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Meta-analysis was done by extracting data from all the previous studies published...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
David A Barrington, Sarah E Dilley, Emily E Landers, Eric D Thomas, Jonathon D Boone, J Michael Straughn, Gerald McGwin, Charles A Leath
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential relationship between outcomes in cervical cancer patients based on distance from our Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of cervical cancer patients was performed. Abstracted data included: demographics, clinicopathologic variables, treatment, and survival. Analyses both by quartiles and distance <100 and ≥100miles from our institution were performed. Data were analyzed using SAS version 9...
October 6, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Elizabeth C Clarke, David F Fletcher, Lynne E Bilston
Syringomyelia (a spinal cord cyst) usually develops as a result of conditions that cause cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obstruction. The mechanism of syrinx formation and enlargement remains unclear, though previous studies suggest that the fluid enters via the perivascular spaces (PVS) of the penetrating arteries of the spinal cord, and that alterations in the CSF pulse timing and pressure could contribute to enhanced PVS inflow. This study uses an idealised computational model of the PVS to investigate the factors that influence peri-arterial fluid flow...
October 7, 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
K Rupp, S E Taverno Ross, W Lang, J M Jakicic
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine weight loss, physical activity, fitness and diet changes in response to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention in adults with self-reported juvenile onset (n = 61) or adult onset (n = 116) obesity. METHODS: Participants (n = 177; 43.0 ± 8.6 years; body mass index [BMI] = 33.0 ± 3.4 kg m(-2)) engaged in an 18-month standard behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants were randomized into three different intervention groups as part of the larger parent trial...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
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