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Laser capture microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068290/a-collection-system-for-dry-solid-residues-from-exhaled-breath-for-analysis-via-atomic-force-microscopy
#1
Victor N Morozov, Andrey Y Mikheev
Exhaled air contains sub-micron droplets of lung liquid, which potentially bear biomarkers of lung diseases. After dehydration they form dry residue particles (DRPs). As a first step in developing techniques to characterize individual DRPs, a new electrostatic collector was designed in which DRPs are charged within a unipolar corona charger, concentrated in a cone funnel, and deposited onto a limited area of a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface. The collector captures 80%-90% of DRPs at an optimal flow rate of 0...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043041/detection-of-tissue-factor-positive-extracellular-vesicles-by-laser-scanning-confocal-microscopy
#2
Yohei Hisada, Alyson C Auriemma, Wyeth Alexander, Cihan Ay, Nigel Mackman
INTRODUCTION: Increased levels of tissue factor-positive extracellular vesicles (TF+EVs) have been detected in the plasma of patients with various diseases, including cancer and endotoxemia. Levels of TF+EVs in plasma samples can be measured by antigen and activity assays. The aim of the present study was to visualize TF+EVs by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). METHODS: EVs were isolated from the supernatant of two cultured human pancreatic cancer cell lines (Panc-1 and BxPc-3), from untreated or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated whole blood, and from plasma of pancreatic cancer patients...
December 23, 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991699/a-supercritical-lens-optical-label-free-microscopy-sub-diffraction-resolution-and-ultra-long-working-distance
#3
Fei Qin, Kun Huang, Jianfeng Wu, Jinghua Teng, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Minghui Hong
A planar metalens for achieving super-resolution imaging in far-field is proposed. This metalens, which has a non-sub-wavelength feature size, can be fabricated by conventional laser pattern generator. The imaging process is purely physical and captured in real time, without any pre- and post-processing.
December 19, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976852/four-dimensional-ultrafast-electron-microscopy-insights-into-an-emerging-technique
#4
Aniruddha Adhikari, Jeffrey K Eliason, Jingya Sun, Riya Bose, David J Flannigan, Omar F Mohammed
Four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy (4D-UEM) is a novel analytical technique that aims to fulfill the long-held dream of researchers to investigate materials at extremely short spatial and temporal resolutions by integrating the excellent spatial resolution of electron microscopes with the temporal resolution of ultrafast femtosecond laser-based spectroscopy. The ingenious use of pulsed photoelectrons to probe surfaces and volumes of materials enables time-resolved snapshots of the dynamics to be captured in a way hitherto impossible by other conventional techniques...
January 3, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958348/laser-light-field-fusion-for-wide-field-lensfree-on-chip-phase-contrast-microscopy-of-nanoparticles
#5
Farnoud Kazemzadeh, Alexander Wong
Wide-field lensfree on-chip microscopy, which leverages holography principles to capture interferometric light-field encodings without lenses, is an emerging imaging modality with widespread interest given the large field-of-view compared to lens-based techniques. In this study, we introduce the idea of laser light-field fusion for lensfree on-chip phase contrast microscopy for detecting nanoparticles, where interferometric laser light-field encodings acquired using a lensfree, on-chip setup with laser pulsations at different wavelengths are fused to produce marker-free phase contrast images of particles at the nanometer scale...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942581/b-cell-repertoire-expansion-occurs-in-meningeal-ectopic-lymphoid-tissue
#6
Klaus Lehmann-Horn, Sheng-Zhi Wang, Sharon A Sagan, Scott S Zamvil, H-Christian von Büdingen
Ectopic lymphoid tissues (ELT) can be found in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other organ-specific inflammatory conditions. Whether ELT in the meninges of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease exhibit local germinal center (GC) activity remains unknown. In an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of CNS autoimmunity, we found activation-induced cytidine deaminase, a GC-defining enzyme, in meningeal ELT (mELT) densely populated by B and T cells. To determine GC activity in mELT, we excised meningeal lymphoid aggregates using laser capture microscopy and evaluated B cell repertoires in mELT and secondary lymphoid organs by next-generation immune repertoire sequencing...
December 8, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896016/wide-field-fourier-ptychographic-microscopy-using-laser-illumination-source
#7
Jaebum Chung, Hangwen Lu, Xiaoze Ou, Haojiang Zhou, Changhuei Yang
Fourier ptychographic (FP) microscopy is a coherent imaging method that can synthesize an image with a higher bandwidth using multiple low-bandwidth images captured at different spatial frequency regions. The method's demand for multiple images drives the need for a brighter illumination scheme and a high-frame-rate camera for a faster acquisition. We report the use of a guided laser beam as an illumination source for an FP microscope. It uses a mirror array and a 2-dimensional scanning Galvo mirror system to provide a sample with plane-wave illuminations at diverse incidence angles...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890026/electrostatic-capture-following-laser-microdissection-for-the-preparation-of-homogeneous-biological-specimens
#8
Dingrong Yi, Linghua Kong, Ranjith K Kankala, Zi Wang
There is an unmet need for researchers in life sciences and clinical pathology to obtain untainted target cells with very high accuracy, which are suitable for subsequent genome and protein analysis. In this paper, an electrostatic capture laser microdissection technology (ECM) is proposed and explained. Following microscopic identification and separation of target cells from the surrounding tissues using laser cutting, the ECM uses electrostatic forces to capture target cells. Validation experiments indicate that ECM can capture a wide assortment of contamination-free homogeneous samples, ranging from very tiny pieces of a few micrometers in diameter to large pieces with a surface area of over 40,000 µm2...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788214/image-based-modeling-of-blood-flow-and-oxygen-transfer-in-feto-placental-capillaries
#9
Philip Pearce, Paul Brownbill, Jiří Janáček, Marie Jirkovská, Lucie Kubínová, Igor L Chernyavsky, Oliver E Jensen
During pregnancy, oxygen diffuses from maternal to fetal blood through villous trees in the placenta. In this paper, we simulate blood flow and oxygen transfer in feto-placental capillaries by converting three-dimensional representations of villous and capillary surfaces, reconstructed from confocal laser scanning microscopy, to finite-element meshes, and calculating values of vascular flow resistance and total oxygen transfer. The relationship between the total oxygen transfer rate and the pressure drop through the capillary is shown to be captured across a wide range of pressure drops by physical scaling laws and an upper bound on the oxygen transfer rate...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763643/mitochondrial-angiotensin-receptors-in-dopaminergic-neurons-role-in-cell-protection-and-aging-related-vulnerability-to-neurodegeneration
#10
Rita Valenzuela, Maria A Costa-Besada, Javier Iglesias-Gonzalez, Emma Perez-Costas, Begoña Villar-Cheda, Pablo Garrido-Gil, Miguel Melendez-Ferro, Ramon Soto-Otero, Jose L Lanciego, Daniel Henrion, Rafael Franco, Jose L Labandeira-Garcia
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was initially considered as a circulating humoral system controlling blood pressure, being kidney the key control organ. In addition to the 'classical' humoral RAS, a second level in RAS, local or tissular RAS, has been identified in a variety of tissues, in which local RAS play a key role in degenerative and aging-related diseases. The local brain RAS plays a major role in brain function and neurodegeneration. It is normally assumed that the effects are mediated by the cell-surface-specific G-protein-coupled angiotensin type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1 and AT2)...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723140/synthesis-of-fluorescent-gelators-and-direct-observation-of-gelation-with-a-fluorescence-microscope
#11
Kenji Hanabusa, Takuya Ueda, Shingo Takata, Masahiro Suzuki
Fluorescein-, benzothiazole-, quinoline-, stilbene-, and carbazole-containing fluorescent gelators have been synthesized by connecting gelation-driving segments, including l-isoleucine, l-valine, l-phenylalanine, l-leucine residue, cyclo(l-asparaginyl-l-phenylalanyl), and trans-(1R,2R)-diaminocyclohexane. The emission behaviors of the gelators were investigated, and their gelation abilities studied against 15 solvents. The minimum gel concentration, variable-temperature spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy (FM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to characterize gelation...
November 14, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680210/therapeutic-angiogenesis-induced-by-human-umbilical-cord-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-a-murine-model-of-hindlimb-ischemia
#12
Ana Rita S Pereira, Teresa F Mendes, Augusto Ministro, Mariana Teixeira, Mariana Filipe, Jorge M Santos, Rita N Bárcia, J Goyri-O'Neill, Fausto Pinto, Pedro E Cruz, Helder J Cruz, Susana Constantino Rosa Santos
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord tissue, termed UCX®, have the potential to promote a full range of events leading to tissue regeneration and homeostasis. The main goal of this work was to investigate UCX® action in experimentally induced hindlimb ischemia (HLI). METHODS: UCX®, obtained by using a proprietary technology developed by ECBio (Amadora, Portugal), were delivered via intramuscular injection to C57BL/6 females after unilateral HLI induction...
September 29, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651373/decreased-desmin-expression-in-the-developing-diaphragm-of-the-nitrofen-induced-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-rat-model
#13
Toshiaki Takahashi, Florian Friedmacher, Julia Zimmer, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is presumed to originate from defects in the primordial diaphragmatic mesenchyme, mainly comprising of muscle connective tissue (MCT). Thus, normal diaphragmatic morphogenesis depends on the structural integrity of the underlying MCT. Developmental mutations that inhibit normal formation of diaphragmatic MCT have been shown to result in CDH. Desmin (DES) is a major filament protein in the MCT, which is essential for the tensile strength of the developing diaphragm muscle...
December 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651044/laser-capture-microdissection-microscopy-and-genome-sequencing-of-the-avian-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-relictum
#14
Holly L Lutz, Nicholas J Marra, Felix Grewe, Jenny S Carlson, Vaidas Palinauskas, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Michael J Stanhope
Acquiring genomic material from avian malaria parasites for genome sequencing has proven problematic due to the nucleation of avian erythrocytes, which produces a large ratio of host to parasite DNA (∼1 million to 1 bp). We tested the ability of laser capture microdissection microscopy to isolate parasite cells from individual avian erythrocytes for four avian Plasmodium species, and subsequently applied whole genome amplification and Illumina sequencing methods to Plasmodium relictum (lineage pSGS1) to produce sequence reads of the P...
September 21, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641327/f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfer-and-protein-induced-fluorescence-enhancement-as-synergetic-multi-scale-molecular-rulers
#15
Evelyn Ploetz, Eitan Lerner, Florence Husada, Martin Roelfs, SangYoon Chung, Johannes Hohlbein, Shimon Weiss, Thorben Cordes
Advanced microscopy methods allow obtaining information on (dynamic) conformational changes in biomolecules via measuring a single molecular distance in the structure. It is, however, extremely challenging to capture the full depth of a three-dimensional biochemical state, binding-related structural changes or conformational cross-talk in multi-protein complexes using one-dimensional assays. In this paper we address this fundamental problem by extending the standard molecular ruler based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) into a two-dimensional assay via its combination with protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE)...
September 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634368/in-vivo-confirmation-of-hydration-induced-changes-in-human-skin-thickness-roughness-and-interaction-with-the-environment
#16
Agnieszka K Dąbrowska, Christian Adlhart, Fabrizio Spano, Gelu-Marius Rotaru, Siegfried Derler, Lina Zhai, Nicholas D Spencer, René M Rossi
The skin properties, structure, and performance can be influenced by many internal and external factors, such as age, gender, lifestyle, skin diseases, and a hydration level that can vary in relation to the environment. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the multifaceted influence of water on human skin through a combination of in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and images of volar-forearm skin captured with the laser scanning confocal microscopy. By means of this pilot study, the authors have both qualitatively and quantitatively studied the influence of changing the depth-dependent hydration level of the stratum corneum (SC) on the real contact area, surface roughness, and the dimensions of the primary lines and presented a new method for characterizing the contact area for different states of the skin...
2016: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572101/casticin-induces-dna-damage-and-inhibits-dna-repair-associated-protein-expression-in-b16f10-mouse-melanoma-cancer-cells
#17
Yung-Luen Shih, Jason Chou, Ming-Yang Yeh, Hsiao-Min Chou, Hsiu-Chen Chou, Hsu-Feng Lu, Hung-Sheng Shang, Fu-Shin Chueh, Yung-Lin Chu, Shu-Ching Hsueh, Jing-Gung Chung
Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, has been demonstrated to possess anticancer activities, yet no study has shown in detail that casticin induces DNA damage in lung cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of casticin which induce DNA damage and nuclear condensation in murine melanoma cancer B16F10 cells. In this study, by examining and capturing images using phase contrast microscopy, we found that casticin induced cell morphological changes. Moreover, it decreased the total number of viable cells which was measured by flow cytometry...
October 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537061/doxorubicin-incorporated-nanotherapeutic-delivery-system-based-on-gelatin-coated-gold-nanoparticles-formulation-drug-release-and-multimodal-imaging-of-cellular-internalization
#18
Sorina Suarasan, Monica Focsan, Monica Potara, Olga Soritau, Adrian Florea, Dana Maniu, Simion Astilean
In this work, we developed a new pH- and temperature-responsive nanochemotherapeutic system based on Doxorubicin (DOX) noncovalently bound to biosynthesized gelatin-coated gold nanoparticles (DOX-AuNPs@gelatin). The real-time release profile of DOX was evaluated at different pH values (7.4, 5.3, and 4.6) and temperatures (22-45 °C) in aqueous solutions, and its therapeutic performance was examined in vitro against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. TEM, dark-field scattering, and wide-field fluorescence microscopy indicated the effective uptake of nanochemotherapeutics with the subsequent release and progressive accumulation of DOX in cell nuclei...
September 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522124/fibrillin-1-expression-is-decreased-in-the-diaphragmatic-muscle-connective-tissue-of-nitrofen-induced-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#19
Toshiaki Takahashi, Florian Friedmacher, Julia Zimmer, Prem Puri
Introduction Diaphragmatic morphogenesis depends on proper formation of muscle connective tissue (MCT) and underlying extracellular matrix (ECM). Fibrillin-1 is an essential ECM protein and crucial for the structural integrity of MCT in the developing diaphragm. Recently, mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1) have been identified in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), thus suggesting that alterations in FBN1 gene expression may lead to diaphragmatic defects. We designed this study to investigate the hypothesis that the diaphragmatic expression of fibrillin-1 is decreased in the MCT of nitrofen-induced CDH...
August 14, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490486/in%C3%A2-vivo-targeting-of-metastatic-breast-cancer-via-tumor-vasculature-specific-nano-graphene-oxide
#20
Dongzhi Yang, Liangzhu Feng, Casey A Dougherty, Kathryn E Luker, Daiqin Chen, Meagan A Cauble, Mark M Banaszak Holl, Gary D Luker, Brian D Ross, Zhuang Liu, Hao Hong
Angiogenesis, i.e. the formation of neovasculatures, is a critical process during cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. Targeting of angiogenic markers on the tumor vasculature can result in more efficient delivery of nanomaterials into tumor since no extravasation is required. Herein we demonstrated efficient targeting of breast cancer metastasis in an experimental murine model with nano-graphene oxide (GO), which was conjugated to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR)...
October 2016: Biomaterials
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