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Canadian first nations

Anita Kozyrskyj, Nicole Letourneau, Liane Kang, Mahin Salmani
BACKGROUND: Affecting 19% of women, postpartum depression is a major concern to the immediate health of mothers and infants. In the longterm, it has been linked to the development of early-onset asthma at school entry, but only if the depression persists beyond the postnatal period. No studies have tested whether associations with postpartum depressive symptoms and early-onset asthma phenotypes persist into later school age. OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and childhood asthma between the ages of 5-10 by using a nested longitudinal design...
October 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Bushra Farah Nasir, Leanne Hides, Steve Kisely, Geetha Ranmuthugala, Geoffrey C Nicholson, Emma Black, Neeraj Gill, Srinivas Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Maree Toombs
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death among Indigenous youth worldwide. The aim of this literature review was to determine the cultural appropriateness and identify evidence for the effectiveness of current gatekeeper suicide prevention training programs within the international Indigenous community. METHOD: Using a systematic strategy, relevant databases and targeted resources were searched using the following terms: 'suicide', 'gatekeeper', 'training', 'suicide prevention training', 'suicide intervention training' and 'Indigenous'...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Herenia P Lawrence, Jaime Cidro, Sonia Isaac-Mann, Sabrina Peressini, Marion Maar, Robert J Schroth, Janet N Gordon, Laurie Hoffman-Goetz, John R Broughton, Lisa Jamieson
This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
C A Bauman, H W Barkema, J Dubuc, G P Keefe, D F Kelton
The objective of this study was to identify the key management and disease issues affecting the Canadian dairy industry. An online questionnaire (FluidSurveys, was conducted between March 1 and May 31, 2014. A total of 1,025 responses were received from across Canada of which 68% (n = 698) of respondents were dairy producers, and the remaining respondents represented veterinarians, university researchers, government personnel, and other allied industries. Participants were asked to identify their top 3 management and disease priorities from 2 lists offered...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Russell J de Souza, Michael A Zulyniak, Dipika Desai, Mateen R Shaikh, Natalie C Campbell, Diana L Lefebvre, Milan Gupta, Julie Wilson, Gita Wahi, Stephanie A Atkinson, Koon K Teo, Padmaja Subbarao, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Malcolm R Sears, Sonia S Anand
BACKGROUND: Canada is an ethnically diverse nation, which introduces challenges for health care providers tasked with providing evidence-based dietary advice. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to harmonize food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) across 4 birth cohorts of ethnically diverse pregnant women to derive robust dietary patterns to investigate maternal and newborn outcomes. METHODS: The NutriGen Alliance comprises 4 prospective birth cohorts and includes 4880 Canadian mother-infant pairs of predominantly white European [CHILD (Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development) and FAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life)], South Asian [START (SouTh Asian birth cohoRT)-Canada], or Aboriginal [ABC (Aboriginal Birth Cohort)] origins...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Elizabeth A C Sellers, Heather J Dean, Leigh Anne Shafer, Patricia J Martens, Wanda Phillips-Beck, Maureen Heaman, Heather J Prior, Allison B Dart, Jonathan McGavock, Margaret Morris, Ali A Torshizi, Sora Ludwig, Garry X Shen
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is increasing in children worldwide, with Canadian First Nation (FN) children disproportionally affected. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) also is increasing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of GDM exposure in utero and FN status on the subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes in offspring in the first 30 years of life. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this population-based historical prospective cohort study, we used administrative databases linked to a clinical database to explore the independent association and interaction between GDM and FN status on the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes in offspring...
October 4, 2016: Diabetes Care
Scott Anderson, Cheryl L Currie, Jennifer L Copeland, Gerlinde A Metz
This study examined how income and community belonging may interact to influence leisure sedentary behavior among Indigenous adults. Data were obtained from 1,304 First Nations adults who completed the Canadian Community Health Survey in 2012. Among average-income earners, a strong sense of belonging to local community was associated with less sedentary behavior, a finding also documented in the general population. Among low-income earners, a strong sense of belonging to local community was associated with more sedentary behavior, a finding that is novel in the literature...
2016: American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: the Journal of the National Center
Tanvir Chowdhury Turin, Nathalie Saad, Min Jun, Marcello Tonelli, Zhihai Ma, Cheryl Carmelle Marie Barnabe, Braden Manns, Brenda Hemmelgarn
BACKGROUND: Lifetime risk is a relatively straightforward measure used to communicate disease burden, representing the cumulative risk of an outcome during the remainder of an individual's life starting from a disease-free index age. We estimated the lifetime risk of diabetes among men and women in both First Nations and non-First Nations populations using a cohort of adults in a single Canadian province. METHODS: We used a population-based cohort consisting of Alberta residents from 1997 to 2008 who were free of diabetes at cohort entry to estimate the lifetime risk of diabetes among First Nations and non-First Nations people...
September 19, 2016: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Elizabeth E Roughead, Esther W Chan, Nam-Kyong Choi, Jenna Griffiths, Xue-Mei Jin, Joongyub Lee, Michio Kimura, Tomomi Kimura, Kiyoshi Kubota, Edward Chia-Cheng Lai, Kenneth Kc Man, Tuan Anh Nguyen, Nobuhiro Ooba, Byung-Joo Park, Tsugumichi Sato, Ju-Young Shin, TongTong Wang, Ian Ck Wong, Yea-Huei Kao Yang, Nicole L Pratt
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between incident proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and Clostridium difficile infections across multiple countries Method: National data covering the total population in Australia and Korea, the Canadian population over 65 years and a 3 million person random sample data set from Taiwan were assessed, as were data from a worker insurance population and a hospital inpatient/outpatient population in Japan. Sequence symmetry analysis was used to assess the association with oral vancomycin dispensing as the outcome of interest...
September 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Samara Perez, Gilla K Shapiro, Ovidiu Tatar, Keven Joyal-Desmarais, Zeev Rosberger
BACKGROUND: Parents' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination decision-making is strongly influenced by their attitudes and beliefs toward vaccination. To date, psychometrically evaluated HPV vaccination attitudes scales have been narrow in their range of measured beliefs and often limited to attitudes surrounding female HPV vaccination. The study aimed to develop a comprehensive, validated and reliable HPV vaccination attitudes and beliefs scale among parents of boys. METHODS: Data were collected from Canadian parents of 9- to 16-year-old boys using an online questionnaire completed in 2 waves with a 7-month interval...
October 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Douglas A Haines, Gurusankar Saravanabhavan, Kate Werry, Cheryl Khoury
Human biomonitoring (HBM) is used to indicate and quantify exposure by measuring environmental chemicals, their metabolites or reaction products in biological specimens. The biomonitoring component of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) is the most comprehensive initiative providing general population HBM data in Canada. The CHMS is an ongoing cross-sectional direct measures survey implemented in 2-year cycles. It provides nationally-representative data on health, nutritional status, environmental exposures, and related risks and protective characteristics...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Roman Romero-Ortuno, Stephen Wallis, Richard Biram, Victoria Keevil
AIM: Frail individuals may be at higher risk of death from a given acute illness severity (AIS), but this relationship has not been studied in an English National Health Service (NHS) acute hospital setting. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study in a large university NHS hospital in England. We analyzed all first non-elective inpatient episodes of people aged ≥75years (all specialties) between October 2014 and October 2015. Pre-admission frailty was assessed with the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) of the Canadian Study on Health & Aging, and AIS in the Emergency Department was measured with a Modified Early Warning Score (ED-MEWS<4 was considered as low acuity, and ED-MEWS≥4 as high acuity)...
September 2, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Sunshine Purificacion, Erika Brown, Carol Anne-Davis, John French
Radiation therapy service quality is not only defined by the technical aspects of care-the patient's involvement and satisfaction also contribute largely to determining the quality of care received. Although there have been recent increases in support for the development of patient engagement activities throughout Canada, the lack of guidance and knowledge of patient engagement techniques within the radiotherapy context limits implementation. Without processes to obtain first-hand insight from patients, the need for these programs is overlooked...
September 2016: Healthcare Management Forum
T Cameron Wild, Yan Yuan, Brian R Rush, Karen A Urbanoski
OBJECTIVE: Mixed evidence on the effectiveness of using legal referrals to leverage treatment participation may reflect unmeasured variability in client motivations for seeking care. We hypothesized that associations between legal referral and client engagement would be moderated by reasons that clients sought treatment, as conceptualized by self-determination theory (SDT). METHODS: Adults entering a Western Canadian residential addiction treatment program (N=325; 49...
October 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Katya Polena Feder, David Michaud, James McNamee, Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, Pamela Ramage-Morin, Yves Beauregard
OBJECTIVES: There are no nationally representative hearing loss (HL) prevalence data available for Canadian youth using direct measurements. The present study objectives were to estimate national prevalence of HL using audiometric pure-tone thresholds (0.5 to 8 kHz) and or distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) for children and adolescents, aged 3 to 19 years. DESIGN: This cross-sectional population-based study presents findings from the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, entailing an in-person household interview and hearing measurements conducted in a mobile examination clinic...
August 22, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Josée G Lavoie, Joseph Kaufert, Annette J Browne, John D O'Neil
BACKGROUND: Accessing cancer treatment requires First Nation peoples living in rural and remote communities to either commute to care, or to relocate to an urban centre for the length or part of the treatment. While Canadians living in rural and remote communities must often make difficult decisions following a cancer diagnosis, such decisions are further complicated by the unique policy and socio-historical contexts affecting many First Nation peoples in Canada. These contexts often intersect with negative healthcare experiences which can be related to jurisdictional confusion encountered when seeking care...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
(no author information available yet)
POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Matto Mildenberger, Peter Howe, Erick Lachapelle, Leah Stokes, Jennifer Marlon, Timothy Gravelle
While climate scientists have developed high resolution data sets on the distribution of climate risks, we still lack comparable data on the local distribution of public climate change opinions. This paper provides the first effort to estimate local climate and energy opinion variability outside the United States. Using a multi-level regression and post-stratification (MRP) approach, we estimate opinion in federal electoral districts and provinces. We demonstrate that a majority of the Canadian public consistently believes that climate change is happening...
2016: PloS One
Sonia S Anand, Jack V Tu, Philip Awadalla, Sandra Black, Catherine Boileau, David Busseuil, Dipika Desai, Jean-Pierre Després, Russell J de Souza, Trevor Dummer, Sébastien Jacquemont, Bartha Knoppers, Eric Larose, Scott A Lear, Francois Marcotte, Alan R Moody, Louise Parker, Paul Poirier, Paula J Robson, Eric E Smith, John J Spinelli, Jean-Claude Tardif, Koon K Teo, Natasa Tusevljak, Matthias G Friedrich
BACKGROUND: The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM) is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environments, and access to health services) with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and cardiovascular and other chronic disease outcomes...
2016: BMC Public Health
Renée M Janssen, Oliver Takach, Estello Nap-Hill, Robert A Enns
Objective. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Wait Time Consensus Group recommends that patients with symptoms associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) should have an endoscopic examination within 2 months. However, in a recent survey of Canadian gastroenterologists, wait-times for endoscopy were considerably longer than the current guidelines recommend. The purpose of this study was to evaluate wait-times for colonoscopy in patients who were subsequently found to have CRC through the Division of Gastroenterology at St...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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