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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237649/canadian-physicians-knowledge-and-counseling-practices-related-to-antibiotic-use-and-antimicrobial-resistance-two-cycle-national-survey
#1
Courtney R Smith, Lisa Pogany, Simon Foley, Jun Wu, Karen Timmerman, Margaret Gale-Rowe, Alain Demers
OBJECTIVE: To establish a baseline for physicians' knowledge of and counseling practices on the use of antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and to determine potential changes in these measures after the implementation of a national AMR awareness campaign. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1600 physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physicians' knowledge of and counseling practices on antibiotic use and AMR at baseline and after implementation of the AMR awareness campaign...
December 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229178/cervical-spine-clearance-in-adults-following-blunt-trauma-a-national-survey-across-major-trauma-centres-in-england
#2
G Chilvers, K Porter, S Choudhary
AIM: To assess current practice in cervical spine clearance across major trauma centres in England and review current guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic survey was sent to lead trauma clinicians at 22 major trauma centres in England. This assessed the clinical decision tools used, the choice of initial imaging technique, and the methods used to clear the cervical spine in alert and obtunded patients without focal neurology, and where initial imaging was normal...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211621/delayed-measles-vaccination-of-toddlers-in-canada-associated-socio-demographic-factors-and-parental-knowledge-attitudes-and-beliefs
#3
Simone Périnet, Marilou Kiely, Gaston De Serres, Nicolas L Gilbert
Delaying vaccination increases the period of vulnerability of children against vaccine-preventable diseases. We used a nationally representative sample of Canadian two-year-old children to explore factors associated with delays in the uptake of the first dose of measles-containing vaccine, recommended in Canada for children at 12 months of age. Distribution of delays was determined using data from the 2013 Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey. Logistic regression was used to examine sociodemographic factors and knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) associated with the two outcomes of interest: delays of one to six months (vaccination at 13 to 18 months of age) and delays of seven to 18 months (vaccination at 19 to 23 months of age)...
December 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203616/validation-and-diagnostic-accuracy-of-predictive-curves-for-age-associated-longitudinal-cognitive-decline-in-older-adults
#4
Patrick J Bernier, Christian Gourdeau, Pierre-Hugues Carmichael, Jean-Pierre Beauchemin, René Verreault, Rémi W Bouchard, Edeltraut Kröger, Robert Laforce
BACKGROUND: The Mini-Mental State Examination continues to be used frequently to screen for cognitive impairment in older adults, but it remains unclear how to interpret changes in its score over time to distinguish age-associated cognitive decline from an early degenerative process. We aimed to generate cognitive charts for use in clinical practice for longitudinal evaluation of age-associated cognitive decline. METHODS: We used data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging from 7569 participants aged 65 years or older who completed a Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline, and at 5 and 10 years later to develop a linear regression model for the Mini-Mental State Examination score as a function of age and education...
December 4, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203254/ethnic-dependent-differences-in-diagnostic-accuracy-of-glycated-hemoglobin-hba1c-in-canadian-adults
#5
Ronald A Booth, Ying Jiang, Howard Morrison, Heather Orpana, Susan Rogers Van Katwyk, Chantal Lemieux
AIM: Previous studies have shown varying sensitivity and specificity of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to identify diabetes and prediabetes, compared to 2-hour oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), in different ethnic groups. Within the Canadian population, the ability of HbA1c to identify prediabetes and diabetes in First Nations, Métis and Inuit, East and South Asian ethnic groups has yet to be determined. METHODS: We collected demographic, lifestyle information, biochemical results of glycemic status (FPG, OGTT, and HbA1c) from an ethnically diverse Canadian population sample, which included a purposeful sampling of First Nations, Métis, Inuit, South Asian and East Asian participants...
December 1, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189589/pediatric-emergency-research-canada-origins-and-evolution
#6
Liza Bialy, Amy Plint, Roger Zemek, David Johnson, Terry Klassen, Martin Osmond, Stephen Freedman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the origins, growth, and progress of a national research network in pediatric emergency medicine. METHODS: The success of Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) is described in terms of advancing the pediatric emergency medicine agenda, grant funding, peer-reviewed publications, mentoring new investigators, and global collaborations. RESULTS: Since 1995, clinicians and investigators within PERC have grown the network to 15 active tertiary pediatric emergency medicine sites across Canada...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188441/vulnerability-of-canadian-aquatic-ecosystems-to-nuclear-accidents
#7
Lars Brinkmann, David J Rowan
Several cesium and strontium bioaccumulation models are used widely in national and international guidance for ecological and human health risk assessments for radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) and radiostrontium (90Sr), but have not been used to make predictions of radiological risk from nuclear accidents under variable environmental conditions on broad geographical scales. In this paper, we first present models for predicting the bioaccumulation of cesium and strontium by aquatic biota based on ambient concentrations of dissolved potassium and calcium, respectively, and then test these models using independent data from aquatic ecosystems at Canadian nuclear sites...
November 29, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140536/birth-outcomes-among-first-nations-inuit-and-m%C3%A3-tis-populations
#8
Amanda J Sheppard, Gabriel D Shapiro, Tracey Bushnik, Russell Wilkins, Serenity Perry, Jay S Kaufman, Michael S Kramer, Seungmi Yang
BACKGROUND: First Nations, Inuit, and Métis are at higher risk of adverse birth outcomes than are non-Indigenous people. However, relatively little perinatal information is available at the national level for Indigenous people overall or for specific identity groups. DATA AND METHODS: This analysis describes and compares rates of preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age birth, large-for-gestational-age birth, stillbirth, and infant mortality (neonatal, postneonatal, and cause-specific) in a nationally representative sample of First Nations, Inuit, Métis, and non-Indigenous births...
November 15, 2017: Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134620/pre-residency-publication-and-its-association-with-paediatric-residency-match-outcome-a%C3%A2-retrospective-analysis-of-a%C3%A2-national-database
#9
Ronish Gupta, Mark L Norris, Nicholas Barrowman, Hilary Writer
INTRODUCTION: Scholarly activity is considered valuable in the resident selection process by candidates and program directors alike, despite existing literature suggesting applicants with scholarly work do not perform better in the match. These studies, however, are limited in that they have only measured whether candidates have successfully matched or not. To try and reconcile the existing disconnect in the value of pre-residency scholarly activity, we sought to deepen the understanding by investigating whether pre-residency publication is associated with a higher rank-order list match achievement...
November 13, 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120308/incidence-of-lower-limb-amputation-in-canada
#10
Bita Imam, William C Miller, Heather C Finlayson, Janice J Eng, Tal Jarus
OBJECTIVES: To determine the Canadian age-adjusted incidence rates of lower limb amputation (LLA) by province, sex, level, and cause of amputation. METHODS: Data on all hospital discharges associated with LLA from April 1, 2006, to March 31, 2012, were obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information's Discharge Abstract Database. National and provincial age-adjusted rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals by sex, level, and cause of LLA using the direct method of standardization...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100138/associations-between-race-discrimination-and-risk-for-chronic-disease-in-a-population-based-sample-from-canada
#11
Arjumand Siddiqi, Faraz Vahid Shahidi, Chantel Ramraj, David R Williams
A major epidemiological finding emerging from studies using U.S. samples is that racial differences in experiences of discrimination are associated with racial differences in health. A newer area of research is exploring the population-level dynamics between race, discrimination, and health status in various societies. The objective of this study is to assess for the first time in a national sample from Canada: (a) racial differences in experiences of discrimination and, (b) the association between discrimination and chronic conditions and their major risk factors...
October 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100110/feedback-of-the-third-interlaboratory-exercise-organised-on-wheat-in-the-framework-of-the-obt-working-group
#12
N Baglan, C Cossonnet, E Roche, S B Kim, I Croudace, P Warwick
Organically bound tritium (OBT) has become of increasing interest within the last decade, with a focus on its behaviour and also its analysis, which are both important to assess tritium distribution in the environment and dose consequences. After the first OBT International Workshop which was held in France in May 2012, an international working group was created. The expected benefits are the following: remove or reduce uncertainty in OBT analysis results, provide better OBT model validation data and better public dose results, increase the number of potential measuring OBT laboratories, validate all of the stages of the procedures based on a larger population and more statistically significant results, and investigate the feasibility of CRM's and RM's production...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081562/the-influence-of-parental-educational-attainment-on-the-partnership-context-at-first-birth-in-16-western-societies
#13
Judith C Koops, Aart C Liefbroer, Anne H Gauthier
In the US, growing up with parents with a low socio-economic status (SES) has been shown to increase the chance of having a birth outside marriage. However, less is known about the influence of parental SES in other Western countries. The current paper examines the association between parental educational attainment with the partnership context at first birth in 16 European and North American countries, by differentiating births within marriage, within cohabitation, or while being single. Moreover, we test whether the association between parental education and partnership context at childbirth changes over cohorts and whether its influence changes when controlling for own educational attainment...
2017: European Journal of Population
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067906/the-age-of-blood-evaluation-able-randomised-controlled-trial-description-of-the-uk-funded-arm-of-the-international-trial-the-uk-cost-utility-analysis-and-secondary-analyses-exploring-factors-associated-with-health-related-quality-of-life-and-health-care-costs
#14
Timothy S Walsh, Simon Stanworth, Julia Boyd, David Hope, Sue Hemmatapour, Helen Burrows, Helen Campbell, Elena Pizzo, Nicholas Swart, Stephen Morris
BACKGROUND: At present, red blood cells (RBCs) are stored for up to 42 days prior to transfusion. The relative effectiveness and safety of different RBC storage times prior to transfusion is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of transfusing fresher RBCs (stored for ≤ 7 days) compared with current standard-aged RBCs in critically ill patients requiring blood transfusions. DESIGN: The international Age of BLood Evaluation (ABLE) trial was a multicentre, randomised, blinded trial undertaken in Canada, the UK, the Netherlands and France...
October 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031094/risk-assessment-of-dietary-lead-exposure-among-first-nations-people-living-on-reserve-in-ontario-canada-using-a-total-diet-study-and-a-probabilistic-approach
#15
Amanda K Juric, Malek Batal, Will David, Donald Sharp, Harold Schwartz, Amy Ing, Karen Fediuk, Andrew Black, Constantine Tikhonov, Hing Man Chan, Laurie Chan
Indigenous peoples have elevated risk of lead (Pb) exposure as hunted traditional food can be contaminated with lead-containing ammunition. Recent scientific consensus states that there is no threshold level for Pb exposure. The objective of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to Pb among First Nations living on-reserve in the province of Ontario, Canada. A total diet study was constructed based on a 24-h recall and Pb concentrations for traditional foods from the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES) and Pb concentrations in market foods from Health Canada...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027619/-even-heroes-get-depressed-sponsorship-and-self-stigma-in-canada-s-mental-illness-awareness-week
#16
Loren Gaudet
In 1992, the Canadian Psychiatric Association launched Canada's first national campaign against mental illness, Mental Illness Awareness Week (MIAW). I stress that pharmaceutical sponsorship of the first five years of MIAW (1992-1997) was integral to shaping the trajectory of the campaign and marks a shift in the way stigma is conceived and resisted in Canada: what was an interpersonal process based on social norms becomes refigured as "self-stigma," or an individualized process in which lack of information, education, and self-assessment contribute to an inability to consider oneself as at-risk for a disease, condition, or disorder...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025844/investigating-canadian-parents-hpv-vaccine-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviour-a-study-protocol-for-a-longitudinal-national-online-survey
#17
Gilla K Shapiro, Samara Perez, Anila Naz, Ovidiu Tatar, Juliet R Guichon, Rhonda Amsel, Gregory D Zimet, Zeev Rosberger
INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, can cause anogenital warts and a number of cancers. To prevent morbidity and mortality, three vaccines have been licensed and are recommended by Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunisation (for girls since 2007 and boys since 2012). Nevertheless, HPV vaccine coverage in Canada remains suboptimal in many regions. This study will be the first to concurrently examine the correlates of HPV vaccine decision-making in parents of school-aged girls and boys and evaluate changes in parental knowledge, attitudes and behaviours over time...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025807/examination-outcomes-and-work-locations-of-international-medical-graduate-family-medicine-residents-in-canada
#18
Maria Mathews, Rima Kandar, Steve Slade, Yanqing Yi, Sue Beardall, Ivy Bourgeault
OBJECTIVE: To describe the postgraduate medical education (PGME) examination outcomes and work locations of international medical graduates (IMGs); and to identify differences between Canadians studying abroad (CSAs) and non-CSAs. DESIGN: Cohort study using data from the National IMG Database and Scott's Medical Database. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All IMGs who had first entered a family medicine residency program between 2005 and 2009, with the exclusion of US graduates, visa trainees, and fellowship trainees...
October 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017389/the-canadian-laboratory-initiative-on-pediatric-reference-intervals-a-caliper-white-paper
#19
Khosrow Adeli, Victoria Higgins, Karin Trajcevski, Nicole White-Al Habeeb
Laboratory investigations provide physicians with objective data to aid in disease diagnosis, clinical decision making, and patient follow up. Clinical interpretation of laboratory test results relies heavily on the availability of appropriate population-based reference intervals (i.e. normative values) or decision limits developed through clinical outcome studies. Although reference intervals are fundamental to accurate laboratory test interpretation, and thus critically important to healthcare, the need for sound evidence-based reference intervals has been largely overlooked, particularly in the pediatric population...
October 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982835/feasibility-of-using-administrative-data-for-identifying-medical-reasons-to-delay-hip-fracture-surgery-a-canadian-database-study
#20
Pierre Guy, Katie J Sheehan, Suzanne N Morin, James Waddell, Michael Dunbar, Edward Harvey, Susan Sirett, Boris Sobolev, Lisa Kuramoto, Michael Tang
PURPOSE: Failure to account for medically necessary delays may lead to an underestimation of early surgery benefits. This study investigated the feasibility of using administrative data to identify the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 124 guideline list of conditions that appropriately delay hip fracture surgery. METHODS: We assembled a list of diagnosis and procedure codes to reflect the NICE 124 conditions. The list was reviewed and updated by an advanced clinical coder...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
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