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Canadian first nations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730848/cpa-treatment-guidelines-for-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-of-psychosis
#1
Jean Addington, Donald Addington, Sabina Abidi, Thomas Raedler, Gary Remington
OBJECTIVE: Young people who are at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis are often help seeking and have significant distress and dysfunction. There are limited guidelines for the assessment and treatment for this population. The aim of this guideline was to develop treatment recommendations for this at-risk group. METHOD: A systematic search was conducted for published guidelines for CHR. All current guidelines for schizophrenia were reviewed for treatment guidelines on individuals at CHR...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728554/the-rise-and-fall-of-dental-therapy-in-canada-a-policy-analysis-and-assessment-of-equity-of-access-to-oral-health-care-for-inuit-and-first-nations-communities
#2
Victoria Leck, Glen E Randall
BACKGROUND: Inequality between most Canadians and those from Inuit and First Nations communities, in terms of both access to oral health care services and related health outcomes, has been a long-standing problem. Efforts to close this equity gap led to the creation of dental therapy training programs. These programs were designed to produce graduates who would provide services in rural and northern communities. The closure of the last dental therapy program in late 2011 has ended the supply of dental therapists and governments do not appear to have any alternative solutions to the growing gap in access to oral health care services between most Canadians and those from Inuit and First Nations communities...
July 20, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709393/microbiome-associated-with-severe-caries-in-canadian-first-nations-children
#3
M Agnello, J Marques, L Cen, B Mittermuller, A Huang, N Chaichanasakul Tran, W Shi, X He, R J Schroth
Young Indigenous children in North America suffer from a higher degree of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) than the general population, leading to speculation that the etiology and characteristics of the disease may be distinct in this population. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted the first microbiome analysis of an Indigenous population using modern molecular techniques. We investigated the caries-associated microbiome among Canadian First Nations children with S-ECC. Thirty First Nations children <72 mo of age with S-ECC and 20 caries-free children were recruited in Winnipeg, Canada...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706311/first-report-of-the-fig-cyst-nematode-heterodera-fici-kirjanova-on-fig-tree-ficus-carica-in-ontario-canada
#4
Fengcheng Sun, Neil Henry, Qing Yu
Although fig trees are a popular ornamental fruit tree in subtropical regions, some hardy species, such as Ficus carica, have been grown in the west coast of British Columbia and southern Ontario in Canada. The fig cyst nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, is a pest on fig plants, and the heavy infestation can cause retarded growth and yellowing of leaves (Maqbool et al., 1987). In the spring of 2016, a sample of rhizosphere from a potted fig (F. carica) seedling was submitted to the Nematology Laboratory, Canadian Food Inspection Agency...
June 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703082/dental-injuries-in-younger-emergency-department-patients
#5
Vigil James, Yona R Vandersluis, Evangeline W J Zhang, Dennis Scolnik
BACKGROUND: Dental trauma is a relatively common occurrence in childhood, with an impact exceeding that of periodontal diseases. It places a significant burden on the public health system because of its high frequency, impact on quality of life and consumption of resources. OBJECTIVES: To identify changing trends of dental injury in patients between 0-18 years of age in Canada and provide a detailed assessment of dental injury patterns in patients attending a large pediatric tertiary care hospital...
July 13, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689032/a-total-diet-study-and-probabilistic-assessment-risk-assessment-of-dietary-mercury-exposure-among-first-nations-living-on-reserve-in-ontario-canada
#6
Amanda K Juric, Malek Batal, Will David, Donald Sharp, Harold Schwartz, Amy Ing, Karen Fediuk, Andrew Black, Constantine Tikhonov, Hing Man Chan
Methyl Mercury (MeHg) exposure is a global environmental health concern. Indigenous peoples around the world are susceptible to MeHg exposure from often higher fish consumption compared to general populations. The objective of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) among First Nations living on-reserve in the province of Ontario, Canada. A total diet study was constructed based on a 24-h recall from the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES), and measured contaminant concentrations from Health Canada for market foods, and FNFNES for traditional foods...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680368/choice-of-relative-or-cause-specific-approach-to-cancer-survival-analysis-impacts-estimates-differentially-by-cancer-type-population-and-application-evidence-from-a-canadian-population-based-cohort-study
#7
Diana R Withrow, Jason D Pole, E Diane Nishri, Michael Tjepkema, Loraine D Marrett
BACKGROUND: Cause-specific (CS) and net survival in a relative survival framework (RS) are two of the most common methods for estimating cancer survival. In this paper, we assess the differences in results produced by two permutations of cause-specific and relative survival applied to estimating cancer survival and disparities in cancer survival, using data from First Nations and non-Aboriginal populations in Canada. METHODS: Subjects were members of the 1991 Canadian Census Mortality Cohort, a population-based cohort of adult respondents to the 1991 Long Form Census who have been followed up for incident cancers and death through linkage to administrative databases...
2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678064/who-makes-it-to-the-end-a-novel-predictive-model-for-identifying-surgical-residents-at-risk-for-attrition
#8
Heather L Yeo, Jonathan S Abelson, Jialin Mao, Frank Lewis, Fabrizio Michelassi, Richard Bell, Art Sedrakyan, Julie A Sosa
OBJECTIVE: We present 8-year follow-up data from the intern class of 2007 to 2008 using a novel, nonparametric predictive model to identify those residents who are at greatest risk of not completing their training. BACKGROUND: Nearly 1 in every 4 categorical general surgery residents does not complete training. There has been no study at a national level to identify individual resident and programmatic factors that can be used to accurately anticipate which residents are most at risk of attrition out...
July 3, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673318/choice-of-relative-or-cause-specific-approach-to-cancer-survival-analysis-impacts-estimates-differentially-by-cancer-type-population-and-application-evidence-from-a-canadian-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Diana R Withrow, Jason D Pole, E Diane Nishri, Michael Tjepkema, Loraine D Marrett
BACKGROUND: Cause-specific (CS) and net survival in a relative survival framework (RS) are two of the most common methods for estimating cancer survival. In this paper, we assess the differences in results produced by two permutations of cause-specific and relative survival applied to estimating cancer survival and disparities in cancer survival, using data from First Nations and non-Aboriginal populations in Canada. METHODS: Subjects were members of the 1991 Canadian Census Mortality Cohort, a population-based cohort of adult respondents to the 1991 Long Form Census who have been followed up for incident cancers and death through linkage to administrative databases...
July 3, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661253/are-military-and-medical-ethics-necessarily-incompatible-a-canadian-case-study
#10
Christiane Rochon, Bryn Williams-Jones
Military physicians are often perceived to be in a position of 'dual loyalty' because they have responsibilities towards their patients but also towards their employer, the military institution. Further, they have to ascribe to and are bound by two distinct codes of ethics (i.e., medical and military), each with its own set of values and duties, that could at first glance be considered to be very different or even incompatible. How, then, can military physicians reconcile these two codes of ethics and their distinct professional/institutional values, and assume their responsibilities towards both their patients and the military institution? To clarify this situation, and to show how such a reconciliation might be possible, we compared the history and content of two national professional codes of ethics: the Defence Ethics of the Canadian Armed Forces and the Code of Ethics of the Canadian Medical Association...
December 2016: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637380/diabetes-related-weight-change-in-a-canadian-first-nation-cohort
#11
N D Riediger, V Lukianchuk, J Roulette, L M Lix, L Elliott, S G Bruce
The Canadian First Nations population is disproportionately burdened by diabetes and diabetes complications. Body weight management is purported to be important in the prevention and management of diabetes. In this study, we sought to describe weight change in a First Nation cohort according to diabetes status and management. Study data were from two diabetes screening studies in Sandy Bay First Nation in Manitoba, Canada, collected in 2002/2003 (baseline) and 2011/2012 (follow-up). The cohort was composed of respondents to both screening studies (n=171)...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636069/parent-child-association-in-body-weight-status
#12
Tracey Bushnik, Didier Garriguet, Rachel Colley
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults has risen in Canada. Studies suggest that parent obesity is a risk factor for overweight and obesity in children. This analysis examines associations between biological parent and child body mass index (BMI) in a nationally representative sample of Canadian children. DATA AND METHODS: The analysis is based on data collected for 1,563 children aged 6 to 10 in the first three cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 to 2013)...
June 21, 2017: Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630258/realization-of-entry-to-practice-milestones-by-canadians-who-studied-medicine-abroad-and-other-international-medical-graduates-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Maria Mathews, Rima Kandar, Steve Slade, Yanqing Yi, Sue Beardall, Ivy Bourgeault
BACKGROUND: International medical graduates must realize a series of milestones to obtain full licensure. We examined the realization of milestones by Canadian and non-Canadian graduates of Western or Caribbean medical schools, and Canadian and non-Canadian graduates from other medical schools. METHODS: Using the National IMG Database (data available for 2005-2011), we created 2 cohorts: 1) international medical graduates who had passed the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I between 2005 and 2010 and 2) those who had first entered a family medicine postgraduate program between 2005 and 2009, or had first entered a specialty postgraduate program in 2005 or 2006...
June 19, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617234/the-sociopolitical-context-of-canada-s-national-standard-for-psychological-health-and-safety-in-the-workplace-navigating-policy-implementation
#14
Cindy Malachowski, Bonnie Kirsh, Ellen McEachen
In January 2013, Canada introduced the National Standard for Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace. This paper describes how the standard, which is the first of its kind internationally, came to be the instrument of choice within the current Canadian sociopolitical climate. A key consideration was that the policy tool had to be packaged in a manner that would be accessible and relevant across all workplaces and across all provinces and territories. This paper explores possibilities for future regulation of the standard...
May 2017: Healthcare Policy, Politiques de Santé
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614046/cancer-risk-factors-and-screening-in-first-nations-in-ontario
#15
Maegan V Mazereeuw, Alexander Yurkiewich, Sehar Jamal, Caroline Cawley, Carmen R Jones
INTRODUCTION: A lack of identifiers in health administrative databases limits our understanding of the cancer burden in First Nations. This study compares cancer risk factors and screening between First Nations in Ontario (on and off reserve) and non-Aboriginal Ontarians using two unique health surveys. METHODS: We measured age-standardized prevalence estimates using the First Nations Regional Health Survey (RHS) Phase 2, 2008/10 (for First Nations on reserve) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), 2007-2013 (for First Nations off reserve and non-Aboriginal Ontarians)...
June 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603148/-put-it-near-the-indians-indigenous-perspectives-on-pulp-mill-contaminants-in-their-traditional-territories-pictou-landing-first-nation-canada
#16
Heather Castleden, Ella Bennett, Pictou Landing Group, Diana Lewis, Debbie Martin
BACKGROUND: Pictou Landing First Nation (PLFN), a small Mi'kmaw community on the Canadian east coast, has had a relationship with a tidal estuary known as A'se'k for millennia. In the 1960s, it became the site of effluent disposal from a nearby pulp mill. Almost immediately, health concerns regularly and consistently reverberated throughout the community. OBJECTIVES: The Pictou Landing Native Women's Group (PLNWG) formed a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership with an academic team to conceptualize community well-being in the context of environment and human health connections...
2017: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554192/triple-therapy-versus-biologic-therapy-for-active-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#17
Nick Bansback, Ciaran S Phibbs, Huiying Sun, James R O'Dell, Mary Brophy, Edward C Keystone, Sarah Leatherman, Ted R Mikuls, Aslam H Anis
Background: The RACAT (Rheumatoid Arthritis Comparison of Active Therapies) trial found triple therapy to be noninferior to etanercept-methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of etanercept-methotrexate versus triple therapy as a first-line strategy. Design: A within-trial analysis based on the 353 participants in the RACAT trial and a lifetime analysis that extrapolated costs and outcomes by using a decision analytic cohort model...
July 4, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542394/incorporating-public-priorities-in-the-ocean-health-index-canada-as-a-case-study
#18
Rémi M Daigle, Philippe Archambault, Benjamin S Halpern, Julia S Stewart Lowndes, Isabelle M Côté
The Ocean Health Index (OHI) is a framework to assess ocean health by considering many benefits (called 'goals') provided by the ocean provides to humans, such as food provision, tourism opportunities, and coastal protection. The OHI framework can be used to assess marine areas at global or regional scales, but how various OHI goals should be weighted to reflect priorities at those scales remains unclear. In this study, we adapted the framework in two ways for application to Canada as a case study. First, we customized the OHI goals to create a national Canadian Ocean Health Index (COHI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528449/the-canadian-national-breast-screening-studies-are-compromised-and-their-results-are-unreliable-they-should-not-factor-into-decisions-about-breast-cancer-screening
#19
REVIEW
Daniel B Kopans
The Canadian National Breast Screening Studies were compromised by an unblinded allocation process and poor quality mammography. Contrary to the requirement that allocation in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) be blinded to avoid any possible intentional or unintentional subversion of a random allocation, all women in the CNBSS trials underwent a clinical breast examination prior to assignment to the study arm or the usual care arm. Women with abnormal clinical breast examinations were identified, and this information was available to the coordinators who then assigned the women on open lists...
May 20, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515192/study-protocol-for-a-transversal-study-to-develop-a-screening-model-for-excessive-gambling-behaviours-on-a-representative-sample-of-users-of-french-authorised-gambling-websites
#20
Bastien Perrot, Jean-Benoit Hardouin, Jean-Michel Costes, Julie Caillon, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
INTRODUCTION: Since the legalisation of online gambling in France in 2010, gambling operators must implement responsible gambling measures to prevent excessive gambling practices. However, actually there is no screening procedure for identifying problematic gamblers. Although several studies have already been performed using several data sets from online gambling operators, the authors deplored several methodological and clinical limits that prevent scientifically validating the existence of problematic gambling behaviour...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
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