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Catherine M Jones, Carole Clavier, Louise Potvin
National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science...
January 24, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Nicola Gale, George Dowswell, Sheila Greenfield, Tom Marshall
Public services are increasingly operating through network governance, requiring those at all levels of the system to build collaborations and adapt their practice. Agent-focused implementation theories, such as 'street-level bureaucracy', tend to focus on decision-making and the potential of actors to subvert national policy at a local level. While it is acknowledged that network leaders need to be adaptable and to build trust, much less consideration has been given to the requirement for skills of 'diplomacy' needed by those at the front line of delivering public services...
January 24, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
John Collins
BACKGROUND: Much international drug policy debate centres on, what policies are permissible under the international drug treaties, whether member states are openly 'breaching' these treaties by changing national regulatory frameworks and shifting priorities away from a 'war on drugs' approach, and what 'flexibility' exists for policy reform and experimentation at national and local levels. Orthodox interpretations hold that the current system is a US-led 'prohibition regime' that was constructed in an extremely repressive and restrictive manner with almost no flexibility for significant national deviations...
January 24, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Roberto N Nang, Keith Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Military Medicine
Stephen G Waller, Jane B Ward, Miguel A Montalvo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Military Medicine
Tommy Koh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
Stephen L Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
John Quinn, Vít Lidinský, Venu Rajaratnam, Marta Kruszcynski, Tomas Zeleny, Vladimir Bencko
BACKGROUND: Some university curricula struggle to present evidence-based promotion of global health principles and global health diplomacy within an undergraduate setting. The de facto global health paradigm has experienced significant stress and pressure from epidemics, war and violence, climate change and resource challenges. These stressors may lead to increased morbidity and mortality, in turn requiring medical professionals to play a larger role in global health action across borders...
2016: Globalization and Health
Ziad Memish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 25, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Erik Stokstad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 5, 2016: Science
Andrea Guidi
A turning point in European administrative and documentary practices was traditionally associated, most famously by Robert-Henri Bautier, with the monarchies of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. By summarizing previous research in this field, as well as by using both published and unpublished sources, this article intends to underline an earlier process of transition connected to the development of significant new techniques for the production and preservation of documents in Renaissance Italian city-states...
July 2016: European History Quarterly
Remco van de Pas, Linda Mans, Giulia de Ponte, Yoswa Dambisya
BACKGROUND: The relevance and effectiveness of the WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Personnel will be reviewed by the World Health Assembly in 2015. The origins of the Code of Practice and the global health diplomacy process before and after its adoption are analyzed herein. METHODS AND RESULTS: Case studies from the European and eastern and southern African regions describe in detail successes and failures of the policy implementation of the Code...
2016: Human Resources for Health
Theodore N Pappas, Sven Swanson
Harry Hopkins was the most important nontitled allied leader in World War II. He was the advisor to President Roosevelt who managed the diplomacy between Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin from 1941 to 1946. Throughout these times, Hopkins was ill and required transfusions, admissions to the hospital, and nutritional supplementation to keep him well enough to travel the world and manage the allied war diplomacy. There has been no unifying theory to account for all his symptoms and his reported pathologic and autopsy findings...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Fiona C Goldizen
BACKGROUND: Over the past decades global environmental change, globalization, urbanization, and the rise in movement of people have increased the risk for pandemic disease outbreaks. As environmental exposures do not respect state borders, a globalist concept of global health response has developed, which requires transparency and cooperation for coordinated responses to disease outbreaks. Countries that avoid cooperation on health issues for social or political reasons can endanger the global community...
January 2016: Annals of Global Health
Richard Smith, Rachel Irwin
Global health diplomacy (GHD) focuses on international negotiation; principally between nation states, but increasingly non-state actors However, agreements made at the global level have to be enacted at the national, and in some cases the sub-national level. This presents two related problems: (1) how can success be measured in global health diplomacy and (2) at what point should success be evaluated? This commentary highlights these issues through examining the relationship between India and the WHO Set of Recommendations on the Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages to Children, endorsed by Resolution WHA63...
2016: Globalization and Health
Sogol Setayesh, Tim K Mackey
BACKGROUND: The U.S Congress initiated sanctions against Iran after the 1979 U.S. Embassy hostage crisis in Tehran, and since then the scope of multilateral sanctions imposed by the United States, the European Union, and the United Nations Security Council have progressively expanded throughout the intervening years. Though primarily targeted at Iran's nuclear proliferation activities, sanctions have nevertheless resulted in negative public health outcomes for ordinary Iranian citizens...
2016: Globalization and Health
Nasim Sadat Hosseini Divkolaye, Mohammad Hadi Radfar, Fariba Seighali, Frederick M Burkle
OBJECTIVE: Health diplomacy has increasingly become a crucial element in forging political neutrality and conflict resolution and the World Health Organization has strongly encouraged its use. Global turmoil has heightened, especially in the Middle East, and with it, political, religious, and cultural differences have become major reasons to incite crises. METHODS: The authors cite the example of the human stampede and the deaths of over 2000 pilgrims during the 2015 annual Haj pilgrimage in Mecca...
May 27, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
T Lech
Historical parchments in the form of documents, manuscripts, books, or letters, make up a large portion of cultural heritage collections. Their priceless historical value is associated with not only their content, but also the information hidden in the DNA deposited on them. Analyses of ancient DNA (aDNA) retrieved from parchments can be used in various investigations, including, but not limited to, studying their authentication, tracing the development of the culture, diplomacy, and technology, as well as obtaining information on the usage and domestication of animals...
May 6, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Geoffrey Blumenthal
Argument The main thesis of this paper is that Copernicus's avoidance of all admission that scripture was contravened in De revolutionibus and his composition of its new Preface in 1542, as well as the non-publication of Rheticus's Treatise on Holy Scripture and the Motion of the Earth, were influenced by the early information they received on the failure of the 1541 Regensburg Protestant-Catholic colloquy, among the major consequences of which were significant increases in the problems concerning publishing works which contravened scripture...
June 2016: Science in Context
Quentin Trais Pearson
This article focuses on the historical confrontation between Western obstetrical medicine and indigenous midwifery in nineteenth-century Siam (Thailand). Beginning with the campaign of medical missionaries to reform Siamese obstetrical care, it explores the types of arguments that were employed in the contest between these two forms of expert knowledge. Missionary-physicians used their anatomical knowledge to contest both particular indigenous obstetrical practices and more generalized notions concerning its moral and metaphysical foundations...
2016: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
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