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Hib vaccine

Juliana Velasco, David A Montero, Miguel Guzmán
INTRODUCTION: Hypotonic-Hyporesponsive Episode (HHE) is an adverse event after vaccination, mainly associated with whole-cell pertussis vaccines. It is characterized by a sudden onset of muscle flaccidity, reduced response to stimuli and pallor or cyanosis. Although the HHE is infrequent, it is considered a severe adverse event. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of HHE following the administration of the whole-cell pertussis combination vaccine (DTwP-HB-Hib), which is included in National Im munization Program (PNI) of Chile, and to contributing to the knowledge of this adverse event in the country...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Toumi Sano, Tamaho Suzuki, Ayako Nishigori, Chiharu Miyatake, Shinya Koizumi, Kiyohiko Kaizu, Atsushi Fujita, Mitsuhiro Kamisago, Bin Chang, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Takeshi Asano
The introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has led to dramatic reductions in cases of invasive H. influenzae disease and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). After the introduction of the PCV7 and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), the number of children with IPD markedly decreased in our hospital. However, since 2015, three children with IPD have been admitted to our hospital. We analyzed the serotype, multilocus sequence type, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated in these newly diagnosed cases...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Abdul Momin Kazi, Murtaza Ali, Khurram Zubair, Hussain Kalimuddin, Abdul Nafey Kazi, Saleem Perwaiz Iqbal, Jean-Paul Collet, Syed Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Improved routine immunization (RI) coverage is recommended as the priority public health strategy to decrease vaccine-preventable diseases and eradicate polio in Pakistan and worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to ascertain whether customized, automated, one-way text messaging (short message service, SMS) reminders delivered to caregivers via mobile phones when a child is due for an RI visit can improve vaccination uptake and timelines in Pakistan...
March 7, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Alan de Lima Pereira, Rosamund Southgate, Hikmet Ahmed, Penelope O'Connor, Vanessa Cramond, Annick Lenglet
Introduction: In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015...
February 2, 2018: PLoS Currents
Heidi M Soeters, Amy Blain, Tracy Pondo, Brooke Doman, Monica M Farley, Lee H Harrison, Ruth Lynfield, Lisa Miller, Susan Petit, Arthur Reingold, William Schaffner, Ann Thomas, Shelley M Zansky, Xin Wang, Elizabeth C Briere
Background: Following Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine introduction in the 1980s, Hib disease in young children dramatically decreased and epidemiology of invasive H. influenzae changed. Methods: Active surveillance for invasive H. influenzae disease was conducted through Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites. Incidence rates were directly standardized to the age and race distribution of the US population. Results: During 2009-2015, the estimated mean annual incidence of invasive H...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Alicia Arnott, Penelope Jones, Lucinda J Franklin, Denis Spelman, Karin Leder, Allen C Cheng
Background: Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) is a serious complication of asplenia. Clinical guidelines recommend a number of measures to reduce the risk of OPSI, but awareness and adherence to preventative measures is generally poor. We aimed to determine whether a registry for asplenic/hyposplenic patients was associated with a reduction in the incidence of infection with encapsulated bacteria. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of asplenic/hyposplenic patients in the state of Victoria, Australia who registered with Spleen Australia from 2003 - 2014...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Yukihiro Akeda, Yuka Koizumi, Yohei Takanami, Shuji Sumino, Yumi Hattori, Kayoko Sugizaki, Nodoka Mitsuya, Kazunori Oishi
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines have drastically reduced disease incidence worldwide. Protection against Hib infection has relied on the serum bactericidal activity (SBA) of antibodies to the Hib capsular polysaccharide (polyribosylribitol phosphate). However, licensure usually relies on measuring induction of antibodies to PRP as a surrogate for SBA. In a phase III clinical trial we compared a PRP-conjugate vaccine using the nontoxic diphtheria toxin mutant, CRM197 , as carrier protein with the licensed tetanus toxoid conjugate when administered subcutaneously as a three dose primary series in Japanese infants...
February 16, 2018: Vaccine
Affan Shoukat, Robert Van Exan, Seyed M Moghadas
The preceding decade has witnessed the emergence of severe community-acquired acute infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia), with alarming incidence rates in North America, particularly among indigenous populations. The remarkable success of Hib conjugate vaccine over the past 20 years signify the development of an Hia vaccine candidate as a prevention measure to reduce the incidence of invasive Hia disease. However, quantifications of the long-term epidemiologic and economic impacts of vaccination are needed to inform decision on investment in Hia vaccine development and immunization programs...
February 16, 2018: Vaccine
Desiree Witte, Nigel A Cunliffe, Ann M Turner, Edward Ngulube, Opokua Ofori-Anyinam, Johan Vekemans, Philips Chimpeni, Marc Lievens, Trevor P Wilson, Jenala Njiramʼmadzi, Yolanda Guerra Mendoza, Amanda Leach
BACKGROUND: In a phase III trial, the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine produced lower anti-circumsporozoite (CS) antibody titres when co-administered with Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccines (0,1,2-month schedule) at 6-12 weeks compared to 5-17 months at first vaccination. Alternative infant immunisation schedules within the EPI were investigated. METHODS: This phase II, open, single site (Blantyre, Malawi) trial was conducted in infants aged 1-7 days. Subjects were equally randomised across seven groups to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS01E at time points that included ≤7 days, 6, 10, 14, 26 weeks, and 9 months...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Chandrika Verma, M M A Faridi, Manish Narang, Iqbal R Kaur
OBJECTIVE: To compare anti HBs titers between term low birth weight (1800-2499 g) infants and normal birth weight infants, 6 weeks after last dose of primary immunization with pentavalent vaccine, and to study adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with pentavalent vaccine. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary-care hospital predominantly catering to urban poor population of East Delhi. PARTICIPANTS: 265 low birth weight (1800-2499 g) and 265 normal birth weight (2500-4000 g) infants Monovalent Hepatitis B vaccine was administered within 24 hours of birth followed by three primary doses of pentavalent vaccine at 6, 10 and 14 weeks...
February 9, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Kumanan Wilson, Daniel R Duque, Malia Sq Murphy, Steven Hawken, Anne Pham-Huy, Jeffrey Kwong, Shelley L Deeks, Beth K Potter, Natasha S Crowcroft, Dennis E Bulman, Pranesh Chakraborty, Julian Little
T-cell receptor excision circle levels are a surrogate marker of T-cell production and immune system function. We sought to determine whether non-pathological infant T-cell receptor excision circle levels were associated with adverse events following immunization. A self-controlled case series design was applied on a sample of 231,693 children who completed newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency in Ontario, Canada between August 2013 and December 2015. Exposures included routinely administered pediatric vaccines up to 15 months of age...
February 8, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Indu Malhotra, A Desiree LaBeaud, Nathan Morris, Maxim McKibben, Peter Mungai, Eric Muchiri, Christopher L King, Charles H King
Background: Antenatal exposure to parasites can affect infants' subsequent responses to vaccination. The present study investigated how maternal prenatal infections and newborns' anti-parasite cytokine profiles relate to IgG responses to standard vaccination during infancy. Methods: 450 Kenyan women were tested for parasitic infections during pregnancy. Their newborns' responses to malaria, schistosome, and filaria antigens were assessed in cord blood (CB) lymphocytes...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Assemien Boa, Alfred Douba, Tah Bi N Guessan, Hervé Menan, Alain Attia, Thimothée Ouassa, Joseph Bi Vroh Bénié, Armand Abokon, Mireille Dosso, Paul Aholi, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Raphaël Yao Abauleth, Emmanuel Bissagnéné, Joseph Aka, Jean Claude Yavo, Bonny Jean Sylvain, Germaine Siguifota Ouattara, Daniel Kouadio Ekra, Kadidia Sow, Jules N Guessan Kouassi, Eric Martial Kouakou Ahoussou, Raphaël Kalet Dally
The Côte d'Ivoire National Immunization Technical Advisory Group 2015 work plan included elaboration of an opinion on inclusion of hepatitis B vaccination at birth in the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Côte d'Ivoire. A task force was set up to conduct this assessment according to a systematized method. The task force analysed scientific articles on the burden of hepatitis B in Côte d'Ivoire, the burden of mother-child transmission, the impact of hepatitis B vaccination at birth in countries which have adopted this strategy, the efficacy and safety of hepatitis B vaccine in newborns, the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination at birth, and the best strategy to introduce hepatitis B vaccination at birth in the EPI...
December 5, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Jing Tang, Ying Zhang, Xiaolong Zhang, Yun Liao, Yongrong Wang, Shengjie Ouyang, Yanchun Che, Miao Xu, Jing Pu, Qi Shen, Zhanlong He, Qiang Ye, Qihan Li
BACKGROUND: The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine has been widely used in children to prevent invasive Hib disease because of its strong immunogenicity and antibody response induction relative to the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigen. The data from vaccine studies suggest that the conjugate vaccine contains carrier proteins that enhance and/or regulate the antigen's immunogenicity, but the mechanism of this enhancement remains unclear. METHODS: To explore the immunological role of the conjugate vaccine, we compared the immune responses and gene profiles of rhesus macaques after immunization with CPS, carrier protein tetanus toxoid (TT) or conjugate vaccine...
January 25, 2018: BMC Immunology
Felix Omeñaca, Liliana Vázquez, Pilar Garcia-Corbeira, Narcisa Mesaros, Linda Hanssens, Jan Dolhain, Ivonne Puente Gómez, Johannes Liese, Markus Knuf
BACKGROUND: Infants with history of prematurity (<37 weeks gestation) and low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) are at high risk of infection due to functional immaturity of normal physical and immunological defense mechanisms. Despite current recommendations that infants with history of prematurity/LBW should receive routine immunization according to the same schedule and chronological age as full-term infants, immunization is often delayed. METHODS: Here we summarize 10 clinical studies and 15 years of post-marketing safety surveillance of GSK's hexavalent vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-B-inactivated-poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae-type-b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, when administered alone, or co-administered with pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, and meningococcal vaccines and respiratory syncytial virus IgG to infants with history of prematurity/LBW in clinical trials...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
William A Prescott, Kelsey C Violanti, Nicholas M Fusco
INTRODUCTION: New York state requires day/summer camps to keep immunization records for all enrolled campers and strongly recommends requiring vaccination for all campers and staff. The objective of this study was to characterize immunization requirements/recommendations for children/adolescents enrolled in and staff employed at day/summer camps in New York state. METHODS: An electronic hyperlink to a 9-question survey instrument was distributed via e-mail to 178 day/summer camps located in New York state cities with a population size greater than 100 000 people...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
David Moreno-Pérez, Francisco José Álvarez García, Javier Álvarez Aldeán, María José Cilleruelo Ortega, María Garcés Sánchez, Nuria García Sánchez, Ángel Hernández Merino, María Méndez Hernández, Manuel Merino Moína, Abián Montesdeoca Melián, Jesús Ruiz-Contreras
The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics annually publishes the immunisation schedule considered optimal for children resident in Spain, according to available evidence on current vaccines. Regarding funded immunisations, 2+1 strategy (2, 4, 11-12 months) with hexavalent (DTPa-IPV-Hib-HB) and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccines are recommended. Administration of the 6-year booster dose with DTPa is recommended, and a poliomyelitis dose for children who had received the 2+1 scheme, as well as Tdap vaccine for adolescents and pregnant women in every pregnancy between 27 and 32 weeks' gestation...
January 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Yan Li, Chenyan Yue, Yamin Wang, Xu Zhu, Kathryn Martin, Robert W Scherpbier, Jiechen Liu, Zhiguo Wang, Yujie Ma, Huijian Cheng, Zhenguo Zhang, Qing Wang, Hui Li, Shen Xie, Qiyou Xiao, Huaqing Wang, Zhijie An
Objective In China, Hib vaccine is a private-sector vaccine that is an option for parents to select to give to their children; it must be paid for out-of-pocket because it is not included in the government's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). We evaluated utilization patterns of Hib vaccine to provide evidence in support of development of a national Hib vaccination strategy. Methods We obtained lists of children from immunization information systems (IIS) of counties or districts in 8 provinces of China that had IISs that recorded Hib vaccine administration continuously for the study period...
January 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Sarah Collins, David Litt, Rachael Almond, Jamie Findlow, Ezra Linley, Mary Ramsay, Ray Borrow, Shamez Ladhani
INTRODUCTION: The introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the United Kingdom resulted in a rapid decline in invasive Hib disease across all age groups. However, a resurgence in 2000-2002 prompted the introduction of additional control measures, including a routine 12-month booster in 2006. Here we describe results from a national serosurvey in children eligible for the 12-month booster and recent Haemophilus influenzae epidemiology in England and Wales. METHODS: A national serosurvey was performed to determine the prevalence of anti-polyribosyl-phosphate (anti-PRP) IgG antibodies in 1000 residual samples from children up to 8 years of age in 2013-2014...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Infection
Khalequ Zaman, Sheikh Farzana Zaman, Farzana Zaman, Asma Aziz, Sayeed-Bin Faisal, Magali Traskine, Md Ahsan Habib, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Dorota Borys
BACKGROUND: To support vaccination programs in developing countries, a 4-dose vial presentation of pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was developed. This study assessed immunologic non-inferiority and safety of the investigational PHiD-CV 4-dose versus licensed 1-dose vial presentation in infants. METHODS: In this phase III, mono-center, observer-blind study in Bangladesh, 6-10-week-old infants were randomized 1:1 to receive PHiD-CV primary vaccination (at ages 6, 10, 18 weeks) and a booster dose (at age 9 months) with a 4-dose vial (with preservative, 4DV group) or 1-dose vial (preservative-free, 1DV group)...
January 29, 2018: Vaccine
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