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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344090/isolation-characterization-and-bioactivities-of-the-polysaccharides-from-dicliptera-chinensis-l-juss
#1
Yourui Xu, Ya Gao, Mingli Zhong, Jun Li, Houkang Cao, Simao Huang, Riming Wei, Kefeng Zhang
The polysaccharides of Dicliptera chinensis(L.) Juss. (DCP-1 and DCP-2) were extracted and isolated using the methods of water extract-ethanol precipitate and sephadex column chromatography and characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. The antioxidant activity of DCPs was evaluated by scavenging activity of DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and ABTS radical. Moreover, the anti-aging activity of DCP-2 was investigated using an aging model-induced by D-galactose (D-gal) in mice...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340576/polysaccharides-from-ganoderma-lucidum-attenuate-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation-and-modulate-microglial-phagocytosis-and-behavioural-response
#2
Qing Cai, Yuanyuan Li, Gang Pei
BACKGROUND: Ganoderma lucidum (GL) has been widely used in Asian countries for hundreds of years to promote health and longevity. The pharmacological functions of which had been classified, including the activation of innate immune responses, suppression of tumour and modulation of cell proliferations. Effective fractions of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) had already been reported to regulate the immune system. Nevertheless, the role of GLP in the microglia-mediated neuroinflammation has not been sufficiently elucidated...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337196/salmonella-typhi-porins-ompc-and-ompf-are-potent-adjuvants-for-t-dependent-and-t-independent-antigens
#3
Marisol Pérez-Toledo, Nuriban Valero-Pacheco, Rodolfo Pastelin-Palacios, Cristina Gil-Cruz, Christian Perez-Shibayama, Mario A Moreno-Eutimio, Ingeborg Becker, Sonia Mayra Pérez-Tapia, Lourdes Arriaga-Pizano, Adam F Cunningham, Armando Isibasi, Laura C Bonifaz, Constantino López-Macías
Several microbial components, such as bacterial DNA and flagellin, have been used as experimental vaccine adjuvants because of their inherent capacity to efficiently activate innate immune responses. Likewise, our previous work has shown that the major Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) outer membrane proteins OmpC and OmpF (porins) are highly immunogenic protective antigens that efficiently stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses in the absence of exogenous adjuvants. Moreover, S. Typhi porins induce the expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells through toll-like receptor canonical signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337182/new-insights-into-the-anti-pathogenic-potential-of-lactococcus-garvieae-against-staphylococcus-aureus-based-on-rna-sequencing-profiling
#4
Pierre Delpech, Etienne Rifa, Graham Ball, Sabine Nidelet, Emeric Dubois, Geneviève Gagne, Marie-Christine Montel, Céline Delbès, Stéphanie Bornes
The bio-preservation potential of Lactococcus garvieae lies in its capacity to inhibit the growth of staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus aureus, in dairy products and in vitro. In vitro, inhibition is modulated by the level of aeration, owing to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production by L. garvieae under aeration. The S. aureus response to this inhibition has already been studied. However, the molecular mechanisms of L. garvieae underlying the antagonism against S. aureus have never been explored. This study provides evidence of the presence of another extracellular inhibition effector in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332554/fucoidan-induces-toll-like-receptor-4-regulated-reactive-oxygen-species-and-promotes-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-apoptosis-in-lung-cancer
#5
Hsien-Yeh Hsu, Tung-Yi Lin, Mei-Kuang Lu, Pei-Ju Leng, Shu-Ming Tsao, Yu-Chung Wu
Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown algae, exhibits anti-cancer activity. However, the effects and mechanism of fucoidan-induced apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan prevents tumorigenesis and reduces tumor size in LLC1-xenograft male C57BL/6 mice. Fucoidan induces an ER stress response by activating the PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway, resulting in apoptotic cell death in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ATF4 knockdown abolishes fucoidan-induced CHOP expression and rescues cell viability...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325763/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-alginate-overproduction-promotes-coexistence-with-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-model-of-cystic-fibrosis-respiratory-infection
#6
Dominique H Limoli, Gregory B Whitfield, Tomoe Kitao, Melissa L Ivey, Michael R Davis, Nora Grahl, Deborah A Hogan, Laurence G Rahme, P Lynne Howell, George A O'Toole, Joanna B Goldberg
While complex intra- and interspecies microbial community dynamics are apparent during chronic infections and likely alter patient health outcomes, our understanding of these interactions is currently limited. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are often found to coinfect the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet these organisms compete under laboratory conditions. Recent observations that coinfection correlates with decreased health outcomes necessitate we develop a greater understanding of these interbacterial interactions...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325335/an-advance-for-removing-antinutritional-protease-inhibitors-soybean-whey-purification-of-bowman-birk-chymotrypsin-inhibitor-by-combination-of-two-oppositely-charged-polysaccharides
#7
Xingfei Li, Yufei Hua, Yeming Chen, Xiangzhen Kong, Caimeng Zhang, Xiaobin Yu
Two successive and selective coacervations induced by chitosan (Ch) and carrageenan (CG) were applied to remove antinutritional protease inhibitors and purify Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI) from soybean whey. At the first coacervation induced by Ch (66.7, 200, and 510kDa), only Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) and BBI complexed with Ch were extracted, while β-amylase and soybean agglutinin remained in supernatant. The binding constants for the interaction increased on the order Ch-66.7<Ch-200<Ch-510...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323051/anticancer-and-anti-angiogenic-activities-of-extract-from-actinidia-eriantha-benth-root
#8
Jian-Guo Wu, Li Ma, Shui-Hua Lin, Yan-Bin Wu, Jun Yi, Bin-Jun Yang, Jin-Zhong Wu, Ka-Hing Wong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The roots of Actinidia eriantha Benth (AER) are commonly used traditional folk medicine for the treatment of gastric carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and breast carcinoma. Besides, the anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory effects of AER polysaccharides on tumor-bearing mice have been reported previously. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work was carried out to investigate the anticancer and anti-angiogenic activities of AER. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The growth inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts from the leaves (EEL), stems (EES) and roots (EER) of A...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322946/characterizations-and-hepatoprotective-effect-of-polysaccharides-from-mori-fructus-in-rats-with-alcoholic-induced-liver-injury
#9
Xin Zhou, Qingfang Deng, Huaguo Chen, Enming Hu, Chao Zhao, Xiaojian Gong
Crude polysaccharides of Mori Fructus (MFPs) are found to have anti-inflammatory antioxidant, and immuno-enhancing activities. However, the structure of the polysaccharides was ambiguous and its holistic hepatic protection evaluation was defective. This study was conducted to illustrate the characterization of MFPs, and evaluate its hepatoprotective activities. The results found that MFPs contained 67.93±1.18% carbohydrates, 31.03±0.54% uronic acid, and little protein and sulfate. The average molecular weight was ranging from 112...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319748/modulation-of-vascular-function-and-anti-aggregation-effect-induced-by-1%C3%A2-3-1%C3%A2-6-%C3%AE-d-glucan-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-its-carboxymethylated-derivative-in-rats
#10
Lorena Soares Bezerra, Marciane Magnani, Raul Jorge Hernan Castro-Gomez, Hassler Clementino Cavalcante, Tays Amanda Felisberto da Silva, Renata Layne Paixão Vieira, Isac Almeida de Medeiros, Robson Cavalcante Veras
BACKGROUND: β-d-Glucans are polysaccharides found in the cell walls of yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and they have been studied because of their beneficial effects on health, mainly in terms of immunomodulation. However, information on the action of these polymers on vascular and platelet function is still scarce. This study evaluate the effect of (1→3) (1→6) β-d-glucan (βG-Sc) and its carboxymethylated derivative (CM-G) on vascular and platelet function in rats. METHODS: The animals received daily oral treatments with βG-Sc (20mg/kg) and CM-G (20mg/kg) for eight days...
January 12, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316571/anti-cancerous-potential-of-polysaccharide-fractions-extracted-from-peony-seed-dreg-on-various-human-cancer-cell-lines-via-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis
#11
Fang Zhang, Jun-Jun Shi, Kiran Thakur, Fei Hu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Zhao-Jun Wei
In this study, four homo/heterogenous polysaccharides (HBSS, CHSS, DASS, and CASS) extracted from peony seed dreg with respective molecular weights of 3467, 4677, 229, and 56 kDa were evaluated for anti-cancerous attributes in prostate cancer cells (Pc-3), colon cancer cells (HCT-116), human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), cervical cancer (Hela cells) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells as control. Among them, CASS and DASS extracted by alkali, consisted of 34.43% Gal, 26.39% Ara, 21.80% Glc and 35...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303957/astragalus-polysaccharides-exerts-immunomodulatory-effects-via-tlr4-mediated-myd88-dependent-signaling-pathway-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Lijing Zhou, Zijing Liu, Zhixue Wang, Shuang Yu, Tingting Long, Xing Zhou, Yixi Bao
Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), which is widely used as a remedy to promote immunity of breast cancer patients, can enhance immune responses and exert anti-tumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of APS on macrophage RAW 264.7 and EAC tumor-bearing mice. Griess reaction and ELISA assays revealed that the concentrations of nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were increased by APS. However, this effect was diminished in the presence of TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) or ST-2825(MyD88 inhibitor)...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302673/pneumococcal-vaccine-response-after-exposure-to-parasites-in-utero-in-infancy-or-mid-childhood
#13
Monica Nayakwadi Singer, Claire Heath, Jackson Muinde, Virginia Gildengorin, Francis M Mutuku, David Vu, Dunstan Mukoko, Christopher L King, Indu J Malhotra, Charles H King, A Desirée LaBeaud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of mortality before age 5, but few studies examine details of childhood response to pneumococcal vaccine in less-developed settings. Although malnutrition, HIV, and concurrent infections can impair response, evidence suggests that chronic parasitic infections can also contribute to poor vaccination results. The objective of this study was to determine whether response to pneumococcal vaccine varied among children either exposed to parasitic infections in utero, previously infected in infancy, or infected at the time of immunization...
March 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301985/a-review-on-phytochemical-and-pharmacological-properties-of-litsea-coreana
#14
Xuejing Jia, Peng Li, Jianbo Wan, Chengwei He
CONTEXT: Litsea coreana H. Lév. (Lauraceae) is used as an ethnic herb or beverage in China. Substantial studies indicate that it contains a variety of compounds and shows diverse bioactivities with no toxicity. OBJECTIVE: This review analyzes and summarizes the ethnopharmacological applications, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities and molecular mechanisms of L. coreana. METHODS: Related literature (from 1998 to 2016) was obtained and compiled via searching databases including Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI and PubMed...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301605/ocf-can-repress-tumor-metastasis-by-inhibiting-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-involved-in-pten-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-lung-cancer-cells
#15
Ye Yang, Shuang Qiu, Lei Qian, Yuan Tian, Yingna Chen, Lei Bi, Weiping Chen
A component formula with definite compositions provides a new approach to treat various diseases. Salvia miltiorrhiza and Panax ginseng are widely used in China because of their antitumor properties. In the previous study, the optimizing component formula (OCF), prepared with salvianolic acids, ginsenosides, and ginseng polysaccharides (5, 10, and 5 mg·L-1, respectively) extracted from S. miltiorrhiza and P. ginseng on the basis of IC50 in lung cancer A549 cells and damage minimization on human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293868/engineering-s-equi-subsp-zooepidemicus-towards-concurrent-production-of-hyaluronic-acid-and-chondroitin-biopolymers-of-biomedical-interest
#16
Donatella Cimini, Ileana Dello Iacono, Elisabetta Carlino, Rosario Finamore, Odile F Restaino, Paola Diana, Emiliano Bedini, Chiara Schiraldi
Glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate, are not only more and more required as main ingredients in cosmeceutical and nutraceutical preparations, but also as active principles in medical devices and pharmaceutical products. However, while biotechnological production of hyaluronic acid is industrially established through fermentation of Streptococcus spp. and recently Bacillus subtilis, biotechnological chondroitin is not yet on the market. A non-hemolytic and hyaluronidase negative S...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292980/streptococcus-pneumoniae-transmission-is-blocked-by-type-specific-immunity-in-an-infant-mouse-model
#17
Tonia Zangari, Yang Wang, Jeffrey N Weiser
Epidemiological studies on Streptococcus pneumoniae show that rates of carriage are highest in early childhood and that the major benefit of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is a reduction in the incidence of nasopharyngeal colonization through decreased transmission within a population. In this study, we sought to understand how anti-S. pneumoniae immunity affects nasal shedding of bacteria, the limiting step in experimental pneumococcal transmission. Using an infant mouse model, we examined the role of immunity (passed from mother to pup) on shedding and within-litter transmission of S...
March 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288168/a-novel-flow-cytometry-based-assay-for-the-quantification-of-antibody-dependent-pneumococcal-agglutination
#18
Marrit N Habets, Saskia van Selm, Christa E van der Gaast-de Jongh, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Marien I de Jonge
The respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of diseases such as otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. The first step towards infection is colonization of the nasopharynx. Recently, it was shown that agglutinating antibodies play an important role in the prevention of mucosal colonization with S. pneumoniae. Here, we present a novel method to quantify antibody-dependent pneumococcal agglutination in a high-throughput manner using flow cytometry. We found that the concentration of agglutinating antibodies against pneumococcal capsule are directly correlated with changes in the size and complexity of bacterial aggregates, as measured by flow cytometry and confirmed by light microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287405/t-cells-control-the-generation-of-nanomolar-affinity-anti-glycan-antibodies
#19
Zinaida Polonskaya, Shenglou Deng, Anita Sarkar, Lisa Kain, Marta Comellas-Aragones, Craig S McKay, Katarzyna Kaczanowska, Marie Holt, Ryan McBride, Valle Palomo, Kevin M Self, Seth Taylor, Adriana Irimia, Sanjay R Mehta, Jennifer M Dan, Matthew Brigger, Shane Crotty, Stephen P Schoenberger, James C Paulson, Ian A Wilson, Paul B Savage, M G Finn, Luc Teyton
Vaccines targeting glycan structures at the surface of pathogenic microbes must overcome the inherent T cell-independent nature of immune responses against glycans. Carbohydrate conjugate vaccines achieve this by coupling bacterial polysaccharides to a carrier protein that recruits heterologous CD4 T cells to help B cell maturation. Yet they most often produce low- to medium-affinity immune responses of limited duration in immunologically fit individuals and disappointing results in the elderly and immunocompromised patients...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287165/taishan-pinus-massoniana-pollen-polysaccharide-inhibits-subgroup-j-avian-leucosis-virus-infection-by-directly-blocking-virus-infection-and-improving-immunity
#20
Cuilian Yu, Kai Wei, Liping Liu, Shifa Yang, Liping Hu, Peng Zhao, Xiuyan Meng, Mingxu Shao, Chuanwen Wang, Lijun Zhu, Hao Zhang, Yang Li, Ruiliang Zhu
Subgroup J avian leucosis virus (ALV-J) generally causes neoplastic diseases, immunosuppression and subsequently increases susceptibility to secondary infection in birds. The spread of ALV-J mainly depends on congenital infection and horizontal contact. Although ALV-J infection causes enormous losses yearly in the poultry industry worldwide, effective measures to control ALV-J remain lacking. In this study, we demonstrated that Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), a natural polysaccharide extracted from Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen, can significantly inhibit ALV-J replication in vitro by blocking viral adsorption to host cells...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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