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Anti polysaccharide

Nianwu He, Lingmin Tian, Xichuan Zhai, Xiaowen Zhang, Yan Zhao
This study was designed to investigate the chemical characterization and bioactivity of the Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat polysaccharides (TLP). The crude TLP was fractionated into two fractions, namely TLP-1 and TLP-2 with Cellulose DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-150. HPLC and FT-IR analysis showed that TLP-1 and TLP-2 were heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of glucose with the average molecular weights of 443.19 kDa and 388.83 kDa, respectively. TLP-1 from water elution possessed of higher reducing power and scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical than TLP-2 eluted by 0...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Elisa Dos Santos Pereira, Juliana Vinholes, Rodrigo C Franzon, Gabriel Dalmazo, Márcia Vizzotto, Leonardo Nora
Psidium cattleianum Sabine, commonly known as araçá, is a Brazilian native fruit, which is very juicy, with sweet to sub acid pulp and a spicy touch. The fruit can be eaten fresh or processed into juice, jellies and ice creams. Araçás are source of vitamin C, minerals, fatty acids, polysaccharides, volatile compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, which can provide nutrients and phytochemical agents with different biological functions. Different pharmacological studies demonstrate that P. cattleianum exerts antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antiaging effects...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Xiong Wang, Fang Liu, Yuan Gao, Chang-Hu Xue, R W Li, Qing-Juan Tang
Human obesity and overweight, caused by accumulated of fat, is the most commonly phenomenon from all over the world, especially in Western countries and Chinese mainland during the past three decades. Sodium Alginate, a polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, has been proved its strong ability on body weight loss and anti-inflammatory response. However, no studies have been explored the effects of Sodium Alginate on colonic transcriptome, especially in obese individuals. Therefore, the current study was designed to detect whether Sodium Alginate could remit obesity and ease chronic metabolism disease through strengthening the bio-functionality of the lower intestine, particularly in colon...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Cong Zhang, Hongman Chen, Weiqi Bai
A polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 13,029 Da was isolated from Momordica charantia (MCP) fruit and purified by ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The isolated polysaccharide MCPIIa contained L-Rha, D-GalA, D-Gal, D-Xyl, L-Ara in a molar ratio of 12:3.05:19.89:5.95:56. IR spectrum and NMR studies indicated that the MCPIIa sugar units were linked, via β-glycosidic bonds, to a large number of arabinofuranose, glucuronic acid, and xylopyranosyl residues. In addition, the hypoglycemic effect of MCPIIa was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Gangliang Huang, Hualiang Huang
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural polysaccharide with good biocompatibility and degradability. HA and its derivatives can be used as sustained-release carriers for drugs, which can delay the release of drugs and have a long-acting effect. They can be used for the delivery of various drugs such as proteins, nucleic acids and anti-tumor drugs. HA and its derivatives can specifically bind to multiple receptors on the cell surface and can be used for targeted drug delivery, especially for the delivery of anti-tumor drugs...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Eui-Baek Byun, Eun-Ji Cho, Yi-Eun Kim, Woo Sik Kim, Eui-Hong Byun
This study was carried out to evaluate the neuroprotective activity of polysaccharide extracts isolated from Perilla frutescens (PEPF) in H2 O2 -treated HT22 hippocampus cells. The PEPF treatment was found to increase the anti-oxidant activities of HT22 hippocampus cells. PEPF treatment resulted in a significant protection of HT22 hippocampus cells against H2 O2 -induced neurotoxicity, this protection ultimately occurred through an inhibition of ROS-mediated intracellular Ca2+ levels leading to MAPKs and NF-κB, as well as the accumulation of PI3K/AKT and Nrf2-mediated HO-1/NQO1 pathways...
April 8, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Xiaolong Ji, Qiang Peng, Min Wang
Polysaccharides are an important class of functional phytochemicals, and various studies have demonstrated the beneficial pharmacological effects of polysaccharides, including against colorectal cancer and colitis. Numerous studies have shown that natural polysaccharides display anti-colon cancer activity through a variety of mechanisms. Our research group undertook a comprehensive review of the literature to summarize the studies reported in 2012-2017, and assessed the apoptogenic mechanisms of polysaccharide-rich extracts in colon cancer tumor cells...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yitao Yan, Yanfan Ren, Xinmin Li, Xinxia Zhang, Huiqing Guo, Yutong Han, Junxi Hu
Oxidative damage of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells is involved in the pathogenesis age related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of a purified green tea polysaccharide (GTWP) against hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells). Human ARPE-19 cells were treated with 1 h of 500 μM H2 O2 before incubation with GTWP for 24 h. Pretreatment of GTWP decreased H2 O2 -induced cell death and cell apoptosis, and efficiently suppressed the intracellular ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) generation induced by H2 O2 treatment...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kamrul Islam, Motaher Hossain, Meagan Kelly, Leslie M Mayo Smith, Richelle C Charles, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Pavol Kováč, Peng Xu, Regina C LaRocque, Stephen B Calderwood, Jakub K Simon, Wilbur H Chen, Douglas Haney, Michael Lock, Caroline E Lyon, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Mitchell Cohen, Myron M Levine, Marc Gurwith, Jason B Harris, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T Ryan
BACKGROUND: Cholera is an acute voluminous dehydrating diarrheal disease caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 and occasionally O139. A growing body of evidence indicates that immune responses targeting the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) of V. cholerae are involved in mediating protection against cholera. We therefore assessed whether antibody responses against OSP occur after vaccination with live attenuated oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR, and whether such responses correlate with protection against cholera...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jia-Feng Chen, Jian Guo, Tao Zhang, Zhi-Li Wan, Juan Yang, Xiao-Quan Yang
Slowing the digestion of starch is one of the dominant concerns in food industry. A colloidal structural modification strategy for solving this problem was proposed in this work. Due to thermodynamic incompatibility between two biopolymers, water/water emulsion of waxy corn starch (WCS) droplets dispersed in a continuous aqueous guar gum (GG) was prepared. And zein particles (ZPs), obtained by anti-solvent precipitation and pectin modification, were used as stabilizer. As the ratio of zein to pectin in the particles was 1:1, their wetting properties in the two polysaccharides were similar, which made them accumulate at the interface and cover the WCS-rich droplets...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Adriana Rute Cordeiro Caillot, Iglesias de Lacerda Bezerra, Laís Cristina Gusmão Ferreira Palhares, Arquimedes Paixão Santana-Filho, Suely Ferreira Chavante, Guilherme Lanzi Sassaki
Three polysaccharide fractions were isolated from blackberry wine. The crude extract BWPs was obtained with ethanol precipitation and freeze-thawing process, it was then submitted to Fehling treatment, giving soluble BWPFs and insoluble BWPFp fractions. These fractions were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Major polysaccharides were identified for each fraction: mannan, type II arabinogalactan and type I rhamnogalacturonan for BWPs, a mannan formed by a major chain of α-Manp(1 → 6)-linked units, O-2 substituted with α-d-Manp(1 → 2)-linked side chains for BWPFp and a AG II formed by a major chain of β-d-Galp(1 → 3)-linked, substituted at O-6 by side chains of the β-d-Galp(1 → 6)-linked, which then are substituted at O-3 by non-reducing units of α-l-Araf and a RG I, formed by [→4)-α-d-GalpA-(1 → 2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→]n for BWPFs...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Camille Danne, Fiona Powrie
A high density of microbes inhabits the intestine, helping with food digestion, vitamin synthesis, xenobiotic detoxification, pathogen resistance and immune system maturation. Crucial for human health, communities of commensal bacteria (collectively termed microbiota) benefit in return from a nutrient-rich environment. Host-microbiota mutualism results from a long-term co-adaptation. At barrier surfaces, immune cells distinguish harmful from commensal bacteria and tolerate non-self organisms at close proximity to the mucosa; gut inhabitants have developed strategies to ensure beneficial conditions in their preferred niche...
March 22, 2018: Microbial Cell
Keiichi Motoyama, Taishi Higashi, Maiko K Okajima, Tatsuo Kaneko, Hidetoshi Arima
 A wound dressing is one of the essential approaches to prevent further harm to cutaneous wounds as well as to promote wound healing. Therefore, to achieve ideal wound healing, the development of advanced dressing materials is necessary. Sacran, a novel megamolecular polysaccharide derived from the cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum, has a very high molecular weight that exceeds 107 g/mol and water-superabsorbent capacity. Recently, we demonstrated that sacran exerts anti-inflammatory activity by ameliorating the skin barrier function in patients with atopic dermatitis...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Hidetoshi Arima, Keiichi Motoyama, Taishi Higashi, Satoshi Fukushima, Hironobu Ihn
 Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease characterized by inflammation, pruritus, and eczematous lesions. Recently, sacran, a new polysaccharide isolated from cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum (Sur.) OKADA discovered by Suringar in the 19th century, has received considerable attention as a novel biomaterial. Previously, it was reported that sacran exhibits potent anti-inflammatory effects for skin diseases produced by various stimulants with optimum effective concentrations at 0.01% (w/v) and 0.05% (w/v) in rats and mice...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Tatsuo Kaneko, Maiko K Okajima
 Cyanobacteria fix carbon dioxide and nitrogen from the atmosphere using solar energy to produce various biomolecules, and thus are regarded as ultimately ecological microreactors. Sacran is a cyanobacterial polysaccharide with a very high molecular weight of 29 Mg/mol, which is extracted from Aphanothece sacrum cyanobacterium mass-cultivated in freshwater environments such as river or spring. Sacran is a water-soluble heteropolysaccharide comprising more than 6 kinds of sugar residues and contains 12% sulfate anionic groups and 27% carboxyls...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Avi Peretz, Limor Zabari, Nina Pastukh, Nir Avital, Segula Masaphy
We studied the anti-Leishmania activity of a fractionated extract from the mushroom Morchella importuna in an in vitro system. Leishmaniasis is an important infectious disease caused by a range of Leishmania species, which are multihost protozoa parasites transmitted to humans by the sand fly and infecting macrophages. Leishmaniasis is an increasing worldwide health problem, including in the Mediterranean basin. Current chemotherapy treatments are limited by their toxic effects, the need for long-term treatment, and the increasing development of resistance by the parasite cells...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Xin-Ping Pan, Zi-Li Xing, Wei-Guo Jia, Hao-Jun Zhang, Zi-Rong Yang
The present study compared active ingredients of tea from different sources to select tea type and the fraction of tea extracts for the highest anti-hyperglycemic activity, and to verify anti-hyperglycemic activity of the selected tea extract. Tea extracts were separated and enriched by molecular weight using ultra-filtration technology. The extracts were first screened by α -glucosidase inhibition assay, followed by using a rat inverted intestine sac system to measure the effect on glucose transport. Both alloxan-induced diabetic rat model and high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin-induced rat diabetes mellitus model were used to study the effects of active components on blood glucose, body weight, insulin resistance...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Huanhuan Xu, Dan Yin, Titi Liu, Fei Chen, Yingli Chen, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tea drinking has positive effects on bone health and may prevent and treat osteoporosis, especially in older and postmenopausal women. Tea polysaccharide (TPS) is a major bioactive constituent in tea. Despite its profound effects on human health, whether TPS has anti-osteoporotic effects remains largely unknown. As such, we investigated the anti-osteoporotic effects of TPS. METHODS: In vitro, TPS effects on osteoclastogenesis were examined using osteoclast precursor RAW264...
March 24, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ji-Chun Ge, Xue-Qiang Zha, Chun-Yan Nie, Nian-Jun Yu, Qiang-Ming Li, Dai-Yin Peng, Jun Duan, Li-Hua Pan, Jian-Ping Luo
The present work investigated the inhibitory activity of the polysaccharide from cultivated Dendrobium huoshanense (cDHP) on lung inflammation in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced mouse model. cDHP was mainly composed of mannose and glucose in a molar ratio of 1.89: 1.00, and had a backbone with linkages of 1,4-Manp, 1,4-Glcp, 1,4,6-Manp and 1-Glcp. Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that cDHP can increase alveolar number, thicken alveolar wall, inhibit pulmonary bulla formation and decrease inflammatory cell infiltration as compared to the model group...
June 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Geferson de Almeida Gonçalves, Anacharis B de Sá-Nakanishi, Jurandir F Comar, Lívia Bracht, Maria Inês Dias, Lillian Barros, Rosane M Peralta, Isabel C F R Ferreira, Adelar Bracht
Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties have been attributed to constituents of Rosmarinus officinalis. Considering the inflammatory nature of arthritis and the oxidative stress induced by the disease, this work aimed to investigate if R. officinalis is able to attenuate oxidative and inflammatory injuries caused by the disease. Rats with complete Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis were used. An aqueous extract of the rosemary leaves was administered orally. The parameters related to oxidative stress were measured in the liver, brain and plasma...
March 26, 2018: Food & Function
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