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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729019/safety-reactogenicity-and-immunogenicity-of-two-investigational-pneumococcal-protein-based-vaccines-results-from-a-randomized-phase-ii-study-in-infants
#1
Roman Prymula, Leszek Szenborn, Sven-Arne Silfverdal, Jacek Wysocki, Piotr Albrecht, Magali Traskine, Asparuh Gardev, Yue Song, Dorota Borys
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination with formulations containing pneumococcal protein antigens such as pneumolysin toxoid (dPly) and histidine-triad protein D (PhtD) may extend serotype-related protection of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: This phase II, multi-center, observer-blind trial conducted in Europe (NCT01204658) assessed 2 investigational vaccines containing 10 serotype-specific polysaccharide conjugates of PHiD-CV and either 10 or 30µg of dPly and PhtD each...
July 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726737/respiratory-tract-infections-and-the-role-of-biologically-active-polysaccharides-in-their-management-and-prevention
#2
REVIEW
Milos Jesenak, Ingrid Urbancikova, Peter Banovcin
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common form of infections in every age category. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs), a specific form of RTIs, represent a typical and common problem associated with early childhood, causing high indirect and direct costs on the healthcare system. They are usually the consequence of immature immunity in children and high exposure to various respiratory pathogens. Their rational management should aim at excluding other severe chronic diseases associated with increased morbidity (e...
July 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724524/assignment-of-weight-based-antibody-units-for-four-additional-serotypes-to-a-human-anti-pneumococcal-standard-reference-serum-007sp
#3
D Goldblatt, A McKeen, P Burbidge, S McElhiney, L McLaughlin, A Johnson, M Rauh, P C Giardina
The pneumococcal ELISA reference standard serum, Lot 89SF, has been in use since 1990 and was replaced with a new reference standard serum, 007sp in 2013. This serum was generated under an FDA-approved clinical protocol, where 278 adult volunteers were immunized with the 23-valent unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine, Pneumovax II®, and a unit of blood was obtained twice within 120 days following immunization. Pooled serum was prepared from the plasma, filled at 6ml per vial and lyophilised. Five independent laboratories participated in bridging the serotype specific IgG assignments for 89SF to 007sp to establish equivalent reference values for 13 pneumococcal capsular serotypes (1,3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, 23F) using the WHO reference ELISA...
July 19, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716753/the-structure-activity-relationship-between-polysaccharides-from-sargassum-thunbergii-and-anti-tumor-activity
#4
Weihua Jin, Wenjing Zhang, Ge Liu, Jianting Yao, Tifeng Shan, Chaomin Sun, Quanbin Zhang
Polysaccharides derived from Sargassum thunbergii were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationship between polysaccharides and anti-tumor activity in vitro. Many factors were examined. Overall, STW (polysaccharide extracted by hot water) had the best activity, followed by STJ (polysaccharide extracted by dilute alkali), and then STA (polysaccharide extracted by dilute acid). Location of algae had no effect at 500μg/mL and 1000μg/mL, while STW-QD (algae collected from Qingdao, China) had the best activity, followed by STW-WZ (algae collected from Wenzhou, China) and STW-LJ (algae collected from Lianjiang, China) and then STW-DL (algae collected from Dalian, China) and STW-RC (algae collected from Rongcheng, China) at 250μg/mL...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716751/rehmannia-glutinosa-polysaccharide-induced-an-anti-cancer-effect-by-activating-natural-killer-cells
#5
Li Xu, Wei Zhang, Ling Zeng, Jun-O Jin
Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharide (RGP) has exhibited an immune stimulatory effect, such as dendritic cell activation, but it has not been studied in terms of the activation capacity of natural killer (NK) cells in mice in vivo. In this study, we examined the effect of RGP on the proliferation and activation of NK cells in the spleen, mesenteric lymph node (mLN), and blood in vivo and compared that function with that of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. The administration of RGP to C57BL/6 mice induced the increase in circulating blood NK cell numbers and in the proliferation of NK cells in the spleen, mLN, and blood...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715446/active-subfractions-of-abelmoschus-esculentus-substantially-prevent-free-fatty-acid-induced-%C3%AE-cell-apoptosis-via-inhibiting-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4
#6
Chien-Ning Huang, Chau-Jong Wang, Yi-Ju Lee, Chiung-Huei Peng
Lipotoxicity plays an important role in exacerbating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and leads to apoptosis of β cells. Recently dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have emerged as a useful tool in the treatment of T2DM. DPP-4 degrades type 1 glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling has been shown to protect β cells by modulating AMPK/mTOR, PI3K, and Bax. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of Abelmoschus esculentus (AE) is well known, however its mucilage makes it difficult to further examine this effect...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714901/selenium-containing-polysaccharide-protein-complex-in-se-enriched-ulva-fasciata-induces-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-in-a549-human-lung-cancer-cells
#7
Xian Sun, Yu Zhong, Hongtian Luo, Yufeng Yang
The role of selenium (Se) and Ulva fasciata as potent cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents has been supported by epidemiological, preclinical, and clinical studies. In this study, Se-containing polysaccharide-protein complex (Se-PPC), a novel organoselenium compound, a Se-containing polysaccharide-protein complex in Se-enriched Ulva fasciata, is a potent anti-proliferative agent against human lung cancer A549 cells. Se-PPC markedly inhibited the growth of cancer cells via induction of apoptosis which was accompanied by the formation of apoptotic bodies, an increase in the population of apoptotic sub-G1 phase cells, upregulation of p53, and activation of caspase-3 in A549 cells...
July 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709897/a-polysaccharide-pnpa-from-pleurotus-nebrodensis-ameliorates-hepatic-ischemic-reperfusion-i-r-injury-in-rats
#8
Jun Wang, Bingju Yan
The effects of a polysaccharide (PNPA) from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus nebrodensis on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats were explored. Severe liver injury was shown in rats following I/R with high content of serum AST and ALT, as evidenced by histological examination, whereas less damage was noted after PNPA treatment compared to rats in the I/R group. Also, pre-treatment with PNPA (400mg/kg) could reduce the level of MDA in liver tissue and increase the activity of ROS scavengers (T-AOC, SOD, CAT, GSH-PX), Nitric oxide synthase (T-NOS and iNOS), and GSH...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695776/chemical-characterization-and-determination-of-the-anti-oxidant-capacity-of-two-brown-algae-with-respect-to-sampling-season-and-morphological-structures-using-infrared-spectroscopy-and-multivariate-analyses
#9
Angelo Beratto, Cristian Agurto, Juanita Freer, Carlos Peña-Farfal, Nicolás Troncoso, Andrés Agurto, Rosario Del P Castillo
Brown algae biomass has been shown to be a highly important industrial source for the production of alginates and different nutraceutical products. The characterization of this biomass is necessary in order to allocate its use to specific applications according to the chemical and biological characteristics of this highly variable resource. The methods commonly used for algae characterization require a long time for the analysis and rigorous pretreatments of samples. In this work, nondestructive and fast analyses of different morphological structures from Lessonia spicata and Macrocystis pyrifera, which were collected during different seasons, were performed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques in combination with chemometric methods...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690171/a-fucoidan-fraction-purified-from-chnoospora-minima-a-potential-inhibitor-of-lps-induced-inflammatory-responses
#10
I P Shanura Fernando, K K Asanka Sanjeewa, Kalpa W Samarakoon, Won Woo Lee, Hyun-Soo Kim, Nalae Kang, P Ranasinghe, Hyi-Seung Lee, You-Jin Jeon
Fucoidans are an interesting group of bioactive sulfated polysaccharides abundant in brown seaweeds. The current study highlights the enrichment and extraction of fucoidan from Chnoospora minima by means of enzyme-assistant extraction using Celluclast and evaluation of its anti-inflammatory potential through in vitro and in vivo studies. The purified C. minima fucoidan (F2,4) inhibited the nitrous oxide (NO) production (IC50=27.82±0.88μg/ml) and expression of PGE2 through the subsequent downregulation of iNOS and COX-2 expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688943/antioxidative-anti-inflammation-and-lung-protective-effects-of-mycelia-selenium-polysaccharides-from-oudemansiella-radicata
#11
Zheng Gao, Juan Li, Xinling Song, Jianjun Zhang, Xiuxiu Wang, Huijuan Jing, Zhenzhen Ren, Shangshang Li, Chen Zhang, Le Jia
The present work was designed to investigated the antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and pulmonary protective effects of SMPS and MPS from Oudemansiella radicata on LPS-induced lung injured mice. The results demonstrated that SMPS showed potential effects on relieving lung injury and preventing oxidative stress, reflecting by decreasing the serum levels of C3, CRP and GGT, increasing the pulmonary activities of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and T-AOC, as well as down-regulating the MDA and LPO contents, respectively. Furthermore, the levels of TNF-α (224...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687645/deficiency-of-rgpg-causes-major-defects-in-cell-division-and-biofilm-formation-and-deficiency-of-lcp-proteins-leads-to-accumulation-of-cell-wall-antigens-in-culture-medium-by-streptococcus-mutans
#12
Arpan De, Sumei Liao, Jacob P Bitoun, Randy Roth, Wandy L Beatty, Hui Wu, Zezhang T Wen
S. mutans is known to possess rhamnose-glucose polysaccharides (RGP), a major cell wall antigen. S. mutans strains deficient of rgpG, encoding the first enzyme of the RGP biosynthesis pathway, were constructed by allelic exchange. The rgpG deficiency had no effect on growth rate, but caused major defects in cell division and altered cell morphology. Unlike the coccoid wild-type, the rgpG mutant existed primarily in chains of swollen, squarish dividing cells. Deficiency of rgpG also causes significant reduction in biofilm formation (P<0...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685685/hemicellulose-from-plant-biomass-in-medical-and-pharmaceutical-application-a-critical-review
#13
Xinxin Liu, Qixuan Lin, Yuhuan Yan, Fenf Peng, Runcang Sung, Junli Ren
Hemicellulose is the second most abundant plant polysaccharides after cellulose. Due to the non-toxicity, abundance and biodegradability, recently more and more attention has been focused on the exploration of hemicellulose as the potential substrate for the production of liquid fuels and other value-added chemicals and materials in different fields. Especially in the pharmaceutical and medical field, hemicellulose currently has aroused growing concern in immune regulation, bacteria inhibition, drug release, anti-caries, scaffold materials and anti-tumor because of its unique special physiological characteristics including biocompatibility, inhibiting cell mutation and anti-cancer effect, etc...
July 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685098/designed-%C3%AE-sheet-peptides-suppress-amyloid-formation-in-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms
#14
Alissa Bleem, Robyn Francisco, James D Bryers, Valerie Daggett
Nosocomial infections affect hundreds of millions of patients worldwide each year, and ~60% of these infections are associated with biofilm formation on an implanted medical device. Biofilms are dense communities of microorganisms in which cells associate with surfaces and each other using a self-produced extracellular matrix composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and genetic material. Proteins in the extracellular matrix take on a variety of forms, but here we focus on functional amyloid structures. Amyloids have long been associated with protein misfolding and neurodegenerative diseases, but recent research has demonstrated that numerous bacterial species utilize the amyloid fold to fortify the biofilm matrix and resist disassembly...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684087/anti-arthritic-potential-of-marine-macroalgae-turbinaria-ornata-in-complete-freund-s-adjuvant-induced-rats
#15
S Ananthi, V Gayathri, R Malarvizhi, Meenakshi Bhardwaj, Hannah R Vasanthi
T. ornata a macroalgae rich in bioactive molecules possess various biological activities. Herein, the aim of the study is to evaluate the aqueous extract and the sulphated polysaccharide isolated from T. ornata for its anti-arthritic potential in Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in rats. Anti-arthritic potential of aqueous T. ornata (ATO) and T. ornata sulphated polysaccharide (TSP) was evidenced by the significant reduction in paw volume and arthritic score. Inflammatory and antioxidant markers were found to be restored in the drug treated groups which was found to be in line with dexamethasone a standard anti-inflammatory drug...
July 3, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676664/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-inhibitory-effects-of-polysaccharides-from-viscum-coloratum-kom-nakai-on-hepg2-cells
#16
Yangyang Chai, Min Zhao
Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai is one of active medicinal plants, and its active components, especially polysaccharides, have been shown to exhibit bioactivity. In this study, we examined the effects of three polysaccharide fractions from Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai on HepG2 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner by using a CCK-8 assay kit. Flow cytometry analysis showed that VCP2 treatment delayed the cell cycle in the G1 phase and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, a result possibly due to the increased expression of p21(Wafl/Cip1) and Cyclin D and the decreased expression of Cyclin E and CDK4...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675523/allergic-contact-dermatitis-caused-by-a-new-temporary-blue-black-tattoo-dye%C3%A2-%C3%A2-sensitization-to-genipin-from-jagua-genipa-americana-l-fruit-extract
#17
Andreas J Bircher, Rita Sigg, Kathrin Scherer Hofmeier, Urs Schlegel, Urs Hauri
BACKGROUND: Temporary tattoos made with an extract of the jagua fruit (Genipa americana L.) are becoming increasingly popular. It is claimed that it is 'dermatologically tested' and does not contain p-phenylenediamine. Extracts of jagua and gardenia fruits have been used by indigenous people in South America, as well as in traditional Chinese medicine, for centuries. Genipin is currently used for its cross-linking effect in the manufacture of polysaccharides, and is being investigated for its anti-inflammatory and other properties...
July 4, 2017: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667885/activation-of-murine-macrophages-by-g1-4a-a-polysaccharide-from-tinospora-cordifolia-in-tlr4-myd88-dependent-manner
#18
Pramod Kumar Gupta, M G R Rajan, Savita Kulkarni
Macrophages are centrally placed in the innate immune system and their activation is crucial to the generation of appropriate immune response in the event of any pathogenic invasion, tumorigenesis or other human diseases. Many plant derived polysaccharides are known to activate macrophages. In the present study, effects of G1-4A, a polysaccharide derived from Tinospora cordifolia, on the activation of macrophages were investigated. Our data demonstrated the up regulation of expression of TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10 and IFN-γ in RAW 264...
June 28, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665959/increased-migration-of-antigen-presenting-cells-to-newly-formed-lymphatic-vessels-in-transplanted-kidneys-by-glycol-split-heparin
#19
Ditmer T Talsma, Kirankumar Katta, Miriam Boersema, Saritha Adepu, Annamaria Naggi, Giangiacomo Torri, Coen Stegeman, Gerjan Navis, Harry van Goor, Jan-Luuk Hillebrands, Saleh Yazdani, Jacob van den Born
BACKGROUND: Chronic renal transplant dysfunction is characterized by loss of renal function and tissue remodeling, including chronic inflammation and lymph vessel formation. Proteoglycans are known for their chemokine presenting capacity. We hypothesize that interruption of the lymphatic chemokine-proteoglycan interaction interferes with the lymphatic outflow of leukocytes from the renal graft and might decrease the anti-graft allo-immune response. METHODS: In a rat renal chronic transplant dysfunction model (female Dark-Agouti to male Wistar Furth), chemokines were profiled by qRT-PCR in microdissected tubulo-interstitial tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660311/astragalus-polysaccharides-inhibits-cell-growth-and-pro-inflammatory-response-in-il-1%C3%AE-stimulated-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-by-enhancement-of-autophagy-via-pi3k-akt-mtor-inhibition
#20
Qingliang Meng, Xuzhao Du, Huilian Wang, Huimin Gu, Junping Zhan, Zipeng Zhou
The hyperplastic growth of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and inflammatory response are pathological hallmarks of RA. It has been reported that Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) possess appreciable anti-inflammatory activity against adjuvant-induced arthritis. Nevertheless, little is known about the role and detailed mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of APS in RA. This study demonstrated that administration of APS dose-dependently impaired cell viability, increased cell apoptosis by decreasing Bcl-2 expression, increasing Bax expression and Caspase3 activity in IL-1β-stimulated RSC-364 cells and RA-FLS...
June 28, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
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