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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051102/isolation-structural-characterization-and-bioactivities-of-naturally-occurring-polysaccharide-polyphenolic-conjugates-from-medicinal-plants-a-reivew
#1
REVIEW
Jun Liu, Ruyu Bai, Yunpeng Liu, Xin Zhang, Juan Kan, Changhai Jin
In recent years, several medicinal plants have been demonstrated as valuable resources of naturally occurring polysaccharide-polyphenolic conjugates. For the first time, this article introduces recent advances of polysaccharide-polyphenolic conjugates isolated from different medicinal plants. The isolation, purification, structural characterization and biological activities of polysaccharide-polyphenolic conjugates are introduced in details. In general, polysaccharide-polyphenolic conjugates can be isolated by hot water or alkaline extraction followed by purification through anion exchange chromatography or gel filtration chromatography...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051096/ultrasound-assisted-extraction-of-polysaccharides-from-lentinus-edodes-and-its-anti-hepatitis-b-activity-in-vitro
#2
Yong-Ming Zhao, Jian-Ming Yang, Ying-Hui Liu, Ming Zhao, Jin Wang
The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction process of polysaccharides from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes and investigate its anti-hepatitis B virus activity. The extracting parameters including ultrasonic power (240-320W), extraction temperature (40-60°C) and extraction time (15-25min) was optimized by using three-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design based on the single-factor experiments. Data analysis results showed that the optimal conditions for extracting LEPs were an extraction temperature of 45°C, extraction time of 21minutes and ultrasonic power of 290W...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050670/ginseng-polysaccharide-serves-as-a-potential-radiosensitizer-through-inducing-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-the-treatment-of-osteosarcoma
#3
Xiao-Yu Zhang, Ke Sun, Qi Zhu, Tao Song, Yang Liu
Recent studies have confirmed that the combined use of anti-cancer drugs with ionizing radiation (IR) could improve the sensitivity of osteosarcoma (OS) cells. Therefore, it is necessary to identify potential effective drugs for the enhancement of IR-radiosensitivity. In the current study, we found that 20, 10, 5, and 1 μM of ginseng polysaccharide (GPS) significantly suppressed MG-63 cell viability with or without γ-ray radiation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Strikingly, 20 μM of GPS combined with 5 Gy treatment suppressed colony formation capacity by nearly 13...
November 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050288/the-protective-effects-of-polysaccharide-of-atractylodes-macrocephala-koidz-pamk-on-the-chicken-spleen-under-heat-stress-via-antagonizing-apoptosis-and-restoring-the-immune-function
#4
Danning Xu, Bingxin Li, Nan Cao, Wanyan Li, Yunbo Tian, Yunmao Huang
Heat stress can cause immune organ dysfunction and apoptosis. Polysaccharide of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz may have protective effects on immune organs. In this study, we established chicken models of Polysaccharide of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz-heat stress interaction and detected the oxidative index, activities of mitochondrial complexes and ATPases as well as the ultrastructure in chicken spleens. Expression levels of cytokines, mitochondrial dynamics- and apoptosis-related genes were also measured...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048633/in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-anti-primary-effusion-lymphoma-activities-of-fucoidan-extracted-from-cladosiphon-okamuranus-tokida
#5
Chie Ishikawa, Naoki Mori
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is characterized by lymphomatous effusion in body cavities and poor prognosis. There is still no effective treatment for PEL. Fucoidan, a major sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown seaweeds, has an attractive array of bioactivities such as cancer inhibition. However, the effects of fucoidan on PEL cells remain unclear. We investigated the anti-PEL effects of fucoidan obtained from Cladosiphon okamuranus Tokida cultivated in Okinawa...
September 20, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045442/a-semi-synthetic-glycosaminoglycan-analogue-inhibits-and-reverses-plasmodium-falciparum-cytoadherence
#6
Mark A Skidmore, Khairul Mohd Fadzli Mustaffa, Lynsay C Cooper, Scott E Guimond, Edwin A Yates, Alister G Craig
A feature of mature Plasmodium falciparum parasitized red blood cells is their ability to bind surface molecules of the microvascular endothelium via the parasite-derived surface protein Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). This ligand is associated with the cytoadherence pathology observed in severe malaria. As pRBC treated with effective anti-malarial drugs are still able to cytoadhere, there is therefore a need to find an adjunct treatment that can inhibit and reverse the adhesion process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043215/inhibitory-effect-of-hizikia-fusiformis-solvent-partitioned-fractions-on-invasion-and-mmp-activity-of-ht1080-human-fibrosarcoma-cells
#7
Seul-Gi Lee, Fatih Karadeniz, Jung Hwan Oh, Ga Hyun Yu, Chang-Suk Kong
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases that take significant roles in extracellular matrix degradation and therefore linked to several complications such as metastasis of cancer progression, oxidative stress, and hepatic fibrosis. Hizikia fusiformis, a brown algae, was reported to possess bioactivities, including but not limited to, antiviral, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory partly due to bioactive polysaccharide contents. In this study, the potential of H. fusiformis against cancer cell invasion was evaluated through the MMP inhibitory effect in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells in vitro...
September 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042287/the-genus-lycium-as-food-and-medicine-a-botanical-ethnobotanical-and-historical-review
#8
REVIEW
Ruyu Yao, Michael Heinrich, Caroline S Weckerle
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lycium is widely distributed in the arid to semi-arid environments of North and South America, Africa, and Eurasia. In recent years, Lycium barbarum and L. chinense have been advertised as "superfood" with healthy properties. Despite of its popularity, there is a lack of an integrated and critical appraisal of the existing evidence for the use of Lycium. AIM OF THE STUDY: There is a need to understand: 1) Which species were used and how the uses of Lycium developed spatially and over time, 2) how uses differ among regions with different culture backgrounds, and 3) how traditional and current therapeutic and preventive health claims correlate with pharmacological findings...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042281/effects-of-polysaccharides-from-the-base-of-flammulina-velutipes-stipe-on-growth-of-murine-raw264-7-b16f10-and-l929-cells
#9
Gui-Tang Chen, Ya-Xin Fu, Wen-Jian Yang, Qiu-Hui Hu, Li-Yan Zhao
A polysaccharide (FVSP) was isolated from the base of Flammuliana Velutipes stipe, and FVSP was further purified by DEAE-cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography to obtain three fractions named FVSP-1, FVSP-2 and FVSP-3. Then their activation of macrophage cell RAW 264.7 and anti-proliferative effects to the murine melanoma B16F10 and fibroblasts L929 cells were evaluated by using the cell model experiments. The results indicated that the polysaccharide fractions could increase the proliferation and phagocytic activity of macrophage significantly and play an inhibited effect on the cancer cells...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028587/chemical-constituents-and-medical-benefits-of-plantago-major
#10
REVIEW
Muhammad Bahrain Adom, Muhammad Taher, Muhammad Fathiy Mutalabisin, Mohamad Shahreen Amri, Muhammad Badri Abdul Kudos, Mohd Wan Azizi Wan Sulaiman, Pinaki Sengupta, Deny Susanti
The medicinal benefits of Plantago major have been acknowledged around the world for hundreds of years. This plant contains a number of effective chemical constituents including flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic acid derivatives, iridoid glycosides, fatty acids, polysaccharides and vitamins which contribute to its exerting specific therapeutic effects. Correspondingly, studies have found that Plantago major is effective as a wound healer, as well as an antiulcerative, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, and antiviral agent...
October 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024844/structural-characterisation-of-the-capsular-polysaccharide-expressed-by-burkholderia-thailandensis-strain-e555-wbii-pknock-kmr-and-assessment-of-the-significance-of-the-2-o-acetyl-group-in-immune-protection
#11
Marc Bayliss, Matthew I Donaldson, Sergey A Nepogodiev, Giulia Pergolizzi, Andrew E Scott, Nicholas J Harmer, Robert A Field, Joann L Prior
Burkholderia pseudomallei and its close relative B. mallei are human pathogens that are classified as Tier 1 bio-threat agents. Both organisms have previously been shown to constitutively produce a capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that is both a virulence determinant and protective antigen. Extraction and purification of CPS for use as a potential vaccine candidate requires containment level 3 laboratories which is expensive and time-consuming. B. thailandensis strain E555 is closely related to B. pseudomallei and B...
September 21, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022634/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-agaricus-brasiliensis-is-partly-due-to-its-linoleic-acid-content
#12
Papawee Saiki, Yasuhiro Kawano, Leo J L D Van Griensven, Koyomi Miyazaki
For hundreds of years mushrooms have been used as functional food for health. The basidiomycete Agaricus brasiliensis (A. brasiliensis) is famous for the medicinal properties of its beta glucans and of its antioxidants. Most researchers have studied polysaccharides from A. brasiliensis for their anti-inflammatory activity. However, active compounds from this mushroom have not yet been studied for the inactivation of NO inhibitory activity. The present study aimed to find the active compounds from A. brasiliensis for their NO inhibitory activity related inflammatory activity...
October 12, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021742/neuroprotective-mechanisms-of-lycium-barbarum-polysaccharides-against-ischemic-insults-by-regulating-nr2b-and-nr2a-containing-nmda-receptor-signaling-pathways
#13
Zhongshan Shi, Lihui Zhu, Tingting Li, Xiaoya Tang, Yonghui Xiang, Xinjia Han, Luoxing Xia, Ling Zeng, Junhua Nie, Yongxia Huang, Chi Kwan Tsang, Ying Wang, Zhigang Lei, Zaocheng Xu, Kwok-Fai So, Yiwen Ruan
Glutamate excitotoxicity plays an important role in neuronal death after ischemia. However, all clinical trials using glutamate receptor inhibitors have failed. This may be related to the evidence that activation of different subunit of NMDA receptor will induce different effects. Many studies have shown that activation of the intrasynaptic NR2A subunit will stimulate survival signaling pathways, whereas upregulation of extrasynaptic NR2B will trigger apoptotic pathways. A Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is a mixed compound extracted from Lycium barbarum fruit...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019480/design-and-development-of-polysaccharide-hemostatic-materials-and-their-hemostatic-mechanism
#14
REVIEW
Xiao Yang, Wen Liu, Na Li, Mingshan Wang, Bin Liang, Ihsan Ullah, Agnaldo Luis Neve, Yakai Feng, Hao Chen, Changcan Shi
The formation of stable blood clots or hemostasis is essential to prevent major blood loss and death from excessive bleeding. However, the body's own coagulation process is not able to accomplish timely hemostasis without the assistance of hemostatic agents. For developing novel topical hemostatic agents, tissue adhesives and sealants, it is necessary to understand the coagulation process and the hemostasis mechanism of different materials. Among hemostatic materials, polysaccharides are naturally derived polymers having excellent biodegradable and biocompatible properties...
October 11, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991525/research-advances-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-with-polysaccharides-from-traditional-chinese-medicine
#15
Qin Liu, Shun-Chun Wang, Kan Ding
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of patients' memory and their cognitive abilities and the mechanism is not completely clear. Although a variety of drugs have been approved for the AD treatment, substances which can prevent and cure AD are still in great need. The effect of polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on anti-AD has gained great progress and attained more and more attention in recent years. In this review, research advances in TCM-polysaccharides on AD made in this decade are summarized...
September 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987796/physico-chemical-characterization-and-pharmacological-activities-of-polysaccharides-from-opuntia-microdasys-var-rufida-cladodes
#16
Meriem Jouini, Amal Abdelhamid, Mohamed Aymen Chaouch, Didier le Cerf, Abderrahman Bouraoui, Hatem Majdoub, Hichem Ben Jannet
The aim of this study is to isolate pectin from peel (WNPE) and pulp (WNPU) of Opuntia microdasys var. rufida's (OMR) cladodes and to characterize these polysaccharides by size exclusion (SEC/MALS/VD/DRI), gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The polysaccharides were extracted in neutral aqueous media followed by ethanol precipitation and dialysis. Both WNPE and WNPU are mainly composed of uronic acids and some neutral sugars such as arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and mannose...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974618/disarming-fungal-pathogens-bacillus-safensis-inhibits-virulence-factor-production-and-biofilm-formation-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-candida-albicans
#17
François L Mayer, James W Kronstad
Bacteria interact with each other in nature and often compete for limited nutrient and space resources. However, it is largely unknown whether and how bacteria also interact with human fungal pathogens naturally found in the environment. Here, we identified a soil bacterium, Bacillus safensis, which potently blocked several key Cryptococcus neoformans virulence factors, including formation of the antioxidant pigment melanin and production of the antiphagocytic polysaccharide capsule. The bacterium also inhibited de novo cryptococcal biofilm formation but had only modest inhibitory effects on already formed biofilms or planktonic cell growth...
October 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973394/synthesis-and-characterization-of-heparosan-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-conjugates-a-natural-sugar-based-drug-delivery-system-to-treat-neutropenia
#18
Wei Jing, Jonathan W Roberts, Dixy E Green, Andrew Almond, Paul L DeAngelis
Many injectable drugs require delivery strategies for enhancing their pharmacokinetics due to rapid loss via renal filtration if possess low molecular weight (<60-70 kDa) and/or clearance by the body's components (e.g., proteases, antibodies, high-efficiency receptors) in their native form. FDA-approved polyethylene glycol [PEG] is a vehicle for improving therapeutics, but artificial polymers have potential biocompatibility and immunogenicity liabilities. Here we utilized a natural vertebrate carbohydrate, heparosan [HEP], the biosynthetic precursor of heparan sulfate and heparin, to enhance performance of a biologic drug...
August 23, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966055/a-subset-of-polysaccharide-capsules-in-the-human-symbiont-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron-promote-increased-competitive-fitness-in-the-mouse-gut
#19
Nathan T Porter, Pablo Canales, Daniel A Peterson, Eric C Martens
Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) play multiple roles in protecting bacteria from host and environmental factors, and many commensal bacteria can produce multiple capsule types. To better understand the roles of different CPSs in competitive intestinal colonization, we individually expressed the eight different capsules of the human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Certain CPSs were most advantageous in vivo, and increased anti-CPS immunoglobulin A correlated with increased fitness of a strain expressing one particular capsule, CPS5, suggesting that it promotes avoidance of adaptive immunity...
October 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962845/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-high-molecular-weight-sulfated-polysaccharide-containing-fucose-separated-from-sargassum-horneri-short-communication
#20
K K Asanka Sanjeewa, I P S Fernando, Seo-Young Kim, Hyun-Soo Kim, Ginnae Ahn, Youngheun Jee, You-Jin Jeon
Recent studies on crude and pure compounds from Sargassum horneri have shown promising bioactive properties. However, anti-inflammatory potentials of fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharides from S. horneri have not yet been discovered. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of four polysaccharide fractions separated from membrane filters according to their molecular weights (<5kDa (f1), 5-10kDa (f2), 10-30kDa (f3), and >30kDa (f4)). According to the results, F4 fraction inhibited the lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) (IC50=87...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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