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Anti polysaccharide

Xu Chu, Xiao-Ju Liu, Jing-Man Qiu, Xiao-Li Zeng, Hai-Rong Bao, Juan Shu
Astragalus and Codonopsis pilosula are used for their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharides (CPP) on alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with exposure to particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5). A mouse model of COPD was established by cigarette smoke exposure. PM2.5 exposure was performed by inhalation of a PM2...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
K Denise Apperson, Gita Cherian
Flax seed is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3). Feeding broiler birds flax seed can increase n-3 fatty acids in meat tissues. However, non-starch polysaccharides in flax seed decrease nutrient digestibility and can have a negative impact on bird performance and muscle fatty acid content. Addition of carbohydrase enzymes to flax-based broiler diets can decrease the anti-nutritive effects of non-starch polysaccharides. An experiment was conducted to investigate on the effect of flax seed and carbohydrase enzyme foregut morphology, muscle tissue, fatty acids, and bird performance...
October 19, 2016: Poultry Science
Minghui Ou, Xuezhi Sun, Jiancheng Liang, Fei Liu, Liqin Wang, Xiaomin Wu, Jie Tu
A water-soluble polysaccharide (STPC2) was isolated from the boiling-water extract of Sargassum thunbergii, purified by CaCl2 precipitation and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300 column. It was found that STPC2, with a molecular weight of 57kD, was composed of fucose, xylose, galactose and glucuronic acid, in a ratio of 8.1: 3.8: 2.1: 1.0. Additionally, we found that STPC2 significantly inhibited endothelial cell migration and tube formation without toxicity. Moreover, STPC2 significantly inhibited lung cancer cell A549 migration and proliferation...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Angel Vila-Córcoles, Olga Ochoa-Gondar
There are currently two anti-pneumococcal vaccines available for use in adults: the classical 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) and the new 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The main advantage of the PCV13 is the potentially better immunogenicity, with its major disadvantages being the higher cost and the lower serotype-coverage than the PPV23. The currently available scientific evidence supports the following basic recommendations: (i)among adults with greatest risk (basically asplenia and immunocompromised), a dual vaccination (PCV13+PPV23) is recommended; (ii)among adults with increased risk (basically persons >65years-old and patients 15-64years with chronic pulmonary or heart disease, diabetes and/or alcoholism), a single vaccination with PPV23 is recommended (single dose in primo-vaccinated >65years; re-vaccination at 5-10years in those primo-vaccinated <65years-old); and (iii) in the rest of adults (risk normal/low) vaccination is not recommended...
October 17, 2016: Atencion Primaria
X F Song, X D Chen
Aloe vera has been widely investigated and used as folk medicine since ancient time. Biologically active substances in its gel include polysaccharides, glycoprotein, enzymes, anthraquinones or phenolic compounds, vitamins, minerals, and so on, which play important roles in anti-inflammatory response, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant activity, immunoregulation effects, and especially in wound healing. In this paper, we review the advances in the mechanism and clinical application of Aloe vera and its extract on wound healing, so as to provide new ideas for the treatment of various kinds of wounds...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Marie Jazzara, Ahmed Ghannam, Chadi Soukkarieh, Hossam Murad
BACKGROUND: Sulfated Polysaccharides (SPs) possess spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic properties that could attributed to their origins variation, chemical structures and biological activities. Various studies have shown the impact of SPs on proliferation in different cancer cell lines. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we have evaluated the biological effects of λ-carrageenan, a highly SP, extracted from the red seaweed Laurencia papillosa, on MDA-MB-231 cancer cell line...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention
Evgeny Vinogradov, Irina Sadovskaya, Thierry Grard, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier
Lactobacillus casei is a Gram positive lactic acid bacterium used in dairy fermentations and present in the normal human gut microbiota. Certain strains are recognized as probiotics with beneficial effects on human and animal health. L. casei BL23 is a potential probiotic strain endowed with anti-inflammatory properties and a model strain widely used in genetic, physiological and biochemical studies. A number of bacterial cell surface polysaccharides have been shown to play a role in the immune modulation activities observed for probiotic lactic acid bacteria...
October 8, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Nizamuddin Ubaidillah, Djanggan Sargowo, Adriawan Widya, Vitryaturrida Jakfar, Kartika Siwi Proboretno, Mirza Failasufi, Yoga Warahugraha, Fadli Ramadhan, Hesti Wulandari, Dinarsari Hayuning Putri
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of polysaccharide peptides (PsP) of Ganoderma lucidum as anti inflammation, anti oxidant, anti diabetic and anti lipid in stable angina pectoris patients. DESIGN AND METHOD: This is a quasi clinical trial experimental study on 34 Stable Angina patients in Saiful Anwar General Hospital was determined based on ESC Stable CAD guidelines, with pre-test and post-test design without control. Parameter measured were TNF alfa, IL-6, MDA, SOD, HbA1c, Fasting glucose and Total cholesterol...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Zhicheng Wang, Jia Nong, Robert B Shultz, Zhiling Zhang, Veronica J Tom, Ravi K Ponnappan, Yinghui Zhong
Many mechanisms contribute to the secondary injury cascades following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). However, most current treatment strategies only target one or a few elements in the injury cascades, and have been largely unsuccessful in clinical trials. Minocycline hydrochloride (MH) is a clinically available antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug that has been shown to target a broad range of secondary injury mechanisms via its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties. However, MH is only neuroprotective at high concentrations...
October 5, 2016: Biomaterials
Samantha J Paluck, Thi H Nguyen, Heather D Maynard
Heparin is a naturally occurring, highly sulfated polysaccharide that plays a critical role in a range of different biological processes. Therapeutically, it is mostly commonly used as an injectable solution as an anticoagulant for a variety of indications, although it has also been employed in other forms such as coatings on various biomedical devices. Due to the diverse functions of this polysaccharide in the body, including anticoagulation, tissue regeneration, anti-inflammation, and protein stabilization, and drawbacks of its use, analogous heparin-mimicking materials are also widely studied for therapeutic applications...
October 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Yuqi Li, Hui Zhang, Mizi Fan, Jiandong Zhuang, Lihui Chen
Oil-water separation has recently become an important subject due to the increasing incidence of oil spills. Materials with underwater superoleophobic properties have aroused considerable interest due to their cost-effectiveness, environmental friendliness and anti-fouling properties. This paper presents a robust salt-tolerant superoleophobic aerogel inspired by seaweed used without any further chemical modification for oil-seawater separation. The green aerogel is prepared by freeze-drying of sodium alginate (SA)-nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) using Ca(2+) ions as the crosslinking agent...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yuvaraj Neelakandan, Arul Venkatesan
AIM: The aim of this objective is to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of sulfated polysaccharide purified fractions isolated from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii and seagrass Halophila ovalis in male Wistar rats. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Crude sulfated polysaccharide from S. wightii and H. ovalis was subjected to anion exchange chromatography, and the chemical composition was investigated. The antinociceptive activity of purified fractions was investigated using formalin and hot plate test...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Jiamu Niu, Guangyu Xu, Shuang Jiang, Hongyu Li, Guangxin Yuan
A water soluble polysaccharide (SSPW1), with an average molecular weight of 191.18KD, was isolated and purified from the water extract of Schisandra sphenanthera by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. SSPW1 contained 48.92% neutral sugar, 5.56% proteins and 42.83% uronic acid, and were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, glucose at a molar ratio of 13.52, 5.69, 3.92, 41.28 and 35.59. In vitro experiment showed that SSPW1 have a satisfactory scavenging effect on superoxide anion free radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH free radical...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
I P Shanura Fernando, Jae-Woon Nah, You-Jin Jeon
Inflammatory diseases have become one of the leading causes of health issue throughout the world, having a considerable influence on healthcare costs. With the emerging developments in natural product, synthetic and combinatorial chemistry, a notable success has been achieved in discovering natural products and their synthetic structural analogs with anti-inflammatory activity. However, many of these therapeutics have indicated detrimental side effects upon prolonged usage. Marine algae have been identified as an underexplored reservoir of unique anti-inflammatory compounds...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Son G Nguyen, Jungman Kim, Robin B Guevarra, Ji-Hoon Lee, Eungpil Kim, Su-Il Kim, Tatsuya Unno
We investigated the anti-obesity effects of the potential prebiotic, laminarin, on mice fed a high-fat diet. A metagenomics approach was applied to characterize the ecological and functional differences of gut microbiota among mice fed a normal diet (CTL), a high-fat diet (HFD), and a laminarin-supplemented high-fat diet (HFL). The HFL mice showed a slower weight gain than the HFD mice during the laminarin-feeding period, but the rate of weight gain increased after the termination of laminarin supplementation...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Ke Ming, Yun Chen, Fangke Yao, Jintong Shi, Jingjing Yang, Hongxu Du, Xunyi Wang, Yixuan Wang, Jiaguo Liu
To screen effective anti-duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) drugs, we applied STMP-STPP method to prepare phosphorylated Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (pCPPS), the phosphorylation-modified product of Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CPPS). The IR spectrum and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were subsequently used to analyze the structure of pCPPS. Several tests were conducted to compare the anti-DHAV activities of CPPS and pCPPS. The MTT method was used to compare the effect of the drugs on DHAV-infected duck embryonic hepatocytes (DEHs), and the Reed-Muench assay was employed to observe changes in the virulence of DHAV...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yantao Li, Wanjun Lin, Jiajun Huang, Ying Xie, Wenzhe Ma
Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (GpM) (Jiaogulan) has been widely used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of several diseases, including hepatitis, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, GpM has recently been shown to exhibit potent anti-cancer activities. In this review, we have summarized recent research progress on the anti-cancer activities and mechanisms of action of GpM, as well as determining the material basis for the anti-cancer effects of GpM by searching the PubMed, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases...
2016: Chinese Medicine
L Kristopher Siu, Yu-Kuo Tsai, Jung-Chung Lin, Te-Li Chen, Chang-Phone Fung, Feng-Yee Chang
In this study, a novel colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip (ICS) containing anti-K. pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide polyclonal antibodies was developed to specifically detect K. pneumoniae serotypes K1 and K2. Capsular polysaccharide K1 and K2 antigens were first used to produce polyclonal anti-K1 or -K2 antibodies. Reference strains with different serotypes, non-typable K. pneumoniae strains, and other bacterial species were then used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these test strips...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Yixuan Wang, Yun Chen, Hongxu Du, Jingjing Yang, Ke Ming, Meiyun Song, Jiaguo Liu
Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) (Picornaviridae) causes an infectious disease in ducks which results in severe losses in duck industry. However, the proper antiviral supportive drugs for this disease have not been discovered. Polysaccharide is the main ingredient of Astragalus that has been demonstrated to directly and indirectly inhibit RNA of viruses replication. In this study, the antiviral activities of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and its derivatives against DHAV were evaluated and compared. APS was modified via the sodium trimetaphosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate (STMP-STPP) method and chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method to obtain its phosphate (pAPS) and sulfate (sAPS), respectively...
October 4, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Chao Li, Xiangshi Li, Lijun You, Xiong Fu, Rui Hai Liu
Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides were fractioned using a DEAE-Sepharose fast-flow column and four polysaccharide fractions (SP-P1, SP-P2, PV-P3 and SP-P4) were obtained. Structural analyses indicated that SP-P2 and SP-P4 had higher molecular weights than SP-P1 and SP-P3. SP-P2, SP-P3 and SP-P4 comprised of fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, and mannose in a similar molar ratio, while SP-P1 did not contain arabinose. SP-P2 and SP-P4 had a similar number of (1→6) or (1→) glycosidic linkages (1→2) or (1→4) glycosidic linkages and (1→3) glycosidic linkages, while SP-P1 and SP-P3 contained a small number of (1→3) glycosidic linkages...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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