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Anti-polysaccharide Antibody

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329339/accessibility-and-contribution-to-glucan-masking-of-natural-and-genetically-tagged-versions-of-yeast-wall-protein-1-of-candida-albicans
#1
Bruce L Granger
Yeast wall protein 1 (Ywp1) is an abundant glycoprotein of the cell wall of the yeast form of Candida albicans, the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. Antibodies that bind to the polypeptide backbone of isolated Ywp1 show little binding to intact yeast cells, presumably because the Ywp1 epitopes are masked by the polysaccharides of the mannoproteins that form the outer layer of the cell wall. Rare cells do exhibit much greater anti-Ywp1 binding, however, and one of these was isolated and characterized...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287062/the-influence-of-conjugation-variables-on-the-design-and-immunogenicity-of-a-glycoconjugate-vaccine-against-salmonella-typhi
#2
M Arcuri, R Di Benedetto, A F Cunningham, A Saul, C A MacLennan, F Micoli
In recent years there have been major efforts to develop glycoconjugate vaccines based on the Vi polysaccharide that will protect against Salmonella enterica Typhi infections, particularly typhoid fever, which remains a major public health concern in low-income countries. The design of glycoconjugate vaccines influences the immune responses they elicit. Here we systematically test the response in mice to Vi glycoconjugates that differ in Vi chain length (full-length and fragmented), carrier protein, conjugation chemistry, saccharide to protein ratio and size...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217325/protocatechuic-acid-pca-induced-a-better-antiviral-effect-by-immune-enhancement-in-spf-chickens
#3
Yongxia Guo, Qiang Zhang, Zonghui Zuo, Jun Chu, Hongzhi Xiao, M Tariq Javed, Cheng He
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is an antiviral agent against Avian Influenza virus (AIV) and Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) virus but its antiviral mechanism is unknown. In this study, we evaluated the humoral and cellular responses to PCA in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. One hundred forty 35-day-old SPF chickens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The birds were inoculated with the commercial, attenuated Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) vaccine and then received orally with 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg body weight of PCA for 21 days...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191418/anti-allergic-effects-of-novel-sulfated-polysaccharide-sacran-on-mouse-model-of-2-4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene-induced-atopic-dermatitis
#4
Keiichi Motoyama, Yuki Tanida, Aiko Sakai, Taishi Higashi, Shinichiro Kaneko, Hidetoshi Arima
In this study, in order to investigate the potential of the novel polysaccharide sacran from Aphanothece Sacrum for development of atopic dermatitis (AD), we evaluated the potential of pretreatment with topical sacran to prevent the development of hapten (dinitrofluorobenzene: DNFB)-induced AD-like disease in mice. In the AD model mice, sacran markedly ameliorated AD symptoms such as scratching behavior and edema in ear. In addition, sacran significantly increased water content of the stratum corneum which regulates the skin barrier function...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187714/-preparation-and-biological-characterization-of-limulus-factor-g-activating-substance-of-aspergillus-spp
#5
Yuichiro Kurone, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Daisuke Yamanaka, Noriko N Miura, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Naohito Ohno
Aspergillus is a medically important fungal genus that causes a life-threatening infection known as aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. β-1,3-Glucan is detected in the plasma of patients with aspergillosis and appears to be useful for the diagnosis of aspergillosis. In this study, we cultured Aspergillus spp. in a chemically defined liquid medium and prepared an Aspergillus water-soluble fraction (ASWS) from the culture supernatants. ASWS was found to be primarily composed of polysaccharides and proteins...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182428/o-acetylation-is-essential-for-functional-antibody-generation-against-staphylococcus-aureus-capsular-polysaccharide
#6
Ingrid L Scully, Viliam Pavliak, Yekaterina Timofeyeva, Yongdong Liu, Christine Singer, Annaliesa S Anderson
Staphylococcus aureus produces an antiphagocytic polysaccharide capsule to evade neutrophil-mediated killing. Many vaccines against encapsulated bacterial pathogens require generation of functional anti-capsular antibodies to mediate protection against infection and disease. Here it is shown that the generation of such antibody responses to S. aureus in vivo and in vitro requires the presence of O-acetyl modifications on the capsular polysaccharides. O-acetylation of S. aureus capsular polysaccharide therefore should be monitored carefully during vaccine development and production...
November 28, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135332/antibodies-to-pcpa-and-phtd-protect-mice-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-by-a-macrophage-and-complement-dependent-mechanism
#7
Lucian Visan, Nicolas Rouleau, Emilie Proust, Loïc Peyrot, Arnaud Donadieu, Martina Ochs
Currently marketed Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) vaccines, which contain polysaccharide capsular antigens from the most common Spn serotypes, have substantially reduced pneumococcal disease rates but have limited coverage. A trivalent pneumococcal protein vaccine containing pneumococcal choline-binding protein A (PcpA), pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD), and detoxified pneumolysin is being developed to provide broader, cross-serotype protection. Antibodies against detoxified pneumolysin protect against bacterial pneumonia by neutralizing Spn-produced pneumolysin, but how anti-PhtD and anti-PcpA antibodies protect against Spn has not been established...
November 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123031/structure-function-characterization-of-three-human-antibodies-targeting-the-vaccinia-virus-adhesion-molecule-d8
#8
Michael H Matho, Andrew Schlossman, Iuliia M Gilchuk, Greg Miller, Zbigniew Mikulski, Matthias Hupfer, Jing Wang, Aruna Bitra, Xianghzi Meng, Yan Xiang, Tom Kaever, Tzanko Doukov, Klaus Ley, Shane Crotty, Bjoern Peters, Linda C Hsieh-Wilson, James E Crowe, Dirk M Zajonc
Vaccinia virus (VACV) envelope protein D8 is one of three glycosaminoglycan adhesion molecules and binds to the linear polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate (CS). D8 is also a target for neutralizing antibody responses that are elicited by the smallpox vaccine, which has enabled the first eradication of a human viral pathogen and is a useful model for studying antibody responses. However, to date, VACV epitopes targeted by human antibodies have not been characterized at atomic resolution. Here, we characterized the binding properties of several human anti-D8 antibodies and determined the crystal structures of three VACV-MAb variants, VACV-66, VACV-138, and VACV-304, separately bound to D8...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119074/case-report-on-a-defective-antibody-response-against-pneumococcal-serotype-9v-in-a-patient-with-a-single-episode-of-pneumonia
#9
Diana van Kessel, Thijs Hoffman, Heleen van Velzen-Blad, Bob Meek, Suzan van Mens, Jan Grutters, Ger Rijkers
Background: Patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections and an impaired response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination are diagnosed with a specific antibody deficiency. In adult patients with pneumococcal pneumonia an impaired antibody response to the infecting pneumococcal serotype can sometimes be found. It is unknown whether these patients are unable to produce an adequate anti-polysaccharide antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination after recovery. Case presentation: The authors describe a case of invasive pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9V in a previously healthy 35-year-old female...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107141/immunoadjuvant-activity-in-mice-of-polysaccharides-isolated-from-the-leaves-of-panax-ginseng-c-a-meyer
#10
Su-Hyun Hwang, Myoung-Sook Shin, Taek Joon Yoon, Kwang-Soon Shin
Our previous study showed polysaccharide (GS-P) isolated from the leaves of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer possessed anti-tumor metastatic activity in mouse model. In this study, we evaluated the immunoadjuvant effect of GS-P on the induction of humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. When mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA admixed with or without GS-P, the OVA+GS-P group showed significantly higher antibody production than the group immunized with OVA alone. This suggests that GS-P has the ability to enhance the adaptive immune response...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099340/humoral-immunity-in-mice-transplanted-with-hematopoietic-stem-cells-derived-from-human-umbilical-cord-blood-recapitulates-that-of-human-infants
#11
Justin A Walker, Raja Vuyyuru, Tim Manser, Kishore R Alugupalli
Immunodeficient mice transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been referred to as "Human Immune System" (HIS) mice and are a translational platform for studying human immune responses in vivo. Human HSC sources used in generating HIS mice include fetal liver (FL), umbilical cord blood (CB), and adult bone marrow (BM). Since HSCs from FL, CB, and BM are produced at various stages of human development, we tested whether mice transplanted with these three HSCs differ in their immune responses...
November 3, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094629/infectious-diseases-and-immunological-markers-associated-with-patients-with-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-treated-with-rituximab
#12
Kleber Jordão de Souza, Rodrigo Sala Ferro, Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro, Paula Andreia Martins Carrilho, Dewton de Moraes Vasconcelos
BACKGROUND: The use of rituximab (RTX) is increasing, even in developing countries. It has become the first-line therapy or adjuvant to chemotherapy (CHOP; cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin and prednisone) for various diseases, including B cell lymphoma and autoimmune diseases. AIM: We describe the infectious diseases and immunological markers associated with RTX treatment of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). METHODS: Serum immunoglobulins were determined before and after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) administration...
November 2, 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024844/structural-characterisation-of-the-capsular-polysaccharide-expressed-by-burkholderia-thailandensis-strain-e555-wbii-pknock-kmr-and-assessment-of-the-significance-of-the-2-o-acetyl-group-in-immune-protection
#13
Marc Bayliss, Matthew I Donaldson, Sergey A Nepogodiev, Giulia Pergolizzi, Andrew E Scott, Nicholas J Harmer, Robert A Field, Joann L Prior
Burkholderia pseudomallei and its close relative B. mallei are human pathogens that are classified as Tier 1 bio-threat agents. Both organisms have previously been shown to constitutively produce a capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that is both a virulence determinant and protective antigen. Extraction and purification of CPS for use as a potential vaccine candidate requires containment level 3 laboratories which is expensive and time-consuming. B. thailandensis strain E555 is closely related to B. pseudomallei and B...
November 27, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973394/synthesis-and-characterization-of-heparosan-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-conjugates-a-natural-sugar-based-drug-delivery-system-to-treat-neutropenia
#14
Wei Jing, Jonathan W Roberts, Dixy E Green, Andrew Almond, Paul L DeAngelis
Many injectable drugs require delivery strategies for enhancing their pharmacokinetics due to rapid loss via renal filtration if possess low molecular weight (<60-70 kDa) and/or clearance by the body's components (e.g., proteases, antibodies, high-efficiency receptors) in their native form. FDA-approved polyethylene glycol [PEG] is a vehicle for improving therapeutics, but artificial polymers have potential biocompatibility and immunogenicity liabilities. Here we utilized a natural vertebrate carbohydrate, heparosan [HEP], the biosynthetic precursor of heparan sulfate and heparin, to enhance performance of a biologic drug...
August 23, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947651/the-capsular-polysaccharide-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-is-an-obstacle-for-therapeutic-passive-immunization-strategies
#15
Shun Xin Wang-Lin, Ruth Olson, Janet M Beanan, Ulrike MacDonald, Joseph P Balthasar, Thomas A Russo
Acinetobacter baumannii has become an important concern to human health due to rapid development and wide spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains and high mortality associated with the infection. Passive immunizations with antisera targeting outer membrane proteins (OMPs) have shown encouraging results in protecting mice from A. baumannii infection; but monoclonal anti-OMP antibodies have not been developed and their potential therapeutic properties have not been explored. The goal of this report is to evaluate the antibacterial activity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of A...
September 25, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943439/a-homogalacturonan-from-hippophae-rhamnoides-l-berries-enhance-immunomodulatory-activity-through-tlr4-myd88-pathway-mediated-activation-of-macrophages
#16
Hailiang Wang, Hongtao Bi, Tingting Gao, Bin Zhao, Weihua Ni, Jun Liu
Our previous study isolated a natural high-methoxyl homogalacturonan (HRWP-A) from Hippophae rhamnoides and showed antitumor activity in vivo. In this study, the immunomodulatory activity and mechanisms of action of HRWP-A were further investigated. Results showed that HRWP-A could recover the body condition and activated macrophage in Cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed mice. Further, we investigated the possible mechanism underlying the effects of HRWP-A on mouse peritoneal macrophages. qPCR and western blot revealed that HRWP-A upregulated the expression of TLR4 mRNA in vitro...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942945/polysaccharides-derived-from-ganoderma-lucidum-fungus-mycelia-ameliorate-indomethacin-induced-small-intestinal-injury-via-induction-of-gm-csf-from-macrophages
#17
Kenta Nagai, Yoshitaka Ueno, Shinji Tanaka, Ryohei Hayashi, Kei Shinagawa, Kazuaki Chayama
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs often cause ulcers in the human small intestine, but few effective agents exist to treat such injury. Ganoderma lucidum Karst, also known as "Reishi" or "Lingzhi", is a mushroom. We previously reported that a water-soluble extract from G. lucidum fungus mycelia (MAK) has anti-inflammatory effects in murine colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, and induction of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by MAK may provide anti-inflammatory effects...
October 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935471/prevalence-and-decay-of-maternal-pneumococcal-and-meningococcal-antibodies-a-meta-analysis-of-type-specific-decay-rates
#18
Merryn Voysey, Andrew J Pollard, Manish Sadarangani, Thomas R Fanshawe
BACKGROUND: At the time of an infant's initial vaccination at age ∼2 to 3months, some infants already have maternal antibodies against vaccine antigens and these can suppress the immune response to vaccination. Modelling the effects of maternal antibody and the timing of infant doses on the antibody response to vaccination, requires estimates of the rate of maternal antibody decay. Decay rates are not well characterised in the medical literature. We investigated variation in the prevalence of maternal anti-capsular pneumococcal and meningococcal antibodies in infants in 14 countries, and estimated type-specific half-lives...
October 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903988/the-use-of-reverse-vaccinology-in-the-design-and-construction-of-nano-glycoconjugate-vaccines-against-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#19
Laura A Muruato, Daniel Tapia, Christopher L Hatcher, Mridul Kalita, Paul J Brett, Anthony E Gregory, James E Samuel, Richard W Titball, Alfredo G Torres
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bpm) is a Gram negative, facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease melioidosis in humans and other mammals. Respiratory infection with B. pseudomallei leads to a fulminant and often fatal disease. It has previously been shown that glycoconjugate vaccines can provide significant protection against lethal challenge; however, the limited number of known Burkholderia antigens has slowed progress towards vaccine development. The objective of this study was to identify novel antigens and evaluate their protective capacity when incorporated into a nano-glycoconjugate vaccine platform...
September 13, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890375/anti-inflammatory-properties-of-glpss58-a-sulfated-polysaccharide-from-ganoderma-lucidum
#20
Kai Zhang, Yanfang Liu, Xiangli Zhao, Qingjiu Tang, Jens Dernedde, Jingsong Zhang, Hua Fan
Sulfated polysaccharides exhibit various biological properties, including anti-coagulant, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory activities. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory properties of GLPss58, a sulfated polysaccharide from Ganoderma lucidum formed by chemical sulfation, were investigated. We found that GLPss58 inhibited L-selectin/sTyr-sLeX binding significantly, blocked the binding of anti-L-selectin antibodies to L-selectin on the surface of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, and inhibited the secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine-induced chemotactic invasion of HPBLs...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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