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Anti-polysaccharide Antibody

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729019/safety-reactogenicity-and-immunogenicity-of-two-investigational-pneumococcal-protein-based-vaccines-results-from-a-randomized-phase-ii-study-in-infants
#1
Roman Prymula, Leszek Szenborn, Sven-Arne Silfverdal, Jacek Wysocki, Piotr Albrecht, Magali Traskine, Asparuh Gardev, Yue Song, Dorota Borys
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination with formulations containing pneumococcal protein antigens such as pneumolysin toxoid (dPly) and histidine-triad protein D (PhtD) may extend serotype-related protection of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: This phase II, multi-center, observer-blind trial conducted in Europe (NCT01204658) assessed 2 investigational vaccines containing 10 serotype-specific polysaccharide conjugates of PHiD-CV and either 10 or 30µg of dPly and PhtD each...
July 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724524/assignment-of-weight-based-antibody-units-for-four-additional-serotypes-to-a-human-anti-pneumococcal-standard-reference-serum-007sp
#2
D Goldblatt, A McKeen, P Burbidge, S McElhiney, L McLaughlin, A Johnson, M Rauh, P C Giardina
The pneumococcal ELISA reference standard serum, Lot 89SF, has been in use since 1990 and was replaced with a new reference standard serum, 007sp in 2013. This serum was generated under an FDA-approved clinical protocol, where 278 adult volunteers were immunized with the 23-valent unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine, Pneumovax II®, and a unit of blood was obtained twice within 120 days following immunization. Pooled serum was prepared from the plasma, filled at 6ml per vial and lyophilised. Five independent laboratories participated in bridging the serotype specific IgG assignments for 89SF to 007sp to establish equivalent reference values for 13 pneumococcal capsular serotypes (1,3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, 23F) using the WHO reference ELISA...
July 19, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667885/activation-of-murine-macrophages-by-g1-4a-a-polysaccharide-from-tinospora-cordifolia-in-tlr4-myd88-dependent-manner
#3
Pramod Kumar Gupta, M G R Rajan, Savita Kulkarni
Macrophages are centrally placed in the innate immune system and their activation is crucial to the generation of appropriate immune response in the event of any pathogenic invasion, tumorigenesis or other human diseases. Many plant derived polysaccharides are known to activate macrophages. In the present study, effects of G1-4A, a polysaccharide derived from Tinospora cordifolia, on the activation of macrophages were investigated. Our data demonstrated the up regulation of expression of TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10 and IFN-γ in RAW 264...
June 28, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637806/the-pneumococcal-serotype-15c-capsule-is-partially-o-acetylated-and-allows-for-limited-evasion-of-ppv23-elicited-anti-serotype-15b-antibodies
#4
Brady L Spencer, Anukul T Shenoy, Carlos J Orihuela, Moon H Nahm
As a species, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) utilizes a diverse array of capsular polysaccharides to evade the host. In contrast to large variations in sugar composition and linkage formation, O-acetylation is a subtle capsular modification that nonetheless has a large impact on capsular shielding and recognition of the capsule by vaccine-elicited antibodies. Serotype 15B, which is included in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), encodes the putative O-acetyltransferase gene wciZ...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637805/conjugation-of-pspa4pro-with-capsular-streptococcus-pneumoniae-polysaccharide-serotype-14-does-not-reduce-the-induction-of-cross-reactive-antibodies
#5
Míriam A da Silva, Thiago R Converso, Viviane M Gonçalves, Luciana C C Leite, Martha M Tanizaki, Giovana C Barazzone
Current pneumococcal vaccines are composed of bacterial polysaccharides as antigens plain or conjugated to carrier proteins. While efficacious against vaccine serotypes, epidemiologic data shows increasing incidence of infections caused by non-vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The use of Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) as a carrier protein in a conjugate vaccine could help preventing serotype replacement by increasing vaccine coverage and reducing selective pressure of S. pneumoniae serotypes...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637804/bioactive-immune-components-of-anti-diarrheagenic-enterotoxigenic-e-coli-etec-hyperimmune-bovine-colostrum-products
#6
Khandra T Sears, Sharon M Tennant, Mardi K Reymann, Raphael Simon, Nicky Konstantopoulos, William C Blackwelder, Eileen M Barry, Marcela F Pasetti
Diarrhea is a common illness among travelers to resource-limited countries, the most prevalent attributable agent being enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). There are presently no vaccines licensed specifically for the prevention of ETEC-induced traveler's diarrhea (TD), and this has propelled investigation of alternative preventive methods. Colostrum, the first milk expressed after birthing, is rich in immunoglobulins and innate immune components for protection of newborns against infectious agents. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) produced by immunization of cows during gestation (and containing high levels of specific antibodies) is a practical and effective prophylactic tool against gastrointestinal illnesses...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626461/neoglycoconjugate-of-tetrasaccharide-representing-one-repeating-unit-of-the-streptococcus-pneumoniae-type-14-capsular-polysaccharide-induces-the-production-of-opsonizing-igg1-antibodies-and-possesses-the-highest-protective-activity-as-compared-to-hexa-and-octasaccharide
#7
Ekaterina A Kurbatova, Nelli K Akhmatova, Elina A Akhmatova, Nadezhda B Egorova, Natalya E Yastrebova, Elena V Sukhova, Dmitriy V Yashunsky, Yury E Tsvetkov, Marina L Gening, Nikolay E Nifantiev
Identifying protective synthetic oligosaccharide (OS) epitopes of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides (CPs) is an indispensable step in the development of third-generation carbohydrate pneumococcal vaccines. Synthetic tetra-, hexa-, and octasaccharide structurally related to CP of S. pneumoniae type 14 were coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA), adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, and tested for their immunogenicity in mice upon intraperitoneal prime-boost immunizations. Injections of the conjugates induced production of opsonizing anti-OS IgG1 antibodies (Abs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622429/synthesis-and-antigenic-evaluation-of-oligosaccharide-mimics-of-vi-antigen-from-salmonella-typhi
#8
Xinshan Ye, Gao-Lan Zhang, Lin Yang, Jingjing Zhu
Salmonella typhi is responsible for typhoid fever, which is a serious health threat in developing countries. As a virulent factor of Salmonella typhi, the purified Vi polysaccharide (Vi PS) has become an effective vaccine to combat typhoid fever. The chemical synthesis can provide homogeneous and well-defined molecules for the development of Vi-based vaccines. However, the synthesis of Vi oligosaccharides in high yields and with exclusive α-stereoselectivities remains very challenging. In this paper, a series of Vi pseudooligosaccharides, including pseudo tetra-, hexa-, and octa-saccharides were efficiently synthesized...
June 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599793/a-cross-reacting-material-crm197-conjugate-vaccine-induces-diphtheria-toxin-neutralizing-antibody-response-in-children-and-adolescents-infected-or-not-with-hiv
#9
Giselle P Silva, Rafaela S Santos, Wânia F Pereira-Manfro, Bianca Ferreira, Daniella M Barreto, Ana Cristina C Frota, Cristina B Hofer, Lucimar G Milagres
Anti-diphtheria antibody levels decrease with aging, and frequent booster vaccinations are required to maintain herd immunity. We analyzed the diphtheria toxin neutralizing antibody (DT-Nab) response induced by a conjugate vaccine (meningococcal C polysaccharide-CRM197) in HIV-vertically infected (HI) children and adolescents and healthy controls (HC) with matched age. We report the association of DT-Nab with the bactericidal antibodies to serogroup C meningococcus (MenC). Before vaccination, 21 HI patients (50%) had no protection against diphtheria (≤0...
June 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596792/a-case-series-evaluating-the-serological-response-of-adult-asthma-patients-to-the-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine
#10
C R Laratta, K Williams, D Vethanayagam, M Ulanova, H Vliagoftis
BACKGROUND: Asthma is an independent risk factor for invasive pneumococcal disease; however, the immune response of adult asthma patients to pneumococcal vaccination is unknown. We explore the serologic response of patients with moderate to severe asthma to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). METHODS: Seventeen moderate to severe adult asthma patients that had not been vaccinated against pneumococcus over the 5 previous years were prospectively recruited from a tertiary care asthma clinic...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588580/specific-antibody-deficiency-controversies-in-diagnosis-and-management
#11
REVIEW
Elena Perez, Francisco A Bonilla, Jordan S Orange, Mark Ballow
Specific antibody deficiency (SAD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by normal immunoglobulins (Igs), IgA, IgM, total IgG, and IgG subclass levels, but with recurrent infection and diminished antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens following vaccination. There is a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of SAD, and its clinical significance is not well understood. Here, we discuss current evidence and challenges regarding the diagnosis and treatment of SAD. SAD is normally diagnosed by determining protective titers in response to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553290/fifth-percentile-cutoff-values-for-antipneumococcal-polysaccharide-and-anti-salmonella-typhi-vi-igg-describe-a-normal-polysaccharide-response
#12
Heidi Schaballie, Barbara Bosch, Rik Schrijvers, Marijke Proesmans, Kris De Boeck, Mieke Nelly Boon, François Vermeulen, Natalie Lorent, Doreen Dillaerts, Glynis Frans, Leen Moens, Inge Derdelinckx, Willy Peetermans, Bjørn Kantsø, Charlotte Svaerke Jørgensen, Marie-Paule Emonds, Xavier Bossuyt, Isabelle Meyts
BACKGROUND: Serotype-specific antibody responses to unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) evaluated by a World Health Organization (WHO)-standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the gold standard for diagnosis of specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SAD). The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) has proposed guidelines to interpret the PPV response measured by ELISA, but these are based on limited evidence. Additionally, ELISA is costly and labor-intensive...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553017/capsular-polysaccharide-is-a-main-component-of-mycoplasma-ovipneumoniae-in-the-pathogen-induced-toll-like-receptor-mediated-inflammatory-responses-in-sheep-airway-epithelial-cells
#13
Zhongjia Jiang, Fuyang Song, Yanan Li, Di Xue, Guangcun Deng, Min Li, Xiaoming Liu, Yujiong Wang
Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is characterized as an etiological agent of primary atypical pneumonia that specifically infects sheep and goat. In an attempt to better understand the pathogen-host interaction between the invading M. ovipneumoniae and airway epithelial cells, we investigated the host inflammatory responses against capsular polysaccharide (designated as CPS) of M. ovipneumoniae using sheep bronchial epithelial cells cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI) model. Results showed that CPS derived from M...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539445/structure-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-envelope-spikes-bound-with-cd4-and-monoclonal-antibody-36d5
#14
Guiqing Hu, Jun Liu, Kenneth H Roux, Kenneth A Taylor
The HIV-1/SIV envelope spike (Env) mediates the viral entry into host cells. The V3 loop of the gp120 component of the Env trimer contributes to the co-receptor binding site and is a target for neutralizing antibodies. We have used cryoelectron tomography to visualize the binding of CD4 and the V3 loop monoclonal antibody 36D5 to gp120 of the SIV Env. Our results show that 36D5 binds gp120 at the base of the V3 loop and suggest the antibody exerts its neutralization effect by blocking the co-receptor binding site...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522391/polysaccharides-from-ginseng-leaves-inhibit-tumor-metastasis-via-macrophage-and-nk-cell-activation
#15
Myoung-Sook Shin, Su-Hyun Hwang, Taek-Joon Yoon, Sung Han Kim, Kwang-Soon Shin
In this study, we purified the polysaccharide fraction (GS-P) from the leaves of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and analyzed its monosaccharide composition and antitumor and antimetastatic activity in vitro and in vivo. GS-P is a 10.2kDa pectic polysaccharide consisting of 15 different monosaccharides. GS-P treatment significantly inhibited metastasis in mice, in a dose-dependent manner. GS-P was not cytotoxic to colon 26-M3.1 cells and increased mouse splenocyte proliferation. Secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12 was enhanced in the peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEMs) of GS-P-treated mice...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495643/humoral-immune-reconstitution-kinetics-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children-a-maturation-block-of-igm-memory-b-cells-may-lead-to-impaired-antibody-immune-reconstitution
#16
Hisham Abdel-Azim, Amro Elshoury, Kris M Mahadeo, Robertson Parkman, Neena Kapoor
Although T cell immune reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been well studied, long-term B cell immune reconstitution remains less characterized. We evaluated humoral immune reconstitution among 71 pediatric allo-HSCT recipients. Although tetanus toxoid antibody levels were normal at 1 year after allo-HSCT, antipolysaccharide carbohydrate antibodies remained persistently low for up to 5 years. While naive B cell counts normalized by 6 months, IgM memory B cell deficiency persisted for up to 2 years (P = ...
May 8, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487087/recurrent-respiratory-tract-infections-rrti-in-the-elderly-a-late-onset-mild-immunodeficiency
#17
Esther van de Vosse, Monique M van Ostaijen-Ten Dam, René Vermaire, Els M Verhard, Jacqueline L Waaijer, Jaap A Bakker, Sandra T Bernards, Hermann Eibel, Maarten J van Tol, Jaap T van Dissel, Margje H Haverkamp
Elderly with late-onset recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTI) often have specific anti-polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD). We hypothesized that late-onset RRTI is caused by mild immunodeficiencies, such as SPAD, that remain hidden through adult life. We analyzed seventeen elderly RRTI patients and matched controls. We determined lymphocyte subsets, expression of BAFF receptors, serum immunoglobulins, complement pathways, Pneumovax-23 vaccination response and genetic variations in BAFFR and MBL2...
July 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472507/a-case-report-of-hypoglycemia-and-hypogammaglobulinemia-david-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-a-novel-nfkb2-mutation
#18
Rayhan A Lal, Laura K Bachrach, Andrew R Hoffman, Jingga Inlora, Shannon Rego, Michael P Snyder, David B Lewis
Context: DAVID syndrome (Deficient Anterior pituitary with Variable Immune Deficiency) is a rare disorder in which children present with symptomatic ACTH deficiency preceded by hypogammaglobulinemia from B-cell dysfunction with recurrent infections, termed common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Subsequent whole exome sequencing studies have revealed germline heterozygous C-terminal mutations of NFKB2 as either a cause of DAVID syndrome or of CVID without clinical hypopituitarism. However, to the best of our knowledge there have been no cases in which the endocrinopathy has presented in the absence of a prior clinical history of CVID...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454333/a-polysaccharide-component-from-strongylocentrotus-nudus-eggs-inhibited-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-mice-by-activating-t-lymphocytes
#19
Min Zhang, Yang Liu, Jingwen Li, Mengyun Ke, Jie Yu, Jie Dou, Hui Wang, Changlin Zhou
A component purified from Strongylocentrotus nudus eggs on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose-52 chromatography column and eluted using a NaCl solution gradient (SEP-S), is a homogeneous polysaccharide of α-D-glucan with a reduced molecular weight of 9.33×10(5) Da, compared with that of S. nudus egg polysaccharide (SEP). In an in vivo antitumor assay of histocompatibility-22 hepatocellular carcinoma in tumor-bearing mice, the inhibitory rates at SEP-S doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day were 38.8, 50.7 and 70.3%, respectively...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435909/self-assembled-particulate-psaa-as-vaccine-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#20
Majela González-Miro, Laura Rodríguez-Noda, Mildrey Fariñas-Medina, Dagmar García-Rivera, Vicente Vérez-Bencomo, Bernd H A Rehm
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen responsible for the majority of childhood pneumonia and media otitis cases worldwide. The diversity of its capsular polysaccharides (CPS) results in more than 91 serotypes of which at least 23 are virulent. Various CPS conjugated to immunogenic carrier proteins are currently licensed and provide protection against the infection caused by the respective serotypes but not against new and emerging virulent serotypes. In this study, we considered the conserved protein antigen PsaA, the pneumococcal surface adhesin A, in order to overcome the limitations of CPS antigens...
April 2017: Heliyon
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