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Anti-polysaccharide Antibody

Wendelin Wolfram, Kai M T Sauerwein, Christoph J Binder, Nicole Eibl-Musil, Hermann M Wolf, Michael B Fischer
HYPOTHESIS: Blood group antibodies are natural antibodies that develop early in life in response to cross-reactive environmental antigens in the absence of antigen encounter. Even later in life structural similarities in saccharide composition between environmental antigens such as bacterial polysaccharides and blood group A/B antigens could lead to changes in serum levels, IgM/IgG isotype, and affinity maturation of blood group anti-A/B antibodies. We addressed the question whether immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnP) vaccine Pneumo 23 Vaccine "Pasteur Merieux" (Pn23) could have such an effect in patients with type I diabetes mellitus (DM I), an autoimmune disease where an aberrant immune response to microbial antigens likely plays a role...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Jennifer L J Heaney, Anna C Phillips, Douglas Carroll, Mark T Drayson
CONTEXT: Salivary antibodies may act as non-invasive marker of systemic immunity enabling assessment of vaccination and protection against bacterial infections. OBJECTIVE: To assess if levels of anti-pneumococcal antibodies in saliva reflect concentrations in serum and determine whether saliva can accurately identify protective concentrations in serum. METHODS: IgG, IgA and IgM antibody levels in paired saliva and serum samples were measured against 12 pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens in 72 healthy adults...
November 25, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Elizabeth Sarmiento, Maria Jaramillo, Leticia Calahorra, Juan Fernandez-Yañez, Miguel Gomez-Sanchez, Maria G Crespo-Leiro, Maria Paniagua, Luis Almenar, Monica Cebrian, Gregorio Rabago, Beltran Levy, Javier Segovia, Manuel Gomez-Bueno, Javier Lopez, Sonia Mirabet, Joaquin Navarro, Juan Jose Rodriguez-Molina, Eduardo Fernandez-Cruz, Javier Carbone
BACKGROUND: New biomarkers are necessary to improve detection of the risk of infection in heart transplantation. We performed a multicenter study to evaluate humoral immunity profiles that could better enable us to identify heart recipients at risk of severe infections. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 170 adult heart recipients at 8 centers in Spain. Study points were before transplantation and 7 and 30 days after transplantation. Immune parameters included IgG, IgM, IgA and complement factors C3 and C4, and titers of specific antibody to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens (anti-PPS) and to cytomegalovirus (CMV)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
L Kristopher Siu, Yu-Kuo Tsai, Jung-Chung Lin, Te-Li Chen, Chang-Phone Fung, Feng-Yee Chang
In this study, a novel colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip (ICS) containing anti-K. pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide polyclonal antibodies was developed to specifically detect K. pneumoniae serotypes K1 and K2. Capsular polysaccharide K1 and K2 antigens were first used to produce polyclonal anti-K1 or -K2 antibodies. Reference strains with different serotypes, non-typable K. pneumoniae strains, and other bacterial species were then used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these test strips...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Soheila Alyasin, Marzieh Adab, Asieh Hosseinpour, Reza Amin, Maryam Babaei
BACKGROUND: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease which is characterized by B-cell abnormality and auto-antibody generation. Since bacterial infections are the most important causes of mortality in these patients, pneumococcal vaccination is recommended for children with SLE. OBJECTIVE: To investigate humoral immunity and specific-antibody formation in response to a 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccination in SLE children and asthmatic control group...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Zeyu Chen, Rong Guo, Jianghong Xu, Chuangjun Qiu
This study evaluated the immunogenicity and protective immunity of a Hemophilus influenzae b (Hib) polysaccharide conjugate vaccine with the pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) protein carrier in young mice. The Hib polysaccharide was conjugated with the rPsaA protein carrier, which was produced using recombinant DNA technology. A total of 15 young mice aged 3 weeks to 5 weeks were immunized with the conjugate vaccine, and another 15 young mice of the same age were immunized with the licensed Hib-tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine...
September 20, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Ken-Ichiro Minato, Lisa C Laan, Akihiro Ohara, Irma van Die
Many edible mushrooms have become attractive as "health foods" and as source materials for immunomodulators. To increase our insight in the immune-modulatory properties of a polysaccharide of the oyster mushroom Pleurotus citrinopileatus, PCPS, we analyzed its effects on the function of human dendritic cells (DCs). We showed that PCPS induces upregulation of the surface maturation markers CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR on DCs, indicating its potential to induce DC maturation. In addition, PCPS stimulates DCs to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12, as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and induces enhanced mRNA levels of the chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, and LTA...
September 1, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
E Mitsi, A M Roche, J Reiné, T Zangari, J T Owugha, S H Pennington, J F Gritzfeld, A D Wright, A M Collins, S van Selm, M I de Jonge, S B Gordon, J N Weiser, D M Ferreira
The ability of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) to decrease transmission by blocking the acquisition of colonization has been attributed to herd immunity. We describe the role of mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) to capsular polysaccharide (CPS) in mediating protection from carriage, translating our findings from a murine model to humans. We used a flow cytometric assay to quantify antibody-mediated agglutination demonstrating that hyperimmune sera generated against an unencapsulated mutant was poorly agglutinating...
August 31, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Antony R Parker, Emma Lock, Asma Iftikhar, Richard Barber, Phil D Stubbs, Stephen Harding, Gregg L F Wallis
OBJECTIVES: The production of reference materials for quantifying pneumococcal antibody concentrations relies upon large scale vaccination. An alternative simple, reproducible protocol has been developed for the affinity purification of 23 serotype anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP) IgG immunoglobulins. DESIGN & METHODS: The purification protocol utilised IgG fractionation, capsular polysaccharide (CPS) adsorption, and affinity chromatography using Pneumovax®-Sepharose...
August 17, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Hwiwon Lee, Beom-Ju Hong, Jeong Ho Lee, Sujin Yeo, Hoe-Yune Jung, Junho Chung, G-One Ahn, Sei Kwang Hahn
The liver is the most frequent site of metastasis with a 5-year survival rate of only 20-40%. In this work, hyaluronate (HA)-death receptor 5 antibody (DR5 Ab) conjugate was synthesized as a dual targeting therapeutic agent to treat liver metastasis. Dual targeting was achieved by DR5 Ab, a humanized agonistic monoclonal antibody binding to DR5 frequently overexpressed in many kinds of cancer cells, and by HA, a natural polysaccharide binding to HA receptors highly expressed in both the liver and cancer cells...
September 12, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Yuka Tanino, Takashi Hashimoto, Takao Ojima, Masashi Mizuno
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide from brown sea algae. In the present study, it was demonstrated that oral administration of F-fucoidan from Saccharina japonica possessed anti-allergic effects using the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction, but not by intraperitoneal administration. The inhibitory mechanism was dependent on galectin-9, which belongs to a soluble lectin family that recognizes β-galactoside and prevents IgE binding to mast cells. The anti-allergy properties of F-fucoidan were cancelled by an intravenous dose of anti-galectin-9 antibody or lactose, which bind competitively with galectin-9 before the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Nelli K Akhmatova, Ekaterina A Kurbatova, Elvin A Akhmatov, Nadezhda B Egorova, Denis Yu Logunov, Marina L Gening, Elena V Sukhova, Dmitry V Yashunsky, Yury E Tsvetkov, Nikolay E Nifantiev
We report the effect of a bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate of a synthetic hexasaccharide (HS) related to the fragment of the capsular polysaccharide (PS) of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 on the stimulation of innate immune system and the subsequent development of a PS-specific antibody response. Glycoconjugate (GC) in the presence (GC + AL) or absence of aluminum hydroxide was administered to mice twice. GC increased the number of TLR2-expressing cells and induced the maturation of dendritic cells (CD11c(+), CD80(+) and, MHCII(+)), which secreted IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα into the culture medium...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Cecilia Buonsanti, Cristiana Balocchi, Carole Harfouche, Federica Corrente, Luisa Galli Stampino, Francesca Mancini, Marta Tontini, Padma Malyala, Simone Bufali, Barbara Baudner, Ennio De Gregorio, Nicholas M Valiante, Derek T O'Hagan, Rino Rappuoli, Ugo D'Oro
Although glycoconjugate vaccines are generally very efficacious, there is still a need to improve their efficacy, especially in eliciting a strong primary antibody response. We have recently described a new type of vaccine adjuvant based on a TLR7 agonist adsorbed to alum (Alum-TLR7), which is highly efficacious at enhancing immunogenicity of protein based vaccines. Since no adjuvant has been shown to potentiate the immune response to glycoconjugate vaccines in humans, we investigated if Alum-TLR7 is able to improve immunogenicity of this class of vaccines...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kenji Kurokawa, Kazue Takahashi, Bok Luel Lee
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that is decorated by glycopolymers, including wall teichoic acid (WTA), peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid, and capsular polysaccharides. These bacterial surface glycopolymers are recognized by serum antibodies and a variety of pattern recognition molecules, including mannose-binding lectin (MBL). Recently, we demonstrated that human serum MBL senses staphylococcal WTA. Whereas MBL in infants who have not yet fully developed adaptive immunity binds to S...
October 2016: Immunobiology
Angjelina Konini, Eli Nix, Marina Ulanova, Seyed M Moghadas
Severe infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae type a (Hia) have reached alarming rates in some Canadian Aboriginal communities. We sought to estimate the frequency of exposure to this pathogen and timelines for boosting protective antibodies. We developed a model of secondary antigenic challenge (natural exposure), and used data for anti-Hia antibodies in serum samples of healthy and immunocompromised adults in a population of Northwestern Ontario, Canada. We parameterized the model with available estimates from previous studies for the decay rate of antibody and its protective levels against both Hia carriage and invasive disease...
June 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Monica Fabbrini, Fabio Rigat, C Daniela Rinaudo, Irene Passalaqua, Sceida Khacheh, Roberta Creti, Lucilla Baldassarri, Filippo Carboni, Giulia Anderloni, Roberto Rosini, Domenico Maione, Guido Grandi, John L Telford, Immaculada Margarit
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. A vaccine targeting pregnant women could protect infants through placentally transferred antibodies. The association between GBS maternal antibody concentrations and the risk of neonatal infection has been investigated in US and African populations. Here we studied naturally acquired immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to GBS capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and pilus proteins in European pregnant women...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Martina M Ochs, Kimberley Williams, Anthony Sheung, Philippe Lheritier, Lucian Visan, Nicolas Rouleau, Emilie Proust, Aymeric de Montfort, Mei Tang, Karine Mari, Robert Hopfer, Scott Gallichan, Roger H Brookes
Vaccines based on conserved pneumococcal proteins are being investigated because serotype coverage by pneumococcal polysaccharide and polysaccharide conjugate vaccines is incomplete and may eventually decrease due to serotype replacement. Here, we examined the functionality of human antibodies induced by a candidate bivalent choline-binding protein A- pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PcpA-PhtD) vaccine. Pre- and post-immune sera from subjects who had been vaccinated with the PcpA-PhtD candidate vaccine were tested in an established passive protection model in which mice were challenged by intravenous injection with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 strain A66...
November 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
M Tontini, M R Romano, D Proietti, E Balducci, F Micoli, C Balocchi, L Santini, V Masignani, F Berti, P Costantino
Glycoconjugate vaccines are made of carbohydrate antigens covalently bound to a carrier protein to enhance their immunogenicity. Among the different carrier proteins tested in preclinical and clinical studies, five have been used so far for licensed vaccines: Diphtheria and Tetanus toxoids, the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM197, the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and the Protein D derived from non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Availability of novel carriers might help to overcome immune interference in multi-valent vaccines containing several polysaccharide-conjugate antigens, and also to develop vaccines which target both protein as well saccharide epitopes of the same pathogen...
July 29, 2016: Vaccine
Chao Deng, Jingying Shang, Haitian Fu, Jingxiao Chen, Hanying Liu, Jinghua Chen
Dictyophora indusiata, an edible mushroom, is widely used not only as health foods but also as traditional Chinese medicine. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism involved in the immunostimulatory activity of a polysaccharide from Dictyophora indusiata (DIP) in RAW264.7 cells. Results indicated that DIP induced the up-regulation of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) production as well as the mRNA expression levels of iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in macrophages...
October 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Takehiro Togashi, Nodoka Mitsuya, Osamu Kogawara, Shuji Sumino, Yohei Takanami, Kayoko Sugizaki
BACKGROUND: Broad use of monovalent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines based on the capsular polysaccharide polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP), has significantly reduced invasive Hib disease burden in children worldwide, particularly in children aged <1year. In Japan, PRP conjugated to tetanus toxoid (PRP-T) vaccine has been widely used since the initiation of public funding programs followed by a routine vaccination designation in 2013. METHODS: We compared the immunogenicity and safety of PRP conjugated to a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant (PRP-CRM197) vaccine with the PRP-T vaccine when administered subcutaneously to healthy Japanese children in a phase III study...
August 31, 2016: Vaccine
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