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Anti-polysaccharide Antibody

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791435/immunogenicity-and-efficacy-following-sequential-parenterally-administered-doses-of-salmonella-enteritidis-cops-flic-glycoconjugates-in-infant-and-adult-mice
#1
Scott M Baliban, Brittany Curtis, Deanna Toema, Sharon M Tennant, Myron M Levine, Marcela F Pasetti, Raphael Simon
In sub-Saharan Africa, invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections with serovars S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and I 4,[5],12:i:- are widespread in children < 5 years old. Development of an efficacious vaccine would provide an important public health tool to prevent iNTS disease in this population. Glycoconjugates of S. Enteritidis core and O-polysaccharide (COPS) coupled to the homologous serovar phase 1 flagellin protein (FliC) were previously shown to be immunogenic and protected adult mice against death following challenge with a virulent Malian S...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754764/monitoring-of-early-humoral-immunity-to-identify-lung-recipients-at-risk-for-development-of-serious-infections-a-multicenter-prospective-study
#2
Elizabeth Sarmiento, Jose Cifrian, Leticia Calahorra, Carles Bravo, Sonia Lopez, Rosalia Laporta, Piedad Ussetti, Amparo Sole, Carmen Morales, Alicia de Pablos, Maria Jaramillo, Ikram Ezzahouri, Sandra García, Joaquin Navarro, Marcos Lopez-Hoyos, Javier Carbone
BACKGROUND: Infection is still a leading cause of death during the first year after lung transplantation. We performed a multicenter study among teaching hospitals to assess monitoring of early humoral immunity as a means of identifying lung recipients at risk of serious infections. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 82 adult lung recipients at 5 centers in Spain. Data were collected before transplantation and at 7 and 30 days after transplantation. Biomarkers included IgG, IgM, IgA, complement factors C3 and C4, titers of antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens (IgG, IgA, IgM) and antibodies to cytomegalovirus (IgG), and serum B-cell activating factor (BAFF) levels...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694999/novel-approaches-to-the-study-of-neonatal-infections
#3
Alessandro Borghesi, Mauro Stronati, Riccardo Castagnoli, Irene Ioimo, Cristian Achille, Paolo Manzoni, Chryssoula Tzialla
The pathogenesis of neonatal infection is incompletely understood. Neonatal immune immaturity and the microbial factors of virulence only partially explain the interindividual differences in the protective responses to the most common neonatal pathogens. Stratification of infants into high- and low-risk groups through epidemiological studies has been invaluable in designing preventive strategies and reducing the burden of neonatal infection. The discovery of the role of maternal antibodies (Abs) as, for instance, anti-capsular polysaccharide group B streptococcal (GBS) Abs, in protecting newborn infants against neonatal GBS sepsis, has been a milestone in the unraveling of the molecular underpinnings of susceptibility to infection in the neonatal age...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681410/development-of-a-bivalent-conjugate-vaccine-candidate-against-malaria-transmission-and-typhoid-fever
#4
So Jung An, Puthupparampil V Scaria, Beth Chen, Emma Barnafo, Olga Muratova, Charles Anderson, Lynn Lambert, Myung Hwa Chae, Jae Seung Yang, Patrick E Duffy
Immune responses to poorly immunogenic antigens, such as polysaccharides, can be enhanced by conjugation to carriers. Our previous studies indicate that conjugation to Vi polysaccharide of Salmonella Typhi may also enhance immunogenicity of some protein carriers. We therefore explored the possibility of generating a bivalent vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria and typhoid fever, which are co-endemic in many parts of the world, by conjugating Vi polysaccharide, an approved antigen in typhoid vaccine, to Pfs25, a malaria transmission blocking vaccine antigen in clinical trials...
April 19, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675174/a-modular-synthetic-route-to-size-defined-immunogenic-haemophilus-influenzae-b-antigens-is-key-to-the-identification-of-an-octasaccharide-lead-vaccine-candidate
#5
J Y Baek, A Geissner, D C K Rathwell, D Meierhofer, C L Pereira, P H Seeberger
The first glycoconjugate vaccine using isolated glycans was licensed to protect children from Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) infections. Subsequently, the first semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccine using a mixture of antigens derived by polymerization targeted the same pathogen. Still, a detailed understanding concerning the correlation between oligosaccharide chain length and the immune response towards the polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP) capsular polysaccharide that surrounds Hib remains elusive...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672953/astragalus-polysaccharides-exerts-anti-infective-activity-by-inducing-human-cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-in-respiratory-epithelial-cells
#6
Lin Zhao, Shuai Tan, Hai Zhang, Peng Liu, Yu-Zhu Tan, Jia-Chuan Li, Da Jia, Xiao-Fei Shen
Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), one of the major active components in Astragalus membranaceus, is an effective immunomodulator used in the treatment of immunological diseases in China. However, the anti-infective action and mechanism of APS is not fully known. In the present study, we found that APS induced the expression of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37, a key host anti-infective molecule, in both mRNA and protein levels in respiratory epithelial cells HBE16 and A549. Furthermore, the lysate and supernatant from APS-treated HBE16 cells both exhibited an obvious antibacterial action, which was partially neutralizated by LL-37 monoclonal antibody...
April 19, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624592/anti-o-specific-polysaccharide-osp-immune-responses-following-vaccination-with-oral-cholera-vaccine-cvd-103-hgr-correlate-with-protection-against-cholera-after-infection-with-wild-type-vibrio-cholerae-o1-el-tor-inaba-in-north-american-volunteers
#7
Kamrul Islam, Motaher Hossain, Meagan Kelly, Leslie M Mayo Smith, Richelle C Charles, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Pavol Kováč, Peng Xu, Regina C LaRocque, Stephen B Calderwood, Jakub K Simon, Wilbur H Chen, Douglas Haney, Michael Lock, Caroline E Lyon, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Mitchell Cohen, Myron M Levine, Marc Gurwith, Jason B Harris, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T Ryan
BACKGROUND: Cholera is an acute voluminous dehydrating diarrheal disease caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 and occasionally O139. A growing body of evidence indicates that immune responses targeting the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) of V. cholerae are involved in mediating protection against cholera. We therefore assessed whether antibody responses against OSP occur after vaccination with live attenuated oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR, and whether such responses correlate with protection against cholera...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482613/identification-of-a-novel-mechanism-of-action-of-bovine-igg-antibodies-specific-for-staphylococcus-aureus
#8
Mutsumi Furukawa, Hiroshi Yoneyama, Eiji Hata, Hidetomo Iwano, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Tasuke Ando, Mika Sato, Tomohito Hayashi, Yoshio Kiku, Yuya Nagasawa, Kanae Niimi, Katsuki Usami, Kumiko Ito, Kouichi Watanabe, Tomonori Nochi, Hisashi Aso
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that causes subclinical mastitis associated with huge economic losses to the dairy industry. A few vaccines for bovine mastitis are available, and they are expected to induce the production of S. aureus-specific antibodies that prevent bacterial adherence to host cells or promote opsonization by phagocytes. However, the efficacy of such vaccines are still under debate; therefore, further research focusing on improving the current vaccines by seeking additional mechanisms of action is required to reduce economic losses due to mastitis in the dairy industry...
February 26, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459064/comparison-of-serum-bactericidal-and-antibody-titers-induced-by-two-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-conjugate-vaccines-a-phase-iii-randomized-double-blind-study
#9
Yukihiro Akeda, Yuka Koizumi, Yohei Takanami, Shuji Sumino, Yumi Hattori, Kayoko Sugizaki, Nodoka Mitsuya, Kazunori Oishi
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines have drastically reduced disease incidence worldwide. Protection against Hib infection has relied on the serum bactericidal activity (SBA) of antibodies to the Hib capsular polysaccharide (polyribosylribitol phosphate). However, licensure usually relies on measuring induction of antibodies to PRP as a surrogate for SBA. In a phase III clinical trial we compared a PRP-conjugate vaccine using the nontoxic diphtheria toxin mutant, CRM197 , as carrier protein with the licensed tetanus toxoid conjugate when administered subcutaneously as a three dose primary series in Japanese infants...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432051/immunogenicity-and-persistence-of-a-prime-boost-re-vaccination-strategy-for-pneumococcal-vaccines-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
Mathilde Bahuaud, Constance Beaudouin-Bazire, Marine Husson, Anna Molto, Odile Launay, Frédéric Batteux, Maxime Dougados
OBJECTIVES: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at an increased risk of Pneumococcal infections. Immunogenicity and persistence of a prime-boost revaccination strategy using 13-valent/23-valent anti-pneumococcal vaccines was evaluated in patients with RA treated by Methotrexate (MTX) and anti-TNF. METHOD: Twenty-four patients with RA received one dose of PCV13 (Prevenar13®; Pfizer) followed two months later by one dose of PPV23 (Pneumovax®, Merck). Concentrations of IgG specific for 7 serotypes common to both vaccines and 3 uncommon serotypes, included only in the PPV23 were measured by ELISA and Opsonophagocytic Assay (OPA) at baseline and after 4, 12 and 24 months post-vaccine...
February 12, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423317/design-and-production-of-conjugate-vaccines-against-s-paratyphi-a-using-an-o-linked-glycosylation-system-in-vivo
#11
Peng Sun, Chao Pan, Ming Zeng, Bo Liu, Haoyu Liang, Dongshu Wang, Xiankai Liu, Bin Wang, Yufei Lyu, Jun Wu, Li Zhu, Hengliang Wang
Enteric fever, mainly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A , remains a common and serious infectious disease worldwide. As yet, there are no licensed vaccines against S . Paratyphi A . Biosynthesis of conjugate vaccines has become a promising approach against bacterial infection. However, the popular biosynthetic strategy using N-linked glycosylation systems does not recognize the specialized O-polysaccharide structure of S . Paratyphi A . Here, we describe an O-linked glycosylation approach, the only currently available glycosylation system suitable for an S ...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422338/linear-%C3%AE-1-%C3%A2-6-d-glucan-from-bifidobacterium-bifidum-bim-%C3%B0-733d-is-low-molecular-mass-biopolymer-with-unique-immunochemical-properties
#12
Elena P Kiseleva, Konstantin I Mikhailopulo, Evelina L Zdorovenko, Yuriy A Knirel, Galina I Novik
Role of microorganisms in induction of/protection from autoimmune diseases is proven though molecular mechanisms and bacterial/viral/yeast biopolymers responsible for these effects are in the research stage. Autoantobodies (AAbs) to thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) as well as AAbs to transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2) and antibodies to gliadins (anti-gliadins) are serological markers of autoimmune thyroid disease and celiac disease, respectively, and players in pathogenesis of these autoimmune diseases...
December 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416597/peptide-adjacent-to-glycosylation-sites-impacts-immunogenicity-of-glycoconjugate-vaccine
#13
Zhongrui Ma, Huajie Zhang, Peng George Wang, Xian-Wei Liu, Min Chen
Glycoconjugate vaccine is composed of polysaccharides (PSs) covalently linked with carrier protein. Glycosylation site selection, as a significant factor leading to heterogeneities of glycoconjugate structure, draws more and more attentions for its impact on the immunogenicity of glycoconjugate vaccine. To elucidate the relationship between glycosylation connectivity and immunogenicity of glycoconjugate vaccine, in this study, anti- E. coli O157:H7 glycoconjugate O-PS-MBP with defined connectivity, and three selected peptide segments GS1, GS2, GS3 derived from O-PS-MBP was synthesized...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410270/molecular-mechanisms-of-immunomodulatory-activity-by-polysaccharide-isolated-from-the-peels-of-citrus-unshiu
#14
Myoung-Sook Shin, Su Beom Park, Kwang-Soon Shin
The extracts of the Citrus unshiu fruit induce numerous biological activities such as anticancer, anti-adipogenic, and antimicrobial effects. Furthermore, its peel has been used as a Chinese medicine for centuries and is consumed as a tea in China, Japan, and Korea. We investigated the effects of the polysaccharide isolated from C. unshiu peel (CPE-II) on cytokine and inflammatory mediator production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and performed signal transduction experiments to identify the pathways involved in its actions...
June 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408886/contribution-of-bacterial-pathogens-to-evoking-serological-disease-markers-and-aggravating-disease-activity-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
Kuniaki Terato, Takaki Waritani, Richio Fukai, Hiroshi Shionoya, Hiroshi Itoh, Kou Katayama
Commensal bacteria and their pathogenic components in the gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity may play pathological roles in autoimmune diseases. To study the possible involvement of bacterial pathogens in autoimmune diseases, IgG and IgA antibodies against pathogenic components produced by three strains of commensal bacteria, Escherichia coli-lipopolysaccharide (E. coli-LPS), Porphyromonas gingivalis-LPS (Pg-LPS) and peptidoglycan polysaccharide (PG-PS) from Streptococcus pyogenes, were determined by an improved ELISA system for sera from two groups of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who met rapid radiographic progression (RRP) criteria and non-RRP, and compared to normal (NL) controls...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400602/identification-of-sp1683-as-a-pneumococcal-protein-that-is-protective-against-nasopharyngeal-colonization
#16
Leen Moens, Philippe Hermand, Tine Wellens, Greet Wuyts, Rita Derua, Etienne Waelkens, Carine Ysebaert, Fabrice Godfroid, Xavier Bossuyt
Serotype-independent protein-based pneumococcal vaccines represent attractive alternatives to capsular polysaccharide-based vaccines. The aim of this study was to identify novel immunogenic proteins from Streptococcus pneumoniae that may be used in protein-based pneumococcal vaccine. An immunoproteomics approach and a humanized severe combined immunodeficient mouse model were used to identify S. pneumoniae proteins that are immunogenic for the human immune system. Among the several proteins identified, SP1683 was selected, recombinantly produced, and infection and colonization murine models were used to evaluate the capacity of SP1683 to elicit protective responses, in comparison to known pneumococcal immunogenic proteins (PhtD and detoxified pneumolysin, dPly)...
February 5, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391229/antitumor-activity-and-underlying-mechanism-of-sargassum-fusiforme-polysaccharides-in-cne-bearing-mice
#17
Sairong Fan, Guoqing Yu, Wenjian Nie, Jing Jin, Lvao Chen, Xiaoming Chen
This study was designed to investigate the antitumor effects of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides (SFPS) on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the underlying mechanism of its effect on splenic lymphocytes. As a result, SFPS significantly inhibited the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE in vivo, and remarkably increased the serum cytokines and IgM levels in CNE-bearing mice. Meanwhile, SFPS stimulated the peritoneal macrophages to secrete the cytokines, exerted a stimulatory effect on splenic lymphocytes proliferation, and increased the expression of IgM from splenic lymphocytes...
June 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374589/functional-activity-of-maternal-and-cord-antibodies-elicited-by-an-investigational-group-b-streptococcus-trivalent-glycoconjugate-vaccine-in-pregnant-women
#18
Monica Fabbrini, Fabio Rigat, Giovanna Tuscano, Emiliano Chiarot, Gilbert Donders, Roland Devlieger, Sara Filippini, Elisabetta Frigimelica, Pietro Forte, Frederick Wittke, Scott A Halperin, Karen Slobod, Guido Grandi, Immaculada Margarit
OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate functional activity of antibodies elicited by a maternal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) investigational vaccine composed of capsular polysaccharides Ia, Ib, and III conjugated to genetically detoxified Diphtheria toxin CRM197 . The second objective was to investigate the relationship between serotype-specific IgG concentrations and functional activity in maternal and cord sera. METHODS: Maternal and cord sera collected at baseline and at delivery from vaccine and placebo recipients during a double-blind placebo-controlled Phase II study (www...
May 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354293/bi-valent-polysaccharides-of-vi-capsular-and-o9-o-antigen-in-attenuated-salmonella-typhimurium-induce-strong-immune-responses-against-these-two-antigens
#19
Pei Li, Qing Liu, Hongyan Luo, Kang Liang, Yue Han, Kenneth L Roland, Roy Curtiss, Qingke Kong
Salmonella Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever in humans, responsible for approximately 21 million infections and 222,000 deaths globally each year. The current licensed vaccines provide moderate protection to recipients aged >2 years. Prior work on typhoid vaccines has focused on injectable Vi capsular polysaccharide or Vi-protein conjugates and live, oral attenuated S . Typhi vaccines to induce humoral anti-Vi antibodies, while the value and importance of anti-O9 antibodies is less well established...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329339/accessibility-and-contribution-to-glucan-masking-of-natural-and-genetically-tagged-versions-of-yeast-wall-protein-1-of-candida-albicans
#20
Bruce L Granger
Yeast wall protein 1 (Ywp1) is an abundant glycoprotein of the cell wall of the yeast form of Candida albicans, the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. Antibodies that bind to the polypeptide backbone of isolated Ywp1 show little binding to intact yeast cells, presumably because the Ywp1 epitopes are masked by the polysaccharides of the mannoproteins that form the outer layer of the cell wall. Rare cells do exhibit much greater anti-Ywp1 binding, however, and one of these was isolated and characterized...
2018: PloS One
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