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Anti-polysaccharide Antibody

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539445/structure-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-envelope-spikes-bound-with-cd4-and-monoclonal-antibody-36d5
#1
Guiqing Hu, Jun Liu, Kenneth H Roux, Kenneth A Taylor
The HIV-1/SIV envelope spike (Env) mediates the viral entry into host cells. The V3 loop of the gp120 component of the Env trimer contributes to the co-receptor binding site and is a target for neutralizing antibodies. We have used cryoelectron tomography to visualize the binding of CD4 and the V3 loop monoclonal antibody 36D5 to gp120 of the SIV Env. Our results show that 36D5 binds gp120 at the base of the V3 loop and suggest the antibody exerts its neutralization effect by blocking the co-receptor binding site...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522391/polysaccharides-from-ginseng-leaves-inhibit-tumor-metastasis-via-macrophage-and-nk-cell-activation
#2
Myoung-Sook Shin, Su-Hyun Hwang, Taek-Joon Yoon, Kwang-Soon Shin
In this study, we purified the polysaccharide fraction (GS-P) from the leaves of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and analyzed its monosaccharide composition and antitumor and antimetastatic activity in vitro and in vivo. GS-P is a 10.2kDa pectic polysaccharide consisting of 15 different monosaccharides. GS-P treatment significantly inhibited metastasis in mice, in a dose-dependent manner. GS-P was not cytotoxic to colon 26-M3.1 cells and increased mouse splenocyte proliferation. Secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12 was enhanced in the peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEMs) of GS-P-treated mice...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495643/humoral-immune-reconstitution-kinetics-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children-a-maturation-block-of-igm-memory-b-cells-may-lead-to-impaired-antibody-immune-reconstitution
#3
Hisham Abdel-Azim, Amro Elshoury, Kris M Mahadeo, Robertson Parkman, Neena Kapoor
Although T cell immune reconstitution following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been well studied, long-term B cell immune reconstitution remains less characterized. We evaluated humoral immune reconstitution among 71-pediatric allo-HSCT recipients. While tetanus toxoid (TT) antibody levels were normal at 1-year post allo-HSCT, anti-polysaccharide carbohydrate (PRP) antibodies remained persistently low for up to 5-years. While naive B cell counts normalized by 6-months, IgM memory B cell deficiency persisted for up to 2-years (P=0...
May 8, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487087/recurrent-respiratory-tract-infections-rrti-in-the-elderly-a-late-onset-mild-immunodeficiency
#4
Esther van de Vosse, Monique M van Ostaijen-Ten Dam, René Vermaire, Els M Verhard, Jacqueline L Waaijer, Jaap A Bakker, Sandra T Bernards, Hermann Eibel, Maarten J van Tol, Jaap T van Dissel, Margje H Haverkamp
Elderly with late-onset recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTI) often have specific anti-polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD). We hypothesized that late-onset RRTI is caused by mild immunodeficiencies, such as SPAD, that remain hidden through adult life. We analyzed seventeen elderly RRTI patients and matched controls. We determined lymphocyte subsets, expression of BAFF receptors, serum immunoglobulins, complement pathways, Pneumovax-23 vaccination response and genetic variations in BAFFR and MBL2...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472507/a-case-report-of-hypoglycemia-and-hypogammaglobulinemia-david-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-a-novel-nfkb2-mutation
#5
Rayhan A Lal, Laura K Bachrach, Andrew R Hoffman, Jingga Inlora, Shannon Rego, Michael P Snyder, David B Lewis
Context: DAVID syndrome (Deficient Anterior pituitary with Variable Immune Deficiency) is a rare disorder in which children present with symptomatic ACTH deficiency preceded by hypogammaglobulinemia from B-cell dysfunction with recurrent infections, termed common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Subsequent whole exome sequencing studies have revealed germline heterozygous C-terminal mutations of NFKB2 as either a cause of DAVID syndrome or of CVID without clinical hypopituitarism. However, to the best of our knowledge there have been no cases in which the endocrinopathy has presented in the absence of a prior clinical history of CVID...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454333/a-polysaccharide-component-from-strongylocentrotus-nudus-eggs-inhibited-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-mice-by-activating-t-lymphocytes
#6
Min Zhang, Yang Liu, Jingwen Li, Mengyun Ke, Jie Yu, Jie Dou, Hui Wang, Changlin Zhou
A component purified from Strongylocentrotus nudus eggs on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose-52 chromatography column and eluted using a NaCl solution gradient (SEP-S), is a homogeneous polysaccharide of α-D-glucan with a reduced molecular weight of 9.33×10(5) Da, compared with that of S. nudus egg polysaccharide (SEP). In an in vivo antitumor assay of histocompatibility-22 hepatocellular carcinoma in tumor-bearing mice, the inhibitory rates at SEP-S doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day were 38.8, 50.7 and 70.3%, respectively...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435909/self-assembled-particulate-psaa-as-vaccine-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#7
Majela González-Miro, Laura Rodríguez-Noda, Mildrey Fariñas-Medina, Dagmar García-Rivera, Vicente Vérez-Bencomo, Bernd H A Rehm
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen responsible for the majority of childhood pneumonia and media otitis cases worldwide. The diversity of its capsular polysaccharides (CPS) results in more than 91 serotypes of which at least 23 are virulent. Various CPS conjugated to immunogenic carrier proteins are currently licensed and provide protection against the infection caused by the respective serotypes but not against new and emerging virulent serotypes. In this study, we considered the conserved protein antigen PsaA, the pneumococcal surface adhesin A, in order to overcome the limitations of CPS antigens...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425925/evaluation-of-the-immunomodulatory-properties-of-streptococcus-suis-and-group-b-streptococcus-capsular-polysaccharides-on-the-humoral-response
#8
Cynthia Calzas, Morgan Taillardet, Insaf Salem Fourati, David Roy, Marcelo Gottschalk, Hugo Soudeyns, Thierry Defrance, Mariela Segura
Streptococcus suis and group B Streptococcus (GBS) are encapsulated streptococci causing septicemia and meningitis. Antibodies (Abs) against capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) have a crucial protective role, but the structure/composition of the CPS, including the presence of sialic acid, may interfere with the generation of anti-CPS Ab responses. We investigated the features of the CPS-specific Ab response directed against S. suis serotypes 2 and 14 and GBS serotypes III and V after infection or immunization with purified native or desialylated CPSs in mice...
April 20, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425855/tumor-targeting-peptides-ligands-for-molecular-imaging-and-therapy
#9
Ning Zhao, Yeshan Qin, Hongguang Liu, Z Cheng
The aberrant proliferation of tumor cells and abundant vasculature in tumor tissues are closely correlated with receptors that are specifically dysregulated in tumor cells. These tumor-associated targets are critical in early diagnosis and therapy selection. Ligands such as antibodies, proteins, polypeptides and polysaccharides that specifically bind to these targets can significantly improve the detection and cure rate when used as tumor imaging probes or anti-tumor agents. Compared to other targeting ligands, peptides have attracted increasingly more attention in tumor diagnostics and therapeutics because of their small sizes, high affinity, stability, ease of modification and low immunogenicity...
April 19, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423910/conformational-preference-of-serogroup-b-salmonella-o-polysaccharide-in-presence-and-absence-of-the-monoclonal-antibody-se155-4
#10
Mingjun Yang, Raphael Simon, Alexander D MacKerell
Salmonella infection is a major public health problem worldwide. Antibodies directed toward the O polysaccharide (OPS) of S. Typhimurium, a serogroup B nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar, have protected against fatal infection in animal models. The OPS is known to undergo O-acetylation, though the impact of these modifications on antibody binding is poorly understood. Using molecular simulations, we assessed the conformational properties and antigen-antibody interactions of deacetylated and O-acetylated S. Typhimurium OPS when bound by monoclonal anti-OPS IgG Se155-4...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420056/treatment-with-belimumab-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-does-not-impair-antibody-response-to-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#11
J Nagel, T Saxne, P Geborek, A A Bengtsson, S Jacobsen, C Svaerke Joergensen, J-Å Nilsson, L Skattum, A Jönsen, M C Kapetanovic
Background/purpose The objective of this study was to explore the impact of systemic lupus erythematosus and belimumab given in addition to standard of care therapy on 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) response. Methods Forty-seven systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 21 healthy controls were immunized with a single dose of 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine. Forty systemic lupus erythematosus patients were treated with traditional disease-modifying anti rheumatic drugs, 11 of those received belimumab in addition, and 32 patients were treated with concomitant prednisolone...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392142/memory-b-cell-response-to-a-pcv-13-booster-in-3-5year-old-children-primed-with-either-pcv-7-or-pcv-13
#12
Johannes Trück, Amber Thompson, Begonia Morales-Aza, Elizabeth A Clutterbuck, Merryn Voysey, Ed Clarke, Matthew D Snape, Dominic F Kelly, Adam Finn, Andrew J Pollard
Pneumococcal protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines provide direct protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae through the induction of persistent anti-polysaccharide antibodies, and by priming for a rapid secondary antibody response. Memory B cells (BMEM) generated during an initial immune response are responsible for both the more rapid and quantitatively greater secondary antibody response and are also thought to contribute to the ongoing production of plasma cells providing long-term antibody persistence...
May 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388624/development-of-a-glycoconjugate-vaccine-to-prevent-invasive-salmonella-typhimurium-infections-in-sub-saharan-africa
#13
Scott M Baliban, Mingjun Yang, Girish Ramachandran, Brittany Curtis, Surekha Shridhar, Rachel S Laufer, Jin Y Wang, John Van Druff, Ellen E Higginson, Nicolas Hegerle, Kristen M Varney, James E Galen, Sharon M Tennant, Andrew Lees, Alexander D MacKerell, Myron M Levine, Raphael Simon
Invasive infections associated with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars Enteritidis (SE), Typhimurium (STm) and monophasic variant 1,4,[5],12:i:- are a major health problem in infants and young children in sub-Saharan Africa, and currently, there are no approved human NTS vaccines. NTS O-polysaccharides and flagellin proteins are protective antigens in animal models of invasive NTS infection. Conjugates of SE core and O-polysaccharide (COPS) chemically linked to SE flagellin have enhanced the anti-COPS immune response and protected mice against fatal challenge with a Malian SE blood isolate...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386600/novel-solutions-for-vaccines-and-diagnostics-to-combat-brucellosis
#14
Satadru Sekhar Mandal, Lucy Duncombe, N Vijaya Ganesh, Susmita Sarkar, Laurence Howells, Philip J Hogarth, David R Bundle, John McGiven
Brucellosis is diagnosed by detection of antibodies in the blood of animals and humans that are specific for two carbohydrate antigens, termed A and M, which are present concurrently in a single cell wall O-polysaccharide. Animal brucellosis vaccines contain these antigenic determinants, and consequently infected and vaccinated animals cannot be differentiated as both groups produce A and M specific antibodies. We hypothesized that chemical synthesis of a pure A vaccine would offer unique identification of infected animals by a synthetic M diagnostic antigen that would not react with antibodies generated by this vaccine...
March 22, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337196/salmonella-typhi-porins-ompc-and-ompf-are-potent-adjuvants-for-t-dependent-and-t-independent-antigens
#15
Marisol Pérez-Toledo, Nuriban Valero-Pacheco, Rodolfo Pastelin-Palacios, Cristina Gil-Cruz, Christian Perez-Shibayama, Mario A Moreno-Eutimio, Ingeborg Becker, Sonia Mayra Pérez-Tapia, Lourdes Arriaga-Pizano, Adam F Cunningham, Armando Isibasi, Laura C Bonifaz, Constantino López-Macías
Several microbial components, such as bacterial DNA and flagellin, have been used as experimental vaccine adjuvants because of their inherent capacity to efficiently activate innate immune responses. Likewise, our previous work has shown that the major Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) outer membrane proteins OmpC and OmpF (porins) are highly immunogenic protective antigens that efficiently stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses in the absence of exogenous adjuvants. Moreover, S. Typhi porins induce the expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells through toll-like receptor canonical signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292980/streptococcus-pneumoniae-transmission-is-blocked-by-type-specific-immunity-in-an-infant-mouse-model
#16
Tonia Zangari, Yang Wang, Jeffrey N Weiser
Epidemiological studies on Streptococcus pneumoniae show that rates of carriage are highest in early childhood and that the major benefit of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is a reduction in the incidence of nasopharyngeal colonization through decreased transmission within a population. In this study, we sought to understand how anti-S. pneumoniae immunity affects nasal shedding of bacteria, the limiting step in experimental pneumococcal transmission. Using an infant mouse model, we examined the role of immunity (passed from mother to pup) on shedding and within-litter transmission of S...
March 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288168/a-novel-flow-cytometry-based-assay-for-the-quantification-of-antibody-dependent-pneumococcal-agglutination
#17
Marrit N Habets, Saskia van Selm, Christa E van der Gaast-de Jongh, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Marien I de Jonge
The respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of diseases such as otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. The first step towards infection is colonization of the nasopharynx. Recently, it was shown that agglutinating antibodies play an important role in the prevention of mucosal colonization with S. pneumoniae. Here, we present a novel method to quantify antibody-dependent pneumococcal agglutination in a high-throughput manner using flow cytometry. We found that the concentration of agglutinating antibodies against pneumococcal capsule are directly correlated with changes in the size and complexity of bacterial aggregates, as measured by flow cytometry and confirmed by light microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287405/t-cells-control-the-generation-of-nanomolar-affinity-anti-glycan-antibodies
#18
Zinaida Polonskaya, Shenglou Deng, Anita Sarkar, Lisa Kain, Marta Comellas-Aragones, Craig S McKay, Katarzyna Kaczanowska, Marie Holt, Ryan McBride, Valle Palomo, Kevin M Self, Seth Taylor, Adriana Irimia, Sanjay R Mehta, Jennifer M Dan, Matthew Brigger, Shane Crotty, Stephen P Schoenberger, James C Paulson, Ian A Wilson, Paul B Savage, M G Finn, Luc Teyton
Vaccines targeting glycan structures at the surface of pathogenic microbes must overcome the inherent T cell-independent nature of immune responses against glycans. Carbohydrate conjugate vaccines achieve this by coupling bacterial polysaccharides to a carrier protein that recruits heterologous CD4 T cells to help B cell maturation. Yet they most often produce low- to medium-affinity immune responses of limited duration in immunologically fit individuals and disappointing results in the elderly and immunocompromised patients...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208594/immunomodulatory-and-anti-ibdv-activities-of-the-polysaccharide-aex-from-coccomyxa-gloeobotrydiformis
#19
Qiang Guo, Qiang Shao, Wenping Xu, Lei Rui, Ryo Sumi, Fumio Eguchi, Zandong Li
A number of polysaccharides have been reported to show immunomodulatory and antiviral activities against various animal viruses. AEX is a polysaccharide extracted from the green algae, Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis. The aim of this study was to examine the function of AEX in regulating the immune response in chickens and its capacity to inhibit the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), to gain an understanding of its immunomodulatory and antiviral ability. Here, preliminary immunological tests in vitro showed that the polysaccharide AEX can activate the chicken peripheral blood molecular cells' (PBMCs) response by inducing the production of cytokines and NO, promote extracellular antigen presentation but negatively regulate intracellular antigen presentation in chicken splenic lymphocytes, and promote the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and DT40 cells...
February 10, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161422/il-17a-and-complement-contribute-to-killing-of-pneumococci-following-immunization-with-a-pneumococcal-whole-cell-vaccine
#20
Ivana B Campos, Muriel Herd, Kristin L Moffitt, Ying-Jie Lu, Michelle Darrieux, Richard Malley, Luciana C C Leite, Viviane M Gonçalves
The pneumococcal whole cell vaccine (PWCV) has been investigated as an alternative to polysaccharide-based vaccines currently in use. It is a non-encapsulated killed vaccine preparation that induces non-capsular antibodies protecting mice against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and reducing nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage via IL-17A activation of mouse phagocytes. Here, we show that PWCV induces antibody and IL-17A production to protect mice against challenge in a fatal aspiration-sepsis model after only one dose...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
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