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J Y Baek, A Geissner, D C K Rathwell, D Meierhofer, C L Pereira, P H Seeberger
The first glycoconjugate vaccine using isolated glycans was licensed to protect children from Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) infections. Subsequently, the first semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccine using a mixture of antigens derived by polymerization targeted the same pathogen. Still, a detailed understanding concerning the correlation between oligosaccharide chain length and the immune response towards the polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP) capsular polysaccharide that surrounds Hib remains elusive...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Henry H Bernstein, Elisabeth R Seyferth
BACKGROUND: While combination vaccines have contributed to improved vaccine uptake rates in children, studies have documented varied immunogenicity to specific vaccine components. We studied whether varying the amount of tetanus toxoid (TT) in a DTaP and Hib combination vaccine would result in immunogenicity comparable with separate, concurrent administration. METHODS: We evaluated the immunogenicity of Massachusetts Biologic Laboratories (MBL) diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (mDTaP) vaccine combined with tetanus-conjugated MBL Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (mHib) in a single injection (DTaPH)...
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
Zeyu Chen, Rong Guo, Jianghong Xu, Chuangjun Qiu
This study evaluated the immunogenicity and protective immunity of a Hemophilus influenzae b (Hib) polysaccharide conjugate vaccine with the pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) protein carrier in young mice. The Hib polysaccharide was conjugated with the rPsaA protein carrier, which was produced using recombinant DNA technology. A total of 15 young mice aged 3 weeks to 5 weeks were immunized with the conjugate vaccine, and another 15 young mice of the same age were immunized with the licensed Hib-tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine...
December 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Han Wool Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim, JiHye Kim, Moon H Nahm
BACKGROUND: The protective capacities of antibodies induced with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines can be directly assessed in vitro with a Hib-specific serum bactericidal assay (SBA). However, the conventional SBA requires several tedious steps including manual counting of bacterial colonies, and therefore, it is seldom used. METHODS: To overcome these limitations, we have improved the conventional SBA by using frozen target bacteria and by developing an automated colony counting method based on agar plates with the chromogenic dye 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC)...
September 5, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Angjelina Konini, Mingsong Kang, Seyed M Moghadas
Objective. We sought to evaluate the immune responses to a bivalent Haemophilus influenzae glycoconjugate vaccine against serotypes "a" (Hia) and "b" (Hib) in the presence of the preexisting immunity to Hib. Methods. We developed a stochastic simulation model of humoral immune response to investigate the antigenic challenge of a bivalent combined glycoconjugate vaccine and a bivalent unimolecular glycoconjugate vaccine. We compared simulation outcomes in the absence of any preexisting immunity with an already primed immune response having specific memory B cells and/or anti-Hib antibodies...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Tamar A Smith-Norowitz, Tehila A Saadia, Natalie Banniettis, Yitzchok M Norowitz, Rauno Joks, Margaret R Hammerschlag, Helen G Durkin, Stephan Kohlhoff
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) bacterium causes severe illness in infants and children, but has largely been eliminated by introducing a universal Hib conjugate vaccine. While effects of certain vaccinations on atopic disease have been studied, little is known about the relationship between Hib vaccination and diseases of altered immunoglobulin E (IgE) regulation (asthma or atopy). As such, it is necessary to provide more evidence concerning Hib vaccination as a possible risk factor for atopic disease...
April 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Bikas K Arya, Sangeeta Das Bhattacharya, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Malay K Saha, Subhasish Bhattacharyya, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, William J Moss, Samiran Panda, Ranjan Saurav Das, Mausom Mallick, Sutapa Mandal
BACKGROUND: Children living with HIV are at increased risk of disease from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Data are limited on the immunogenicity of a two-dose, catch-up schedule for Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) among HIV-infected children accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) late. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate baseline immunity to Hib and the immunogenicity and safety of two doses of HibCV among HIV-infected Indian children; and (2) document the threshold antibody level required to prevent Hib colonization among HIV-infected children following immunization...
April 27, 2016: Vaccine
Robert Booy, Terry Nolan, Graham Reynolds, Peter Richmond, Michael Nissen, Helen Marshall, Tanya Stoney, Marie Van Der Wielen, Devayani Kolhe, Jacqueline M Miller
BACKGROUND: Antibody persistence is evaluated in healthy Australian children 4 and 5 years postvaccination with a single dose of combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenC-TT) compared with separately administered Hib-TT and MenC-CRM197 vaccines (Hib + MCC). METHODS: This is another follow-up of a phase III, open, randomized, controlled study (NCT00326118), in which 433 Hib-primed but MenC naïve toddlers aged 12-18 months were randomized 3:1 to receive Hib-MenC-TT or Hib + MCC vaccines...
December 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Maria Petrecz, Keith P Ramsey, Jon E Stek, Jason C Martin, Stephanie O Klopfer, Barbara Kuter, Florian P Schödel, Andrew W Lee
Open-label, multicenter, randomized study (NCT00289913) evaluated immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of Vaqta (hepatitis A vaccine) administered with PedvaxHIB (Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine [Meningococcal protein conjugate]) & Infanrix (diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis vaccine) in healthy, 15-month-old children. Five groups were evaluated: Group 1 received Vaqta/Infanrix PedvaxHIB on Day-1 and Vaqta at Week-24; Group 2 received Infanrix PedvaxHIB on Day-1, Vaqta at Week-4, and Vaqta at Week-28; Group 3 received Vaqta/PedvaxHIB on Day-1 and Vaqta Week-24; Group 4 received PedvaxHIB on Day-1, Vaqta at Week-4, and Vaqta at Week-28; and Group 5 (safety only) received Vaqta on Day-1 and Vaqta at Week-24...
2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Sarah E Greene, Michael E Hibbing, James Janetka, Swaine L Chen, Scott J Hultgren
UNLABELLED: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). UPEC bind the bladder using type 1 pili, encoded by the fim operon in nearly all E. coli. Assembled type 1 pili terminate in the FimH adhesin, which specifically binds to mannosylated glycoproteins on the bladder epithelium. Expression of type 1 pili is regulated in part by phase-variable inversion of the genomic element containing the fimS promoter, resulting in phase ON (expressing) and OFF (nonexpressing) orientations...
2015: MBio
Michael E Hibbing, Matt S Conover, Scott J Hultgren
Urinary tract infections (UTIs), the majority of which are caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), are extremely common infections that preferentially effect women. Additional complicating factors, such as catheterization, diabetes, and spinal cord injuries can increase the frequency and severity of UTIs. The rise of antimicrobial resistant uropathogens and the ability of this disease to chronically recur make the development of alternative preventative and therapeutic modalities a priority. The major symptoms of UTIs, urgency, frequency, and dysuria, are readouts of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the majority of the factors that lead to complicated UTIs have been shown to impact ANS function...
October 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Grant A Mackenzie, Usman N A Ikumapayi, Susana Scott, Olubukola Idoko, Aderonke Odutola, Malick Ndiaye, Shah M Sahito, Chidiebereh D Osuorah, Ahmed Manjang, Sheikh Jarju, Abdoulie Bojang, Anna Roca, Ousman Secka, Akram Zaman, Lamin Ceesay, Yamundow Lowe-Jallow, Sana Sambou, Momodou Jasseh, Martin Antonio, Brian Greenwood, Beate Kampmann, Kim Mulholland, Tumani Corrah, Stephen R C Howie
BACKGROUND: In 1997, The Gambia became the first African country to introduce conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine with good disease control through to 2010. METHODS: Culture-based surveillance for invasive bacterial disease in eastern Gambia, specifically the Basse Health and Demographic Surveillance System (BHDSS) area, was conducted from 12 May 2008 and in Fuladu West district from 12 September 2011 until 31 December 2013. In 2011, Hib serology was measured in 5-34-year-olds...
May 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
David W Scheifele, Murdo Ferguson, Gerald Predy, Meena Dawar, Deepak Assudani, Sherine Kuriyakose, Olivier Van Der Meeren, Htay-Htay Han
This study compared immune responses of healthy Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal infants to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) components of a DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine, 1 month after completing dosing at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Of 112 infants enrolled in each group, 94 Aboriginal and 107 non-Aboriginal infants qualified for the immunogenicity analysis. Anti-PRP concentrations exceeded the protective minimum (≥0.15 μg/ml) in ≥97% of infants in both groups but geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher in Aboriginal infants (6...
April 15, 2015: Vaccine
So Jung An, Joo Sung Woo, Myung Hwa Chae, Sudeep Kothari, Rodney Carbis
The majority of conjugate vaccines focus on inducing an antibody response to the polysaccharide antigen and the carrier protein is present primarily to induce a T-cell dependent response. In this study conjugates consisting of poly(ribosylribitolphosphate) (PRP) purified from Haemophilus influenzae Type b bound to Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) virus like particles were prepared with the aim of inducing an antibody response to not only the PRP but also the HBsAg. A conjugate consisting of PRP bound to HBsAg via an adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) spacer induced strong IgG antibodies to both the PRP and HBsAg...
March 24, 2015: Vaccine
Mohiee El-Deen El-Aziz Awad, Saleh Mohamed Amin, Saied Mohamed Abdou
This study assessed the diagnostic approaches of Helicobacter pylori (IP)-associated iron deficiency (ID) and anemia (IDA) in children with dyspeptic symptoms and evaluated the effect of simultaneous anti-H. pylori (anti-HIP) therapy and oral iron in comparison with each of anti? HP therapy and oral iron therapy alone, on iron status as assessed by serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) level. Two hundreds children with dyspeptic symptoms were subjected to clinical evaluation, stool examination, CBC, biochemical assays for serum iron parameters and measurements of serum IgG antibodies to HP and serum sTfR level by ELISA...
December 2014: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
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