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Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Martin A Bewley, Richard C Budd, Eilise Ryan, Joby Cole, Paul Collini, Jennifer Marshall, Umme Kolsum, Gussie Beech, Richard D Emes, Irina Tcherniaeva, Guy A M Berbers, Sarah R Walmsley, Gavin Donaldson, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Iain Kilty, William Rumsey, Yolanda Sanchez, Christopher E Brightling, Louise E Donnelly, Peter J Barnes, Dave Singh, Moira K B Whyte, David H Dockrell
RATIONALE: Previous studies have identified defects in bacterial phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AM) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the mechanisms and clinical consequences remain incompletely defined. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of COPD on AM phagocytic responses and identify the mechanisms, clinical consequences and potential for therapeutic manipulation of these defects. METHODS: We isolated alveolar macrophages (AM) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from a cohort of COPD patients and controls within the MRC COPD-MAP consortium and measured phagocytosis of bacteria in relation to opsonic conditions and clinical features...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
A W Dretler, N G Rouphael, D S Stephens
The control of meningitis, meningococcemia and other infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a significant global health challenge. Substantial progress has occurred in the last twenty years in meningococcal vaccine development and global implementation. Meningococcal protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines to serogroups A, C, W, and Y (modeled after the Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate vaccines) provide better duration of protection and immunologic memory, and overcome weak immune responses in infants and young children and hypo-responsive to repeated vaccine doses seen with polysaccharide vaccines...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Toumi Sano, Tamaho Suzuki, Ayako Nishigori, Chiharu Miyatake, Shinya Koizumi, Kiyohiko Kaizu, Atsushi Fujita, Mitsuhiro Kamisago, Bin Chang, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Takeshi Asano
The introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has led to dramatic reductions in cases of invasive H. influenzae disease and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). After the introduction of the PCV7 and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), the number of children with IPD markedly decreased in our hospital. However, since 2015, three children with IPD have been admitted to our hospital. We analyzed the serotype, multilocus sequence type, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated in these newly diagnosed cases...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Francelena de Sousa Silva, Yonna Costa Barbosa, Mônica Araújo Batalha, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa Ribeiro, Vanda Maria Ferreira Simões, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Waleska Regina Machado Araújo, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva
This study estimated the percentages of incomplete immunization with new vaccines and old vaccines and associated factors in children 13 to 35 months of age belonging to a birth cohort in São Luís, the capital of Maranhão State, Brazil. The sample was probabilistic, with 3,076 children born in 2010. Information on vaccination was obtained from the Child's Health Card. The new vaccines, namely those introduced in 2010, were meningococcal C and 10-valent pneumococcal, and the old vaccines, or those already on the childhood immunization schedule, were BCG, hepatitis B, human rotavirus, polio, tetravalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae b), yellow fever, and triple viral (measles, mumps, rubella)...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Noriko Takeuchi, Shunsuke Segawa, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Misako Ohkusu, Sachio Tsuchida, Mamoru Satoh, Kazuyuki Matsushita, Fumio Nomura
Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogenic bacteria causing invasive disease, which is classified into six capsular serotypes (a-f) and non-typeable (NT) strains. Capsular serotyping of H. influenzae is traditionally determined by serological methods and more recently by PCR methods. However, these methods are time-consuming and expensive. In the present study, matrix-associated laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was evaluated as an alternative method for capsular serotyping of H...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Alasdair T M Hubbard, Sian Davies, Laura Baxter, Sarah Thompson, Mark Collery, Daniel Hand, Daniel John Thomas, Colin Fink
Comparison of the genome of the Gram negative human pathogen Haemophilus quentini MP1 with other Haemophilus species revealed that, although it is more closely related to Haemophilus haemolyticus than Haemophilus influenzae, the pathogen is in fact genetically distinct, a finding confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using the H. influenzae multilocus sequence typing genes. Further comparison with two other H. quentini strains recently identified in Canada revealed that these three genomes are more closely related than any other Haemophilus species, however there is still some sequence variation...
March 13, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
(no author information available yet)
Chris S Earl, Teh Wooi Keong, Shi-qi An, Sarah Murdoch, Yvonne McCarthy, Junkal Garmendia, Joseph Ward, J Maxwell Dow, Liang Yang, George A O'Toole & Robert P RyanThe above article, published May 20 2015 in EMBO Molecular Medicine , has been retracted by agreement between the authors of the study, CSE, TWK, SQA, SM, YMcC, JG, JW, JMD, LY, RPR, the journal Chief Editor and the EMBO Head of Scientific Publications in accordance with the outcomes of independent investigations conducted by the University of Dundee and University College Cork...
March 12, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Juliana Ruiz Fernandes, Cibele Cristine Berto Marques da Silva, Aline Grandi da Silva, Regina Maria de Carvalho Pinto, Alberto José da Silva Duarte, Celso Ricardo Carvalho, Gil Benard
Exercise training has been shown to reduce symptoms and exacerbations in COPD patients; however, the exercise effect on patients' immune response is poorly known. We thus verified if an exercise program (EP) impacted on proliferative T cell response of COPD patients. Fourteen non-O2 dependent COPD patients on standard treatment were studied. EP consisted in 24 sessions of aerobic and muscular training. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with the mitogen phytohemagglutinin and antigens from Haemophilus influenzae and cytomegalovirus, and the lymphocyte proliferative response (LPR) was assessed through the expression of Ki67 before and after the EP...
March 10, 2018: Lung
Janessa Pickering, Teck Hui Teo, Ruth B Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Graeme R Zosky, Holly D Clifford
Exposure to environmental geogenic (or earth-derived) dust can lead to more frequent and severe infections in the human airway. Particulate matter < 10 µm (PM10 ) is the component of air pollution that is commonly associated with the exacerbation of respiratory diseases. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to geogenic dust PM10 experienced an exacerbation of inflammatory responses to influenza A virus. Whether geogenic dust PM10 also exacerbates respiratory bacterial infection is not yet known, nor are the components of the dust that drive these responses...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Research
Isaac R Melamed, Michael Borte, Laurenz Trawnicek, Ai-Lan Kobayashi, Roger H Kobayashi, Alan Knutsen, Sudhir Gupta, William Smits, Anna Pituch-Noworolska, Magdalena Strach, Grazyna Pulka, Hans D Ochs, James N Moy
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy is commonly used to treat patients with primary antibody deficiency. This prospective, open-label, non-randomised, multicentre, phase III trial investigated the pharmacokinetics of a new 10% liquid IVIG product (panzyga®; Octapharma) in 51 patients aged 2-75 years with common variable immunodeficiency (n = 43) or X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (n = 8). Patients were treated with IVIG 10% every 3 (n = 21) or 4 weeks (n = 30) at a dose of 200-800 mg/kg for 12 months...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Anthony J Kanelidis, Drew Oehler, Cassandra L Oehler, Jonathan Rosenberg, Jonathan D Paul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Abdul Momin Kazi, Murtaza Ali, Khurram Zubair, Hussain Kalimuddin, Abdul Nafey Kazi, Saleem Perwaiz Iqbal, Jean-Paul Collet, Syed Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Improved routine immunization (RI) coverage is recommended as the priority public health strategy to decrease vaccine-preventable diseases and eradicate polio in Pakistan and worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to ascertain whether customized, automated, one-way text messaging (short message service, SMS) reminders delivered to caregivers via mobile phones when a child is due for an RI visit can improve vaccination uptake and timelines in Pakistan...
March 7, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Alan de Lima Pereira, Rosamund Southgate, Hikmet Ahmed, Penelope O'Connor, Vanessa Cramond, Annick Lenglet
Introduction: In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015...
February 2, 2018: PLoS Currents
Heidi M Soeters, Amy Blain, Tracy Pondo, Brooke Doman, Monica M Farley, Lee H Harrison, Ruth Lynfield, Lisa Miller, Susan Petit, Arthur Reingold, William Schaffner, Ann Thomas, Shelley M Zansky, Xin Wang, Elizabeth C Briere
Background: Following Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine introduction in the 1980s, Hib disease in young children dramatically decreased and epidemiology of invasive H. influenzae changed. Methods: Active surveillance for invasive H. influenzae disease was conducted through Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites. Incidence rates were directly standardized to the age and race distribution of the US population. Results: During 2009-2015, the estimated mean annual incidence of invasive H...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Lisa Becherer, Mohammed Bakheit, Sieghard Frischmann, Silvina Stinco, Nadine Borst, Roland Zengerle, Felix von Stetten
A variety of real-time detection techniques for LAMP based on the change in fluorescence intensity during DNA amplification enable simultaneous detection of multiple targets. However these techniques depend on fluorogenic probes containing target-specific sequences. That complicates the adaption to different targets leading to time-consuming assay optimization. Here, we present the first universal real-time detection technique for multiplex LAMP. The novel approach allows simple assay design and is easy to implement for various targets...
March 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Daniela Beltrami, Pierre Guilcher, David Longchamp, Pierre Alex Crisinel
Acute epiglottitis is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. Since the implementation of Haemophilus influenzae vaccination, the number of cases of epiglottitis has decreased and the proportion of other infectious causes has increased. We report a case of acute epiglottitis in a teenager caused by Neisseria meningitidis , an unusual pathogen.
March 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Guillermo Suarez-Cuartin, Jordi Giner, José Luis Merino, Ana Rodrigo-Troyano, Anna Feliu, Lidia Perea, Ferran Sanchez-Reus, Diego Castillo, Vicente Plaza, James D Chalmers, Oriol Sibila
RATIONALE: Airway colonization by Potentially Pathogenic Microorganisms (PPM) in bronchiectasis is associated with worse clinical outcomes. The electronic nose is a non-invasive technology capable of distinguishing volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath. We aim to explore if an electronic nose can reliably discriminate airway bacterial colonization in patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: Seventy-three clinically stable bronchiectasis patients were included...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Samuel Mang, Armin Braun, Nicolas Pairet, David J Lamb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
I Casanova, M L Durán, J Viqueira, A Sousa-Pedrares, F Zani, J A Real, J A García-Vázquez
The electrochemical oxidation of anodic metals (M = cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc and cadmium) in a solution of the ligand 1H-anthra[1,2-d]imidazol-6,11-dione-2-[2-hydroxyphenyl] [H2 L] afforded homoleptic [ML] compounds. The addition to the electrochemical cell of coligands (L') such as 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) allowed the synthesis, in one step, of heteroleptic [MLL'] compounds. The crystal structures of H2 L (1), [CoL(MeOH)]2 (2), [CoL(phen)]2 (3), [NiL(bpy)]2 (4), [CuL(bpy)] (5), [CuL(phen)] (6) and [CdL(bpy)]2 (7) have been determined by X-ray diffraction techniques...
February 28, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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