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Vladislav Raclavsky, Nikola Stromerova, Dana Safarova, Jan Bardon, Jaromir Zatloukal, Martin Zapalka, Petr Jakubec, Lucie Navratilova, Radko Novotny
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Haemophilus influenzae new strain acquisition has been demonstrated to increase the relative risk of acute exacerbation fourfold in contrast to colonisation or chronic infection by the same strain in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Unfortunately, molecular typing techniques are not suitable for routine use due to cost, labour-intensity and need for special expertise. We tested two techniques potentially useful for routine typing, namely the newly available MALDI-TOF MS and the modified McRAPD compared to MLST as the gold standard...
October 6, 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Yushan Chen, Shanshan Zhou, Kexin Hua, Hongde Xiao, Zili Li, Mei Liu, Rui Luo, Dingren Bi, Rui Zhou, Hui Jin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Mansour Amin, Mozhgan Ghaderpanah, Tahereh Navidifar
Meningitis is a life-threatening infection associated with a high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most prevalent infectious agents that cause bacterial meningitis (BM). The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of these three bacteria using bacterial cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In our cross-sectional study, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were obtained from 196 patients who were suspected of having BM and referred to the pediatric ward of Abuzar Hospital (Ahvaz, Iran)...
October 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Hui Pan, Binglin Cui, Yuanchun Huang, Jiacai Yang, William Ba-Thein
BACKGROUND: Nasal colonization with bacterial pathogens is associated with risk of invasive respiratory tract infections, but the related information for Chinese healthy children is scarce. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with healthy children from 6 kindergartens in the Chaoshan region, southern China during 2011-2012. Nasal swabs were examined for five common bacterial pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus...
September 30, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Jacek Wysocki, Jerzy Brzostek, Ryszard Konior, Falko G Panzer, Nancy A François, Sudheer M Ravula, Devayani A Kolhe, Yue Song, Ilse Dieussaert, Lode Schuerman, Dorota Borys
To investigate long-term antibody persistence following the administration of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV), we present results of two follow-up studies assessing antibody persistence following two 3+1 schedules up to four (NCT00624819 - Study A) and five years (NCT00891176 - Study B) post-booster vaccination. In Study A, antibody persistence was measured one, two and four years post-booster in children previously primed and boosted with PHiD-CV, or primed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) and boosted with either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM...
October 13, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Bahaa Abu-Raya, Tobias R Kollmann, Arnaud Marchant, Duncan M MacGillivray
Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Zhanqin Zhao, Huisheng Liu, Keshan Zhang, Qiao Xue, Kunpeng Chen, Yun Xue
The objective of this study was to assess the minimum dose, antigen content, and immunization duration of a trivalent vaccine containing inactivated Haemophilus parasuis serovars 4, 5, and 12 and the Montanide GEL 01 PR adjuvant in piglets and pregnant sows. Our results demonstrated that the minimum vaccine dose was 2 mL per pig and the optimal antigen content 2.0 × 10(9), 1.0 × 10(9), and 1.0 × 10(9) colony-forming units/mL of serovars 4, 5, and 12, respectively. The vaccine provided effective protection 14 d after the 2nd vaccination, and the period of immune protection was 180 d (6 mo) after the 2nd vaccination...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
Junxing Li, Xiufang Yuan, Lihua Xu, Lei Kang, Jun Jiang, Yicheng Wang
Studies on virulence factors and pathogenecity of Haemophilus parasuis have long been hindered by a lack of a consistent system for genetic manipulation. In this study, competence was induced by transferring H. parasuis from rich medium to starvation medium media-IV (M-IV) and iscR gene deficient mutants of H. parasuis were generated efficiently. Transformation frequency varied from 4.1 × 10(-5) to 1.1 × 10(-8) when using circular plasmid, and increased to about 2- to 31-fold when transformed using linearized plasmid...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
Jari Intra, Roberta Maria Sala, Rosanna Falbo, Fabrizio Cappellini, Paolo Brambilla
Rapid and early identification of microorganisms in blood has a key role in the diagnosis of a febrile patient, in particular, in guiding the clinician to define the correct antibiotic therapy. This study presents a simple and very fast method with high performances for identifying bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after only 4 hours of incubation. We used early bacterial growth on PolyViteX chocolate agar plates inoculated with 5 drops of blood-broth medium deposited in the same point and spread with a sterile loop, followed by a direct transfer procedure on MALDI-TOF MS target slides without additional modification...
October 12, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Michelle S Y Ng, Alice Y W Foong, Mark J A Koh
INTRODUCTION: The development of cutaneous neoplasms at immunization sites following vaccination is uncommon, and only few have been reported in the literature worldwide. We report an unusual case of an ulcerated giant dermatofibroma that developed as a chronic nonhealing plaque in the immunization scar of a young boy after vaccination. CASE REPORT: A 13-month-old Chinese boy presented with an unusual skin reaction on the vaccination site at the right anterolateral thigh following a routine intramuscular injection of '5-in-1' (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae B) vaccine at 4 months of age...
May 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
Isabel de de la Fuente Garcia, Léna Coïc, Jean-Marie Leclerc, Caroline Laverdière, Céline Rousseau, Philippe Ovetchkine, Bruce Tapiéro
BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective study was to assess protection against vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). PROCEDURE: Clinical characteristics and vaccination records were collected. Antibodies against VPDs were measured after completion of chemotherapy and after a booster dose of vaccine. Immunization status of household members was evaluated. RESULTS: Sixty children were included...
October 8, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Lori D Racsa, Marlene DeLeon-Carnes, Matthew Hiskey, Jeannette Guarner
16S sequencing on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material has been used to identify bacteria when culture-based phenotyping techniques have not worked. The objective of this study was to determine how frequently 16S sequencing used in FFPE material was helpful to clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Requests for testing occurred upon consultation between an infectious disease pathologist and a surgical pathologist or an infectious disease physician. A selected paraffin block from each case was referred for 16S sequencing...
October 4, 2016: Human Pathology
Fábio Alessandro Pieri, Marina Campos de Castro Souza, Ligia Lobato Ramos Vermelho, Marina Lobato Ramos Vermelho, Pedro Griffo Perciano, Fabiano Souza Vargas, Andréa Pacheco Batista Borges, Valdir Florêncio da Veiga-Junior, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo Moreira
BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent illness that affects many dogs, reaching up to 85 % prevalence in individuals over the age of 4 years. Currently the drug of choice for combating the formation of dental plaque in these animals, the etiologic agent of the disease, is chlorhexidine, which has several side effects reported. Thus, surveys are conducted throughout the world in order to identify potential substitutes for antimicrobial therapy and prevention of periodontal disease...
October 1, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Sara Fuente Cosío, Laura Castelo Corral, María Rodríguez Mayo, Pedro Llinares Mondejar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, James A Singleton, Vance Dietz
Sustained high coverage with recommended vaccinations among children has kept many vaccine-preventable diseases at low levels in the United States (1). To assess coverage with vaccinations recommended for children by age 2 years in the United States (2), CDC analyzed data collected by the 2015 National Immunization Survey (NIS) for children aged 19-35 months (born January 2012-May 2014). Overall, coverage did not change during 2014-2015. Coverage in 2015 was highest for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93...
October 7, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Fang Hu, Lavanya Rishishwar, Ambily Sivadas, Gabriel J Mitchell, I King Jordan, Timothy F Murphy, Janet R Gilsdorf, Leonard W Mayer, Xin Wang
Haemophilus haemolyticus (H. haemolyticus) has been recently discovered to have the potential to cause invasive disease. It is closely related to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NT H. influenzae). NT H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus are often misidentified because none of the existing tests targeting the known phenotypes of H. haemolyticus are able to specifically identify H. haemolyticus Through comparative genomic analysis of H. haemolyticus and NT H. influenzae, we identified genes unique to H. haemolyticus that can be used as targets for the identification of H...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Yaning Zhang, Yufeng Li, Wentao Yuan, Yuting Xia, Yijuan Shen
Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) is a common commensal Gram-negative extracellular bacterium in the upper respiratory tract of swine, which can cause Glässer's disease in stress conditions. Research on the pathogenicity of H. parasuis has mainly focused on immune evasion and bacterial virulence factors, while few studies have examined the interactions of H. parasuis and its host. Autophagy is associated with the replication and proliferation of many pathogenic bacteria, but whether it plays a role during infection by H...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maryam Pourhajibagher, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a polymicrobial, chronic, and degenerative disease that can lead to destruction of the teeth-supporting tissues and eventually to loss of teeth. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is predominantly associated with periodontal diseases. Outer membrane protein (Omp) 100 is a more important virulence factor of A. actinomycetemcomitans due to the effect of adhesion and invasion into human gingival epithelial cells. Attachment of A. actinomycetemcomitans inhibition is significant in the treatment process...
September 30, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Junji Xing, Leiyun Weng, Bin Yuan, Zhuo Wang, Li Jia, Rui Jin, Hongbo Lu, Xian Chang Li, Yong-Jun Liu, Zhiqiang Zhang
The respiratory tract is heavily populated with innate immune cells, but the mechanisms that control such cells are poorly defined. Here we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM29 was a selective regulator of the activation of alveolar macrophages, the expression of type I interferons and the production of proinflammatory cytokines in the lungs. We found that deletion of TRIM29 enhanced macrophage production of type I interferons and protected mice from infection with influenza virus, while challenge of Trim29(-/-) mice with Haemophilus influenzae resulted in lethal lung inflammation due to massive production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages...
October 3, 2016: Nature Immunology
Maria-Cristina de C Brandileone, Rosemeire C Zanella, Samanta C G Almeida, Angela P Brandao, Ana F Ribeiro, Telma-Regina M P Carvalhanas, Helena Sato, Ana-Lúcia Andrade, Jennifer R Verani
In March 2010, Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in the routine infant immunization program using a 4-dose schedule and catch-up for children <23months. We investigated PCV10 effect on nasopharyngeal carriage with vaccine-type Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) among children in São Paulo city. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 (baseline) and 2013 (post-PCV10). Healthy PCV-naïve children aged 12-23months were recruited from primary health centers during immunization campaigns...
September 28, 2016: Vaccine
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