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Rama Chaudhry, Karnika Saigal, Tej Bahadur, Kamla Kant, Bishwanath Chourasia, Nitin Gupta
Leptospirosis has been recognised as an emerging global public health problem. The aim of our study was to explore the epidemiological and clinical pattern of disease occurrence in suspected cases and to search for any existing co-infections. Ours was a retrospective study in patients with acute febrile illness in north India over a period of three years (April 2011 to June 2014). Serological diagnosis of leptospirosis was made using the PanBio IgM ELISA kit. Using modified Faine's criteria, presumptive and possible diagnosis was made in 57% and 34% cases, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
B P Upadhyaya, G Shakya, S Adhikari, N Rijal, J Acharya, L Maharjan, B R Marasini
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease and is under reported from Nepal. The objective of this study was to investigate the sero-epidemiology of scrub typhus in patients suffering from acute febrile illness. METHODS: A total of 434 specimens collected from July to November 2015 at National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) were investigated for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to Orientiatsutsugamushi.The Scrub Typhus Detect TM kit (InBios, USA) was used to detect the antibodies to O...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Todd F Hatchette, Heidi Scholz, Shelly Bolotin, Natasha S Crowcroft, Colleen Jackson, Elizabeth McLachlan, Alberto Severini
The BioPlex 2200 (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, Ca) is a rapid, automated platform, which can screen large numbers of specimens for antibodies to measles, mumps, rubella and varicella. Although approved for producing qualitative results, in this study we have validated the test (off-label) to allow reporting of quantitative results. To do this, we used the 3(rd) anti-measles WHO standard to generate a calibration curve that allowed relative fluorescence intensity to be translated into quantitative antibody titer (Antibody Units/mL (AU/mL))...
November 16, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Nijuan Xiang, Tian Bai, Kai Kang, Hui Yuan, Suizan Zhou, Ruiqi Ren, Xiuying Li, Jiabing Wu, Liquan Deng, Ge Zeng, Xianjun Wang, Shenghua Mao, Jian Shi, Rongbao Gao, Tao Chen, Sumei Zou, Dan Li, Fiona Havers, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Carolyn M Greene, Yanping Zhang, Daxin Ni, Xiaoqing Liu, Qun Li, Yuelong Shu
BACKGROUND: The first human infections of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus were identified in China in March 2013. Sentinel surveillance systems and contact tracing may not identify mild and asymptomatic human infections of influenza A(H7N9) virus. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H7N9) virus in three populations during the early stages of the epidemic. PATIENTS/METHODS: From March 2013-May 2014, we collected sera from the general population, poultry workers and contacts of confirmed infections in nine Chinese provinces reporting human A(H7N9) infections and, for contacts, second sera 2-3 weeks later...
October 20, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Anjaneya Ayanur, Karam Pal Singh, Susan Cherian, Vidya Singh, Sukdeb Nandi, Mani Saminathan, Khorajiya Jaynudin, Jeet SinghYadav, Rajendra Singh, Ashok Kumar Tiwari
Bluetongue (BT) is a non‑contagious arthropod‑borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. It is endemic to India and clinical outbreaks of disease have been reported mainly in sheep, although BT is often asymptomatic in other ruminant species. In the present serological survey, a total of 576 serum samples, comprising of 416 cattle and 160 sheep, covering different agro‑climatic zones of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Karnataka states, were screened for the presence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) specific antibodies using competitive enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (c‑ELISA)...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Nicola A Wardrop, Lian F Thomas, Elizabeth A J Cook, William A de Glanville, Peter M Atkinson, Claire N Wamae, Eric M Fèvre
Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Xiong Xiao, Albert Jan van Hoek, Michael G Kenward, Alessia Melegaro, Mark Jit
OBJECTIVE: Infectious disease spread depends on contact rates between infectious and susceptible individuals. Transmission models are commonly informed using empirically collected contact data, but the relevance of different contact types to transmission is still not well understood. Some studies select contacts based on a single characteristic such as proximity (physical/non-physical), location, duration or frequency. This study aimed to explore whether clusters of contacts similar to each other across multiple characteristics could better explain disease transmission...
December 2016: Epidemics
Mohamed Alkhatim Alsammani
The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is a major issue for public health. Primary infection in pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae. This review examined current sero-epidemiology and risks factor data for Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Arab and African countries. A systematic electronic search of published literature was conducted. Data were extracted from relevant studies. Seropositivity is high in both regions. African countries have higher seropositivity than Arab countries due to differences in risk factors...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Toan Nguyen, Fei Wen Cheong, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Yee Ling Lau
BACKGROUND: Despite the global effort against neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), developing countries with middle to low income are still burdened by them. Vietnam has been undergoing substantial economic growth and urbanization, but underprivileged people living in rural and suburban areas are still having little access to public health infrastructure and proper sanitation. Hitherto, limited information is available for seroprevalence and risk factors of several parasitic diseases in Vietnam...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Tomoyuki Yoshida, Hiroyuki Takemoto, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Nahoko Tokuyama, John Hart, Terese Hart, Jef Dupain, Amy Cobden, Mbangi Mulavwa, Yoshi Kawamoto, Akihisa Kaneko, Yuki Enomoto, Eiji Sato, Takanori Kooriyama, Takako Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Juri Suzuki, Akatsuki Saito, Munehiro Okamoto, Masaki Tomonaga, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Takeshi Furuichi, Hirofumi Akari
Lymphocryptovirus (LCV) is one of the major gena in the herpesvirus family and is widely disseminated among primates. LCVs of human and rhesus macaques are shown to be causative agents of a number of malignant diseases including lymphoma and carcinoma. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) are highly endangered and the least studied species of the great apes. Considering the potential pathogenicity of the LCV that might threaten the fate of wild bonobos, population-based epidemiological information in terms of LCV prevalence in different location of Bonobo's habitats will help propose improved conservation strategies for the bonobos...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tatsuya Ando, Tadashi Takino, Kohei Makita, Motoshi Tajima, Masateru Koiwa, Katsuro Hagiwara
Borna disease virus (BDV) is a virus that causes a neurological disease in domestic animals, including a variety of animal species in Japan. Few studies have examined the mode of transmission of this virus in cattle, and the exact mechanisms underlying the transmission of the virus need to be elucidated. This study aimed to examine the contribution of vertical transmission of the virus, which occurs when the virus is transmitted from the mother to offspring during gestation or birth. We used an epidemiological approach...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Joseph Frederick, Yvan Saint Jean, Jean Frantz Lemoine, Ellen M Dotson, Kimberly E Mace, Michelle Chang, Laurence Slutsker, Arnaud Le Menach, John C Beier, Thomas P Eisele, Bernard A Okech, Valery Madsen Beau de Rochars, Keith H Carter, Joseph Keating, Daniel E Impoinvil
BACKGROUND: Haiti has a set a target of eliminating malaria by 2020. However, information on malaria vector research in Haiti is not well known. This paper presents results from a systematic review of the literature on malaria vector research, bionomics and control in Haiti. METHODS: A systematic search of literature published in French, Spanish and English languages was conducted in 2015 using Pubmed (MEDLINE), Google Scholar, EMBASE, JSTOR WHOLIS and Web of Science databases as well other grey literature sources such as USAID, and PAHO...
July 22, 2016: Malaria Journal
Nádia Alves Amade, Thebora Sultane, Orvalho Augusto, Sádia Ali, Ilesh V Jani, Eduardo Samo Gudo
BACKGROUND: Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome are highly underreported and neglected in most sub-Saharan countries and vaccination has not yet been incorporated into their national immunization schedules. In this study, we investigated the frequency of immunoglobulin M antibodies against rubella and examined correlations with fertility rates during the period from 2006 to 2014 in Mozambique. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected through the routine case-based surveillance system for measles in Mozambique...
October 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Victor O Akinseye, Hezekiah K Adesokan, Akwoba J Ogugua, Folashade J Adedoyin, Patricia I Otu, Ayi V Kwaghe, Noah O Kolawole, Oyinye J Okoro, Charity A Agada, Adeniyi O Tade, Olufemi O Faleke, Anyanwu L Okeke, Ibikunle M Akanbi, Mofoluwake M Ibitoye, Morenike O Dipeolu, Emma J Dale, Perrett Lorraine, Andrew V Taylor, Emmanuel A Awosanya, Eniola O Cadmus, Judy A Stack, Simeon I Cadmus
Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013) from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test...
May 12, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Modupe Comfort Ayoola, Akwoba Joseph Ogugua, Victor Oluwatoyin Akinseye, Tunde Olu Joshua, Morenikeji Folusho Banuso, Folashade Julianah Adedoyin, Hezekiah Kehinde Adesokan, Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, John Olusoji Abiola, Patricia Ihuaku Otuh, Helen Oyebukola Nottidge, Emma-Jane Dale, Lorraine Perrett, Andrew Taylor, Judy Stack, Simeon Idowu Babalola Cadmus
INTRODUCTION: In Nigeria, there is limited information on brucellosis particularly in dogs, despite its public health implications. We undertook a sero-epidemiological survey of brucellosis in dogs to determine the prevalence of the disease and associated risk factors for its occurrence in Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to screen dogs in south-western Nigeria for antibodies to Brucella sp using the rapid slide agglutination test (RSA) and Rose Bengal test (RBT), with positive samples confirmed respectively by serum agglutination test (SAT) and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA)...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
L Lu, Y M Cao, Q Y Yang, Q He, Z Q Dong, B Di, C X Fu, M Wang
OBJECTIVE: To understand the dynamic maternal measles antibody level in infants in Guangzhou. METHOD: Women who delivered babies in a maternal and child health care hospital in Guangzhou and their infants who were never affected by measles were included in our study. All the serum samples collected from mothers and infants were tested by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)for the quantitative measurement of measles IgG antibodies. A longitudinal sero-epidemiological study was conducted to investigate the duration of the presence of measles maternal antibodies in infants based on the measurement at different time points(0, 3, 5, 7 month)...
May 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
P Gao, H Wang, W X Chen, Y N Sun, W Zhang, X H Pang, X He, J Wu
OBJECTIVE: To understand the sero-prevalence of hepatitis B in general population in Beijing and provide evidence for the prevention and control of hepatitis B. METHODS: A serological survey was conducted in general population aged >1 year selected through multistage randomized cluster sampling in Beijing from August 2013 to February 2014. The estimated sample size was 5 200. Venous blood samples were collected from them to detect five hepatitis B serological indicators...
May 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Seth A Amanfo, Takafira Mduluza, Nicholas Midzi, David R Cavanagh, Francisca Mutapi
BACKGROUND: Individuals living in malaria-endemic regions may be exposed to more than one Plasmodium species; there is paucity of data on the distribution of the different species of Plasmodium in affected populations, in part due to the diagnostic method of microscopy, which cannot easily differentiate between the species. Sero-epidemiological data can overcome some of the shortcomings of microscopy. METHODS: The specificity of IgG antibodies to recombinant merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-119) derived from four human Plasmodium species (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale) was investigated using competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
2016: Malaria Journal
Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi, Abbas Ahmadi-Vasmehjani, Hassan Zabetian, Hossein Hakimelahi, Alireza Yusefi, Mohammad Sadegh Sanie, Somayehsadat Talebnia Jahromi, Masoud Ghanei, Abdolali Sapidkar, Saiedeh Erfanian, Abdolhossien Madani, Farshid Kafilzadeh, Mohammad Kargar, Mohammad Hojjat-Farsangi
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) could be cause of viral hepatitis in the developing countries and cause severe epidemics. According to other studies, blood transfusion as a probable route of HEV infection has been suggested. An infection with hepatitis agents such as HEV causes active liver failure in multi-transfusion patients in particular thalassemia. The purpose of this study determines the seropositivity of anti-HEV antibodies in thalassemia individuals in Jahrom. In a cross-sectional study, sera from 110 thalassemia were collected between 2013 and 2014...
September 1, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
Jianhui Nie, Yangyang Liu, Weijin Huang, Youchun Wang
Pseudovirion-based neutralization assay is considered the gold standard method for evaluating the immune response to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. In this study, we developed a multicolor neutralization assay to simultaneously detect the neutralizing antibodies against different HPV types. FluoroSpot was used to interpret the fluorescent protein expression instead of flow cytometry. The results of FluoroSpot and flow cytometry showed good consistency, with R² > 0.98 for the log-transformed IC50 values...
April 25, 2016: Viruses
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