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Sero-epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438608/serological-evidence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-dromedary-camels-in-ethiopia
#1
Tian-Cheng Li, Sayaka Yoshizaki, Xianfeng Zhou, Hiroshi Sentsui, Kazuya Shirato, Shutoku Matsuyama, Simenew Keskes Melaku, Boldbaatar Bazartseren, Naokazu Takeda, Takaji Wakita
The genome of dromedary camel hepatitis E virus (DcHEV) has been detected in stool and serum samples from dromedary camels, but the sero-epidemiological information of DcHEV infection remains unclear. A total of 246 serum samples collected from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Ethiopia, and 40 serum samples from Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus) in Mongolia were examined for the detection of anti-DcHEV IgG antibody by a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) by using DcHEV-like particles (DcHEV-LPs) as the antigen...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405850/retrospective-study-of-leptospirosis-in-malaysia
#2
REVIEW
Bashiru Garba, Abdul Rani Bahaman, Siti Khairani-Bejo, Zunita Zakaria, Abdul Rahim Mutalib
Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease transmitted to humans and animals by direct or indirect contact with urine or body fluids from infected animals especially rodents. Infection can be associated with wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe multi-organ syndrome with life-threatening consequences. We conducted a review of published studies on incidences, case reports, sero-epidemiological surveys from year 2000 to 2015 using different electronic data bases. Our study revealed that majority of the studies were conducted in Peninsular Malaysia and predominantly among high-risk human groups...
April 12, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344403/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-meat-animals-from-africa-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-sero-epidemiological-studies
#3
Aretas Babatoundé Nounnagnon Tonouhewa, Yao Akpo, Philippe Sessou, Camus Adoligbe, Eric Yessinou, Yaovi Gildas Hounmanou, Marc Napoléon Assogba, Issaka Youssao, Souaïbou Farougou
AIM: Toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite which causes toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. Felids especially cats are definitive hosts and almost all warm-blooded mammals, including livestock and human can serve as intermediate hosts. Food animals can be reservoirs for T. gondii and act as one of the sources for parasite transmission to humans. The objective of this study is to collect serological data on the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody, and risk factors for certain food animals from Africa to provide a quantitative estimate of T...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315717/exploring-novel-sero-epidemiological-tools-effect-of-different-storage-conditions-on-longitudinal-stability-of-microarray-slides-comprising-influenza-a-measles-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-antigens
#4
Gudrun S Freidl, Erwin de Bruin, Maarten Schipper, Marion Koopmans
In this study we evaluated the long-term stability of a microarray-based serological screening platform, containing antigens of influenza A, measles and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as part of a preparedness research program aiming to develop assays for syndromic disease detection. Spotted microarray slides were kept at four different storage regimes with varying temperature and humidity conditions. We showed that under the standard storage condition in a temperature-controlled (21°C) and desiccated environment (0% relative humidity), microarray slides remained stable for at least 22 months without loss of antigen quality, whereas the other three conditions (37°C, desiccated; Room temperature, non-desiccated; Frozen, desiccated) produced acceptable results for some antigens (influenza A, S...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287806/trends-in-sero-epidemiology-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-voluntary-blood-donations-in-iran-2008-2013
#5
Maryam Zadsar, Ali Akbar Pourfathollah, Mahboube Rasouli, Gharib Karimi
BACKGROUND: Various strategies are implemented to increase blood safety. However, there is always a small amount of residual risk. The amount of risk is associated with the incidence and prevalence of infection in the community. Since increases in the prevalence and changing the pattern of HIV transmission have been observed in the community, monitoring of HIV prevalence among general population and blood donors is necessary. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HIV in Iranian blood donations...
March 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274279/-preliminary-seroepidemiological-survey-of-dengue-infections-in-pakistan-2009-2014
#6
Muhammad Suleman, Hyeong-Woo Lee, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Nadia Nisar, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Salmaan Sharif, Shahzad Shaukat, Adnan Khurshid, Mehar Angez, Massab Umair, Ghulam Mujtaba, Rani Faryal
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus is the causative agent of dengue fever, a vector borne infection which causes self-limiting to life threatening disease in humans. A sero-epidemiological study was conducted to understand the current epidemiology of dengue virus in Pakistan which is now known as a dengue endemic country after its first reported outbreak in 1994. METHODS: To investigate the prevalence of dengue virus in Pakistan during 2009-2014, a total of 9,493 blood samples were screened for the detection of anti-dengue IgM antibodies using ELISA...
March 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270152/a-systematic-review-on-malaria-sero-epidemiology-studies-in-the-brazilian-amazon-insights-into-immunological-markers-for-exposure-and-protection
#7
Pedro M Folegatti, André M Siqueira, Wuelton M Monteiro, Marcus Vinícius G Lacerda, Chris J Drakeley, Érika M Braga
BACKGROUND: Considerable success in reducing malaria incidence and mortality has been achieved in Brazil, leading to discussions over the possibility of moving towards elimination. However, more than reporting and counting clinical cases, elimination will require the use of efficient tools and strategies for measuring transmission dynamics and detecting the infectious reservoir as the primary indicators of interest for surveillance and evaluation. Because acquisition and maintenance of anti-malarial antibodies depend on parasite exposure, seroprevalence rates could be used as a reliable tool for assessing malaria endemicity and an adjunct measure for monitoring transmission in a rapid and cost-effective manner...
March 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132964/isolation-of-equine-herpesvirus-3-ehv-3-from-equine-coital-exanthema-of-two-stallions-and-sero-epidemiology-of-ehv-3-infection-in-japan
#8
Rikio Kirisawa, Yuko Toishi, Ai Akamatsu, Kosuke Soejima, Taisuke Miyashita, Nobuo Tsunoda
In the spring of 2015, two stallions reared in Farms A and B in Hokkaido in Japan showed symptoms of equine coital exanthema. Equine herpesvirus 3 (EHV-3) was isolated from penis swab samples of both stallions, and the isolates from each stallion in Farms A and B were designated as SS-1 and YS-1 strains, respectively. BamHI restriction profiles of SS-1 and Japanese reference strain Iwate-1 were indistinguishable, but the BamHI-A fragment of YS-1 was larger than those of SS-1 and Iwate-1 by 1.9 kbp because of the lack of two BamHI sites...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126001/serology-reveals-heterogeneity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-in-northeastern-south-africa-implications-for-malaria-elimination
#9
Joseph Biggs, Jaishree Raman, Jackie Cook, Khumbulani Hlongwana, Chris Drakeley, Natashia Morris, Ishen Serocharan, Eunice Agubuzo, Philip Kruger, Aaron Mabuza, Alpheus Zitha, Elliot Machaba, Maureen Coetzee, Immo Kleinschmidt
BACKGROUND: It is widely acknowledged that modifications to existing control interventions are required if South Africa is to achieve malaria elimination. Targeting indoor residual spraying (IRS) to areas where cases have been detected is one strategy currently under investigation in northeastern South Africa. This seroprevalence baseline study, nested within a targeted IRS trial, was undertaken to provide insights into malaria transmission dynamics in South Africa and evaluate whether sero-epidemiological practices have the potential to be routinely incorporated into elimination programmes...
January 26, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101126/characterisation-of-microbial-communities-within-aggressive-prostate-cancer-tissues
#10
Melissa A Yow, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Gianluca Severi, Damien M Bolton, John Pedersen, Graham G Giles, Melissa C Southey
BACKGROUND: An infectious aetiology for prostate cancer has been conjectured for decades but the evidence gained from questionnaire-based and sero-epidemiological studies is weak and inconsistent, and a causal association with any infectious agent is not established. We describe and evaluate the application of new technology to detect bacterial and viral agents in high-grade prostate cancer tissues. The potential of targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing and total RNA sequencing was evaluated in terms of its utility to characterise microbial communities within high-grade prostate tumours...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092222/varied-presentations-of-leptospirosis-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-india
#11
Rama Chaudhry, Karnika Saigal, Tej Bahadur, Kamla Kant, Bishwanath Chourasia, Nitin Gupta
Leptospirosis has been recognised as an emerging global public health problem. The aim of our study was to explore the epidemiological and clinical pattern of disease occurrence in suspected cases and to search for any existing co-infections. Ours was a retrospective study in patients with acute febrile illness in north India over a period of three years (April 2011 to June 2014). Serological diagnosis of leptospirosis was made using the PanBio IgM ELISA kit. Using modified Faine's criteria, presumptive and possible diagnosis was made in 57% and 34% cases, respectively...
April 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885295/scrub-typhus-an-emerging-neglected-tropical-disease-in-nepal
#12
B P Upadhyaya, G Shakya, S Adhikari, N Rijal, J Acharya, L Maharjan, B R Marasini
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease and is under reported from Nepal. The objective of this study was to investigate the sero-epidemiology of scrub typhus in patients suffering from acute febrile illness. METHODS: A total of 434 specimens collected from July to November 2015 at National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) were investigated for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to Orientiatsutsugamushi.The Scrub Typhus Detect TM kit (InBios, USA) was used to detect the antibodies to O...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852634/calibration-and-evaluation-of-quantitative-antibody-titers-for-measles-virus-by-using-the-bioplex-2200
#13
Todd F Hatchette, Heidi Scholz, Shelly Bolotin, Natasha S Crowcroft, Colleen Jackson, Elizabeth McLachlan, Alberto Severini
The BioPlex 2200 (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) is a rapid, automated platform, which can screen large numbers of specimens for antibodies to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. Although approved for producing qualitative results, in this study we validated the test (off-label) to allow reporting of quantitative results. To do this, we used the third anti-measles World Health Organization standard to generate a calibration curve that allowed relative fluorescence intensity to be translated into quantitative antibody titer (antibody units [AU]/ml)...
January 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762061/sero-epidemiologic-study-of-influenza-a-h7n9-infection-among-exposed-populations-china-2013-2014
#14
Nijuan Xiang, Tian Bai, Kai Kang, Hui Yuan, Suizan Zhou, Ruiqi Ren, Xiuying Li, Jiabing Wu, Liquan Deng, Ge Zeng, Xianjun Wang, Shenghua Mao, Jian Shi, Rongbao Gao, Tao Chen, Sumei Zou, Dan Li, Fiona Havers, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Carolyn M Greene, Yanping Zhang, Daxin Ni, Xiaoqing Liu, Qun Li, Yuelong Shu
BACKGROUND: The first human infections of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus were identified in China in March 2013. Sentinel surveillance systems and contact tracing may not identify mild and asymptomatic human infections of influenza A(H7N9) virus. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H7N9) virus in three populations during the early stages of the epidemic. PATIENTS/METHODS: From March 2013 to May 2014, we collected sera from the general population, poultry workers, and contacts of confirmed infections in nine Chinese provinces reporting human A(H7N9) infections and, for contacts, second sera 2-3 weeks later...
March 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723041/sero-epidemiology-and-molecular-detection-of-bluetongue-virus-in-indian-ruminants
#15
Anjaneya Ayanur, Karam Pal Singh, Susan Cherian, Vidya Singh, Sukdeb Nandi, Mani Saminathan, Khorajiya Jaynudin, Jeet SinghYadav, Rajendra Singh, Ashok Kumar Tiwari
Bluetongue (BT) is a non‑contagious arthropod‑borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. It is endemic to India and clinical outbreaks of disease have been reported mainly in sheep, although BT is often asymptomatic in other ruminant species. In the present serological survey, a total of 576 serum samples, comprising of 416 cattle and 160 sheep, covering different agro‑climatic zones of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Karnataka states, were screened for the presence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) specific antibodies using competitive enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (c‑ELISA)...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716804/the-sero-epidemiology-of-coxiella-burnetii-in-humans-and-cattle-western-kenya-evidence-from-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Nicola A Wardrop, Lian F Thomas, Elizabeth A J Cook, William A de Glanville, Peter M Atkinson, Claire N Wamae, Eric M Fèvre
Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639116/clustering-of-contacts-relevant-to-the-spread-of-infectious-disease
#17
Xiong Xiao, Albert Jan van Hoek, Michael G Kenward, Alessia Melegaro, Mark Jit
OBJECTIVE: Infectious disease spread depends on contact rates between infectious and susceptible individuals. Transmission models are commonly informed using empirically collected contact data, but the relevance of different contact types to transmission is still not well understood. Some studies select contacts based on a single characteristic such as proximity (physical/non-physical), location, duration or frequency. This study aimed to explore whether clusters of contacts similar to each other across multiple characteristics could better explain disease transmission...
December 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605750/sero-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-toxoplasma-gondii-among-pregnant-women-in-arab-and-african-countries
#18
Mohamed Alkhatim Alsammani
The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is a major issue for public health. Primary infection in pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae. This review examined current sero-epidemiology and risks factor data for Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Arab and African countries. A systematic electronic search of published literature was conducted. Data were extracted from relevant studies. Seropositivity is high in both regions. African countries have higher seropositivity than Arab countries due to differences in risk factors...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595647/seroprevalence-of-fascioliasis-toxocariasis-strongyloidiasis-and-cysticercosis-in-blood-samples-diagnosed-in-medic-medical-center-laboratory-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam-in-2012
#19
Toan Nguyen, Fei Wen Cheong, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Yee Ling Lau
BACKGROUND: Despite the global effort against neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), developing countries with middle to low income are still burdened by them. Vietnam has been undergoing substantial economic growth and urbanization, but underprivileged people living in rural and suburban areas are still having little access to public health infrastructure and proper sanitation. Hitherto, limited information is available for seroprevalence and risk factors of several parasitic diseases in Vietnam...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570523/epidemiological-surveillance-of-lymphocryptovirus-infection-in-wild-bonobos
#20
Tomoyuki Yoshida, Hiroyuki Takemoto, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Nahoko Tokuyama, John Hart, Terese Hart, Jef Dupain, Amy Cobden, Mbangi Mulavwa, Yoshi Kawamoto, Akihisa Kaneko, Yuki Enomoto, Eiji Sato, Takanori Kooriyama, Takako Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Juri Suzuki, Akatsuki Saito, Munehiro Okamoto, Masaki Tomonaga, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Takeshi Furuichi, Hirofumi Akari
Lymphocryptovirus (LCV) is one of the major gena in the herpesvirus family and is widely disseminated among primates. LCVs of human and rhesus macaques are shown to be causative agents of a number of malignant diseases including lymphoma and carcinoma. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) are highly endangered and the least studied species of the great apes. Considering the potential pathogenicity of the LCV that might threaten the fate of wild bonobos, population-based epidemiological information in terms of LCV prevalence in different location of Bonobo's habitats will help propose improved conservation strategies for the bonobos...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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