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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222788/rat-pancreatic-beta-cell-culture
#1
Myrian Velasco, Carlos Larqué, Carlos Manlio Díaz-García, Carmen Sanchez-Soto, Marcia Hiriart
In this chapter, we describe the methods used to culture mainly rat pancreatic beta cells. We consider necessary to use this approach to get more information about physiological, biophysical, and molecular biology characteristics of primary beta cells. Most of the literature published has been developed in murine and human beta-cell lines. However, there are many differences between tumoral cell lines and native cells because, in contrast to cell lines, primary cells do not divide. Moreover, cell lines can be in various stages of the cell cycle and thus have a different sensitivity to glucose, compared to primary cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222317/thrombocytopenia-in-hospitalized-patients-approach-to-the-patient-with-thrombotic-microangiopathy
#2
REVIEW
Marie Scully
Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs), specifically, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and complement-mediated hemolytic uremic syndrome (CM-HUS) are acute life-threatening disorders that require prompt consideration, diagnosis, and treatment to improve the high inherent mortality and morbidity. Presentation is with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia (MAHAT) and variable organ symptoms resulting from microvascular thrombi. Neurological and cardiac involvement is most common in TTP and associated with poorer prognosis and primarily renal involvement in CM-HUS...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222291/evolving-treatment-paradigms-in-sickle-cell-disease
#3
REVIEW
Ramasamy Jagadeeswaran, Angela Rivers
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inheritable hemoglobinopathy characterized by polymerization of hemoglobin S in red blood cells resulting in chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusive painful crisis, and multiorgan damage. In SCD, an increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation occurs both inside the red blood cells and inside the vascular lumen, which augment hemolysis and cellular adhesion. This review discusses the evolving body of literature on the role of ROS in the pathophysiology of SCD as well as some emerging therapeutic approaches to SCD with a focus on the reduction of ROS...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222288/cardiovascular-complications-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#4
REVIEW
Mark T Gladwin
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disease in which homozygosity for a single point mutation in the gene encoding the β-globin chain produces hemoglobin S molecules that polymerize within the erythrocyte during deoxygenation; the result is sustained hemolytic anemia and vaso-occlusive events. As patients live to adulthood, the chronic impact of sustained hemolytic anemia and episodic vaso-occlusive episodes leads to progressive end-organ complications. This scenario culminates in the development of 1 or more major cardiovascular complications of SCD for which there are no approved or consensus therapies...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222267/new-therapeutic-targets-in-transfusion-dependent-and-independent-thalassemia
#5
REVIEW
M Domenica Cappellini, Irene Motta
β-Thalassemias are characterized by reduced production of β-globin chain, resulting in α/β-chain unbalance and precipitation of α-globin-heme complexes and determining ineffective erythropoiesis. Ineffective erythropoiesis, chronic hemolytic anemia, and compensatory hematopoietic expansion are the disease hallmarks, and they are related to the severity of the chain unbalance. Several clinical forms of β-thalassemia, including the coinheritance of β-thalassemia with hemoglobin E resulting in hemoglobin E/β-thalassemia, have been described...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222249/thrombocytopenia-in-pregnancy
#6
REVIEW
Douglas B Cines, Lisa D Levine
Thrombocytopenia develops in 5% to 10% of women during pregnancy or in the immediate postpartum period. A low platelet count is often an incidental feature, but it might also provide a biomarker of a coexisting systemic or gestational disorder and a potential reason for a maternal intervention or treatment that might pose harm to the fetus. This chapter reflects our approach to these issues with an emphasis on advances made over the past 5 to 10 years in understanding and managing the more common causes of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221796/synthesis-and-antibacterial-activity-of-new-peptides-from-alfalfa-rubisco-protein-hydrolysates-and-mode-of-action-via-a-membrane-damage-mechanism-against-listeria-innocua
#7
Sabrine Kobbi, Naima Nedjar, Nourdine Chihib, Rafik Balti, Mickael Chevalier, Amandine Silvain, Semia Chaabouni, Pascal Dhulster, Ali Bougatef
In this work we evaluated the mode of action of six new synthesized peptides (Met-Asp-Asn; Glu-leu-Ala-Ala-Ala-Cys; Leu-Arg-Asp-Asp-Phe; Gly-Asn-Ala-Pro-Gly-Ala-Val-Ala; Ala-Leu-Arg-Met-Ser-Gly and Arg-Asp-Arg-Phe-Leu), previously identified, from the most active peptide fractions of RuBisCO peptic hydrolysate against Listeria innocua via a membrane damage mechanism. Antibacterial effect and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these peptides were evaluated against six strains and their hemolytic activities towards bovine erythrocytes were determined...
December 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221667/interleukin-27-and-interleukin-37-are-elevated-in-sickle-cell-anemia-patients-and-inhibit-in-vitro-secretion-of-interleukin-8-in-neutrophils-and-monocytes
#8
A E Alagbe, A S Justo Junior, L P Ruas, W V Tonassé, R M Santana, T H C Batista, I F Domingos, A S Araujo, M A C Bezerra, M N N Santos, M H S L Blotta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of most complications seen in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients. We aimed to evaluate serum levels of two newly discovered anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-27 and IL-37), and pro-inflammatory cytokines among Brazilian SCA patients that are not on hydroxyurea therapy (HbSS), compared with hydroxyurea-treated patients (HbSSHU) and healthy controls (HbAA). Furthermore, we demonstrated the effect of IL-27, IL-37, and heme on in vitro secretions of IL-8 in human neutrophils and monocytes...
December 5, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219891/thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-in-a-child-treated-for-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#9
Francesco De Leonardis, Roberta Koronica, Rosa Maria Daniele, Nicola Santoro
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a thrombotic microangiopathy caused by deficiency of von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease ADAMTS13. Large von Willebrand multimer formation and intravascular platelet aggregation affecting the arterioles and capillaries can result in death unless early treatment is administered. We report on the case of a child with TTP associated with a human herpes virus type-6 infection occurring during chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia who was effectively treated by fresh frozen plasma infusions and antiviral therapy...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219046/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-antimicrobial-peptides-brevinin-1ulf-and-ulmin-1ula-in-the-skin-of-the-newly-classified-ryukyu-brown-frog-rana-ulma
#10
Daisuke Ogawa, Maki Mochitate, Maho Furukawa, Itaru Hasunuma, Tetsuya Kobayashi, Sakae Kikuyama, Shawichi Iwamuro
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were previously isolated from the skin of the Ryukyu brown frog Rana okinavana. However, this species has recently been reclassified as two species, i.e., Rana kobai and Rana ulma. As a result, it was determined that AMPs isolated from R. okinavana were in fact products of R. kobai, but not of R. ulma. In the present study, we collected skin samples from the species R. ulma and cloned twelve cDNAs encoding AMP precursors for the acyclic brevinin-1ULa--1ULf, the temporin-ULa-ULc, ranatuerin-2ULa, japonicin-1ULa, and a novel peptide using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction techniques...
December 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218505/antibacterial-and-antibiofilm-activity-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-traditional-artisanal-milk-cheese-from-northeast-china-against-enteropathogenic-bacteria
#11
Xingyang Cui, Yunjia Shi, Shanshan Gu, Xin Yan, Hongyan Chen, Junwei Ge
The present study aims to investigate the probiotic properties of novel strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional artisanal milk cheese from Northeast China and to explore their antibacterial activity against enteropathogenic bacteria. Of the 321 isolates, 86 exhibited survival in low pH, resistance to pancreatin, and tolerance to bile salts; of these, 12 inhibited the growth of more than seven enteropathogenic bacteria and exhibited antibiofilm activities against Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003 and/or Escherichia coli CVCC230...
December 7, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218045/factor-h-c-terminal-domains-are-critical-for-regulation-of-platelet-granulocyte-aggregate-formation
#12
Adam Z Blatt, Gurpanna Saggu, Claudio Cortes, Andrew P Herbert, David Kavanagh, Daniel Ricklin, John D Lambris, Viviana P Ferreira
Platelet/granulocyte aggregates (PGAs) increase thromboinflammation in the vasculature, and PGA formation is tightly controlled by the complement alternative pathway (AP) negative regulator, Factor H (FH). Mutations in FH are associated with the prothrombotic disease atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), yet it is unknown whether increased PGA formation contributes to the thrombosis seen in patients with aHUS. Here, flow cytometry assays were used to evaluate the effects of aHUS-related mutations on FH regulation of PGA formation and characterize the mechanism...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217339/standardization-chemical-profiling-in%C3%A2-vitro-cytotoxic-effects-in%C3%A2-vivo-anti-carcinogenic-potential-and-biosafety-profile-of-indian-propolis
#13
Harshad Kapare, Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan, Arulmozhi Sinnathambi, Kakasaheb Mahadik
BACKGROUND: Propolis from apiculture is known for wide range of medicinal properties owing to its vast chemical constituents including polyphenols, flavonoids and anticancer agent Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE). OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to extract and standardize Indian propolis (IP) with respect to selected markers by newly developed High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, to evaluate in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity and biosafety of Indian propolis...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216383/genetic-susceptibility-to-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-after-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-infection-a-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-cdc-foodnet-study
#14
Asha R Kallianpur, Yuki Bradford, Rajal K Mody, Katie N Garman, Nicole Comstock, Sarah L Lathrop, Carol Lyons, Amy Saupe, Katie Wymore, Jeffrey A Canter, Lana M Olson, Amanda Palmer, Timothy F Jones
Background: Post-diarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (D+HUS) following Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection is a serious condition lacking specific treatment. Host immune dysregulation and genetic susceptibility to complement hyperactivation are implicated in non-STEC-related HUS. However, genetic susceptibility to D+HUS remains largely uncharacterized. Methods: Patients with culture-confirmed STEC diarrhea, identified through the CDC FoodNet surveillance system (2007-2012), were serotyped and classified by laboratory and/or clinical criteria as suspected, probable, or confirmed D+HUS, or as controls and genotyped at 200 loci linked to non-diarrheal HUS or similar pathologies...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215813/kidney-transplantation-in-patients-with-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-due-to-complement-factor-h-deficiency-impact-of-liver-transplantation
#15
Sejin Kim, Eujin Park, Sang Il Min, Nam Joon Yi, Jongwon Ha, Il Soo Ha, Hae Il Cheong, Hee Gyung Kang
BACKGROUND: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disease that is often associated with genetic defects. Mutations of complement factor H (CFH) are the most common genetic defects that cause aHUS and often result in end-stage renal disease. Since CFH is mainly produced in the liver, liver transplantation (LT) has been performed in patients with defective CFH. METHODS: The clinical courses of four kidney allograft recipients who lost their native kidney functions due to aHUS associated with a CFH mutation were reviewed...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215086/genetic-predisposition-to-infection-in-a-case-of-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#16
Lambertus van den Heuvel, Kristian Riesbeck, Omaima El Tahir, Valentina Gracchi, Mariann Kremlitzka, Servaas A Morré, A Marceline van Furth, Birendra Singh, Marcin Okrój, Nicole van de Kar, Anna M Blom, Elena Volokhina
Most cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) are caused by infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Genetic defects causing uncontrolled complement activation are associated with the more severe atypical HUS (aHUS). Non-EHEC infections can trigger the disease, however, complement defects predisposing to such infections have not yet been studied. We describe a 2-month-old patient infected with different Gram-negative bacterial species resulting in aHUS. Serum analysis revealed slow complement activation kinetics...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214674/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-plasma-from-dogs-with-immune-mediated-hemolytic-anemia
#17
C Lawson, S A Smith, M O'Brien, M McMichael
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are part of the innate immune response and are essential in local pathogen control, but are associated with pathological inflammation, organ damage, autoimmunity, and thrombosis. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is a pro-inflammatory, prothrombotic disease associated with high mortality. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a feature of the inflammatory process in dogs with IMHA...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214442/shiga-toxin-triggers-endothelial-and-podocyte-injury-the-role-of-complement-activation
#18
REVIEW
Carlamaria Zoja, Simona Buelli, Marina Morigi
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is the offending agent in post-diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and acute kidney failure, with thrombi occluding the renal microvasculature. Endothelial dysfunction has been recognized as the trigger event in the development of microangiopathic processes. Glomerular endothelial cells are susceptible to the toxic effects of Stxs that, via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, induce the expression of genes encoding for adhesion molecules and chemokines, culminating in leukocyte adhesion and platelet thrombus formation on the activated endothelium...
December 6, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214337/sleep-disordered-breathing-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#19
REVIEW
Vikram M Raghunathan, Peter L Whitesell, Seah H Lim
Sickle cell disease is one of the most common hereditary hemoglobinopathies worldwide, and its vaso-occlusive and hemolytic crises cause considerable patient morbidity. A growing body of evidence has shown that sleep-disordered breathing, and in particular, obstructive sleep apnea, occurs at high frequency in the sickle cell population, and that there is significant overlap in the underlying pathophysiology of these two conditions. Through a variety of mechanisms including nocturnal hypoxemia and increased oxidative stress, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction, sickle cell anemia and sleep-disordered breathing potentiate each other's clinical effects and end-organ complications...
December 6, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214126/pharmacologic-complement-inhibition-in-clinical-transplantation
#20
REVIEW
Vasishta S Tatapudi, Robert A Montgomery
Purpose of Review: Over the past two decades, significant strides made in our understanding of the etiology of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in transplantation have put the complement system in the spotlight. Here, we review recent progress made in the field of pharmacologic complement inhibition in clinical transplantation and aim to understand the impact of this therapeutic approach on outcomes in transplant recipients. Recent Findings: Encouraged by the success of agents targeting the complement cascade in disorders of unrestrained complement activation like paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), investigators are testing the safety and efficacy of pharmacologic complement blockade in mitigating allograft injury in conditions ranging from AMR to recurrent post-transplant aHUS, C3 glomerulopathies and antiphospholipid anti-body syndrome (APS)...
2017: Current Transplantation Reports
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