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Immune response to HCV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739077/t-bet-expressing-b-cells-during-hiv-and-hcv-infections
#1
James J Knox, David E Kaplan, Michael R Betts
T-bet-expressing B cells, first identified as perpetuators of autoimmunity, were recently shown to be critical for murine antiviral responses. While their role in human viral infections remains unclear, B cells expressing T-bet or demonstrating a related phenotype have been described in individuals chronically infected with HIV or HCV, suggesting these cells represent a component of human antiviral responses. In this review, we discuss the induction of T-bet in B cells following both HIV and HCV infections, the factors driving T-bet(+) B cell expansions, T-bet's relationship to atypical memory B cells, and the consequences of T-bet induction...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703131/egfr-rs11506105-and-ifnl3-snps-but-not-rs8099917-are-strongly-associated-with-treatment-responses-in-iranian-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#2
M Asnavandi, M Zargar, F Vaziri, F R Jamnani, S Gharibzadeh, A Fateh, S D Siadat
Interferon lambda 3 (IFNL3) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may play a key role in the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and treatment responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of IFNL3 SNPs and EGFR rs11506105 on treatment outcomes in patients with chronic HCV (CHC). IFNL3 SNPs and EGFR rs11506105 were genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and PCR-sequencing, respectively, in 235 naïve patients with CHC infection...
July 13, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691411/kupffer-cell-in-the-immune-activation-and-tolerance-toward-hbv-hcv-infection
#3
REVIEW
Yuan Fangchao, Zhang Wenfeng, Mu Di, Gong Jianping
Kupffer cells(KCs) largely found in the sinusoids are the macrophages which specifically reside in liver. KC is a crucial part of innate immune system, acting as scavenger and phagocyte. KCs and sinusoidal endothelial cells together form the first immune barrier of the portal system. Studies show that KCs can not only maintain homeostasis in immune response, but also facilitate the pathogenesis of type B and type C hepatitis through their antigen-presenting function and secretion of soluble mediators. KCs can express TLRs (Toll-like receptors), FasL, Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and secrete large amount of inflammatory factors to lead to the tolerant state of immune response toward HBV/HCV...
June 27, 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689588/renal-manifestations-of-hepatitis-c-virus
#4
REVIEW
Clodoveo Ferri, Dilia Giuggioli, Michele Colaci
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic and lymphotropic virus responsible for hepatic and extrahepatic autoimmune and neoplastic disorders, including renal involvement, which is the consequence of immune-mediated organ damage due to glomerular deposition of immune-complex and/or anti-HCV IgG antibodies and complement. It can appear at any time during the natural history of HCV infection, more often as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, alone or in association with other HCV-related disorders. The presence of renal involvement should be investigated in HCV-infected individuals at the first referral and during clinical follow-up...
August 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659470/hepatitis-c-virus-ns5a-targets-the-nucleosome-assembly-protein-nap1l1-to-control-the-innate-cellular-response
#5
Recep Emrah Çevik, Mia Cesarec, Ana Da Silva Filipe, Danilo Licastro, John McLauchlan, Alessandro Marcello
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA hepatotropic virus. Despite cellular defenses, HCV is able to replicate in hepatocytes and to establish a chronic infection that could lead to severe complications and hepatocellular carcinoma. An important player in subverting the host response to HCV infection is the viral non-structural protein NS5A that, in addition to its role in replication and assembly, targets several pathways involved in the cellular response to viral infection. Several unbiased screens identified the nucleosome-assembly protein 1-like 1 (NAP1L1) as an interaction partner of HCV NS5A...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646094/immune-mediated-effects-targeting-hepatitis-c-virus-in-a-syngeneic-replicon-cell-transplantation-mouse-model
#6
Sepideh Levander, Fredrik Holmström, Lars Frelin, Gustaf Ahlén, Daniel Rupp, Gang Long, Ralf Bartenschlager, Matti Sällberg
OBJECTIVE: HCV is characterised by its ability to establish chronic infection in hepatocytes and to replicate in the presence of an inflammation. We mimicked this situation in vivo in immune-competent mice by syngeneic transplantation of HCV replicon-containing mouse hepatoma cells. DESIGN: A total of 5 million H-2(b) positive Hep56.1D cells, carrying a subgenomic genotype (gt) 2a replicon (HCV replicon cells) or stably expressing comparable levels of the HCV NS3/4A protease/helicase complex (NS3/4A hepatoma cells), were injected subcutaneously into syngeneic H-2(b)-restricted mice...
June 23, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644966/an-immunosuppressive-function-of-interleukin-35-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#7
Siqi Liu, Qian Zhang, Xue Shao, Wenrui Wang, Chuanhui Zhang, Zhenjing Jin
Interleukin (IL)-35, a newly identified member of the IL-12 cytokine family, has been reported to suppress inflammation and induce immunotolerance. However, little is known regarding the role of IL-35 during chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Herein, we measured the serum IL-35 concentration of 73 patients with hepatitis C and 22 healthy individuals, as well as further investigated the modulatory function of IL-35 on CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(dim/-) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and on hepatocytes infected with HCV in cell culture (HCVcc)...
June 20, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643186/current-progress-in-host-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-against-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#8
REVIEW
Jijing Shi, Yuanyuan Li, Wenxian Chang, Xuexiu Zhang, Fu-Sheng Wang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 170 million people worldwide and is the main cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the newly developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have transformed the treatment of HCV infection, controlling HCV infection on a global scale remains a challenge because of the high cost, low resistance barrier of DAAs and lack of HCV vaccine. The host immune responses associated with HCV infection, especially HCV-specific T cellular immunity, determine the outcome of HCV infection: either acute or chronic infection...
June 22, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630385/low-dose-of-lenalidomide-enhances-nk-cell-activity-possible-implication-as-an-adjuvant
#9
Kiandokht Borhani, Taravat Bamdad, Tayebeh Hashempour
BACKGROUND: Lenalidomide, a synthetic immunomodulatory drug, has a wide range of features including anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative properties. To date, researchers have shown that lenalidomide is capable of ameliorating the immune system factors and antitumor responses. Most researchers have reported that lenalidomide enhances the immune response in certain cancer patients through several pathways including the stimulation of Natural Killer cells; notwithstanding, it is still crucial to investigate the effect of lenalidomide on the activity of NK cell cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620716/factors-affecting-responsiveness-to-hepatitis-b-immunization-in-dialysis-patients
#10
Ali Asan, Huriye Demirhan, Hülya Çetin Sorkun, Sevgi Özkan, Mehtap Aydın, Davut Akın, Bengü Tatar, Binali Çatak, Alper Şener, Şükran Köse
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are widespread health problems all over the world and have high morbidity and mortality. Hemodialysis patients are more frequently exposed to these viruses as they have poor immune system and frequently undergo parenteral interventions. The vaccination against HBV prevents infection and it has been recommended for the prevention of HBV infection in all susceptible dialysis patients. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV infections and analyzed the factors affecting inadequate response to HBV vaccine in dialysis patients...
June 15, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609212/correlation-of-serum-soluble-fibrinogen-like-protein-2-with-soluble-fas-ligand-and-interferon-gamma-in-egyptian-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients
#11
Mohamed El-Mesery, Mohammed El-Mowafy, Abdelaziz Elgaml, Laila F Youssef, Sally Y Abed
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains one of the serious human diseases worldwide, especially in Egypt, which can lead to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the exact molecular mechanism of HCC progress in HCV-infected patients remains unclear. Soluble fibrinogen-like protein 2 (sFGL2) is a modulator of the immune response that is secreted by T cells and inhibits maturation of dendritic cells and T cell proliferation. In the current study, serum sFGL2 levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique in 30 chronic HCV-infected patients (HCV group), 30 chronic HCV-infected patients with HCC (HCC group), and 12 healthy individuals (control group)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603092/crosstalk-of-liver-immune-cells-and-cell-death-mechanisms-in-different-murine-models-of-liver-injury-and-its-clinical-relevance
#12
Hilal Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Zishan Ahmad, Junaid Ali Khan, Muhammad Imran Arshad
BACKGROUND: Liver inflammation or hepatitis is a result of pluripotent interactions of cell death molecules, cytokines, chemokines and the resident immune cells collectively called as microenvironment. The interplay of these inflammatory mediators and switching of immune responses during hepatotoxic, viral, drug-induced and immune cell-mediated hepatitis decide the fate of liver pathology. The present review aimed to describe the mechanisms of liver injury, its relevance to human liver pathology and insights for the future therapeutic interventions...
June 2017: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597817/decreased-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-during-recurrent-acute-hcv-infections-in-hiv-co-infected-patients
#13
Sebastiaan J Hullegie, Joop E A Arends, Zwier M A Groothuismink, Suzan D Pas, Bart J A Rijnders, Andre Boonstra, Mark A A Claassen
Patients in high-risk groups continue to transmit the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and frequently experience reinfections. Since little is known regarding the immune response to HCV during reinfection, we compared primary and consecutive acute HCV infections in patients with an HIV infection, and focused on the cytokine bridging innate to adaptive immunity. We observed that the serum levels of IL-12p40, MIP-1β, MIG and IP-10 increased during primary acute HCV infection, but not during subsequent secondary acute reinfections...
June 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587866/digging-more-in-the-genetic-risk-prediction-of-hepatitis-c-virus-epidemic-in-egypt-apoptosis-genes-polymorphisms-in-the-susceptibility-of-hepatitis-c-virus-and-association-with-viral-load
#14
Rania H Khalifa, Rasha Mohamad Hosny Shahin, Reham Emad Eldin Aboukhalil, Mohamed A Marie, Amr M El-Deeb, Nermine Magdi Riad
Egypt is confronted with the highest hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic. Apoptosis and cellular immune responses are crucial to the clearance or persistence of viral infections. This case-control study was carried out to detect whether apoptosis genes single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) confer risk to HCV in a cohort of Egyptian patients and to explore their association with viral load. One hundred and ninety six blood samples were withdrawn from 96 HCV patients and 100 controls. The Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) -1525G>A and FasL-844T>C SNPs were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
June 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587864/up-regulation-of-circulating-mirna146a-correlates-with-viral-load-via-irak1-and-traf6-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients
#15
Fayda Ibrahim Abdel Motaleb, Enas Samir Nabih, Sherif Moneir Mohamed, Nehal Samir Abd Elhalim
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a life threatening human pathogen. It has been found that miRNA146a regulates innate immunity, inflammatory response and antiviral pathway. We evaluated miRNA146a expression by real-time PCR and IL-1 receptor associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) levels by ELISA in serum of 36 HCV viremia patients and 42 age and gender matched healthy controls. RESULTS: miRNA146a expression was significantly higher in HCV patients with a best cut off value 1...
June 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585435/creating-animal-models-why-not-use-the-chinese-tree-shrew-tupaia-belangeri-chinensis
#16
Yong-Gang Yao
The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a squirrel-like and rat-sized mammal, has a wide distribution in Southeast Asia, South and Southwest China and has many unique characteristics that make it suitable for use as an experimental animal. There have been many studies using the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) aimed at increasing our understanding of fundamental biological mechanisms and for the modeling of human diseases and therapeutic responses. The recent release of a publicly available annotated genome sequence of the Chinese tree shrew and its genome database (www...
May 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584852/immunological-predictors-of-nonresponse-to-directly-acting-antiviral-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-and-decompensated-cirrhosis
#17
Kate Childs, Elliot Merritt, Aisling Considine, Alberto Sanchez-Fueyo, Kosh Agarwal, Marc Martinez-Llordella, Ivana Carey
BACKGROUND: Sustained virological response rates (SVRs) to directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are lower in decompensated cirrhosis. Markers of innate immunity predict nonresponse to interferon-based HCV treatment; however, whether they are associated with the response to DAAs in patients with decompensation is not known. METHODS: Information on demographics, adherence, viral kinetics, and resistance were gathered prospectively from a cohort with decompensated cirrhosis treated with 12 weeks of DAAs...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558073/hepatitis-e-virus-persists-in-the-presence-of-a-type-iii-interferon-response
#18
Xin Yin, Xinlei Li, Charuta Ambardekar, Zhimin Hu, Sébastien Lhomme, Zongdi Feng
The RIG-I-like RNA helicase (RLR)-mediated interferon (IFN) response plays a pivotal role in the hepatic antiviral immunity. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) counter this response by encoding a viral protease that cleaves the mitochondria antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), a common signaling adaptor for RLRs. However, a third hepatotropic RNA virus, the hepatitis E virus (HEV), does not appear to encode a functional protease yet persists in infected cells. We investigated HEV-induced IFN responses in human hepatoma cells and primary human hepatocytes...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552667/lenalidomide-acts-as-an-adjuvant-for-hcv-dna-vaccine
#19
Kiandokht Borhani, Taravat Bamdad, Tayebeh Hashempour
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne pathogen which has chronically infected people worldwide. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to design prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine in order to control HCV infection. To date, several researchers have attempted to improve the efficiency of HCV vaccine by using different adjuvants. However, a few studies have focused on the synthetic immunomodulatory drugs as adjuvants for HCV vaccine. Recently, researchers have shown that lenalidomide, which is used to treat the patients with multiple myeloma, is capable of improving the immune system factors...
July 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543916/hcv-rna-genomic-sequences-and-hcv-e2-glycoprotein-in-sural-nerve-biopsies-from-hcv-infected-patients-with-peripheral-neuropathy
#20
Sabino Russi, Domenico Sansonno, Salvatore Monaco, Sara Mariotto, Sergio Ferrari, Fabio Pavone, Gianfranco Lauletta, Franco Dammacco
AIMS: Peripheral neuropathy (PN), the major neurological complication of chronic HCV infection, is frequently associated with mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) and small-vessel systemic vasculitis. While humoral and cell-mediated immune mechanisms are suspected to act together in an aberrant immune response that results in peripheral nerve damage, the role of HCV remains largely speculative. The possible demonstration of HCV in peripheral nerve tissue would obviously assume important pathogenic implications...
May 24, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
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