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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136530/microplastic-particles-cause-intestinal-damage-and-other-adverse-effects-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-and-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
Lili Lei, Siyu Wu, Shibo Lu, Mengting Liu, Yang Song, Zhenhuan Fu, Huahong Shi, Kathleen M Raley-Susman, Defu He
Microplastics have been frequently detected in aquatic environments, and there are increasing concerns about potential effects on biota. In this study, zebrafish Danio rerio and nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were used as model organisms for microplastic exposure in freshwater pelagic (i.e. water column) and benthic (i.e. sediment) environments. We investigated the toxic effects of five common types of microplastics: polyamides (PA), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS) particles...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126990/a-proanthocyanidin-rich-extract-from-cassia-abbreviata-exhibits-antioxidant-and-hepatoprotective-activities-in-vivo
#2
Mansour Sobeh, Mona F Mahmoud, Mohamed A O Abdelfattah, Haroan Cheng, Assem M El-Shazly, Michael Wink
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cassia abbreviata is a small to medium sized branched umbrella-shaped deciduous tree. It is widely spread in the tropics, especially in Africa, having a long history in traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous conditions such as headaches, diarrhea, constipation, some skin diseases, malaria, syphilis, pneumonia, stomach troubles, uterine pains, and against gonorrhea. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated the phytochemical constituents of a root extract from Cassia abbreviata using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117555/mitochondrial-stress-restores-the-heat-shock-response-and-prevents-proteostasis-collapse-during-aging
#3
Johnathan Labbadia, Renee M Brielmann, Mario F Neto, Yi-Fan Lin, Cole M Haynes, Richard I Morimoto
In Caenorhabditis elegans, the programmed repression of the heat shock response (HSR) accompanies the transition to reproductive maturity, leaving cells vulnerable to environmental stress and protein aggregation with age. To identify the factors driving this event, we performed an unbiased genetic screen for suppressors of stress resistance and identified the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) as a central regulator of the age-related decline of the HSR and cytosolic proteostasis. Mild downregulation of ETC activity, either by genetic modulation or exposure to mitochondria-targeted xenobiotics, maintained the HSR in adulthood by increasing HSF-1 binding and RNA polymerase II recruitment at HSF-1 target genes...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114996/impaired-p53-cep-1-is-associated-with-lifespan-extension-through-an-age-related-imbalance-in-the-energy-metabolism-of-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#4
Sumino Yanase, Hitoshi Suda, Kayo Yasuda, Naoaki Ishii
In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the mammalian tumor suppressor p53 ortholog CEP-1 mediates the stress response, activates germ line apoptosis and regulates meiotic chromosome segregation. A reduction in its expression, which frequently occurs in mammalian cancer cells, extends lifespan and induces an adaptive response in C. elegans. However, these effects do not involve an increase in oxidative stress resistance. Here, we showed that intermittent exposure to hyperoxia, which induces oxidative stress resistance and lowers the production of ROS derived from mitochondrial respiration in C...
November 8, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103937/an-intracellular-pathogen-response-pathway-promotes-proteostasis-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#5
Kirthi C Reddy, Tal Dror, Jessica N Sowa, Johan Panek, Kevin Chen, Efrem S Lim, David Wang, Emily R Troemel
Maintenance of protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, is crucial for organismal health. Disruption of proteostasis can lead to the accumulation of protein aggregates, which are associated with aging and many human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease [1-3]. Through analysis of the C. elegans host response to intracellular infection, we describe here a novel response pathway that enhances proteostasis capacity and appears to act in parallel to well-studied proteostasis pathways. These findings are based on analysis of the transcriptional response to infection by the intracellular pathogen Nematocida parisii [4]...
October 30, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099309/the-autophagy-inducing-kinases-ulk1-and-ulk2-regulate-axon-guidance-in-the-developing-mouse-forebrain-via-a-noncanonical-pathway
#6
Bo Wang, Rekha Iyengar, Xiujie Li-Harms, Joung Hyuck Joo, Christopher Wright, Alfonso Lavado, Linda Horner, Mao Yang, Jun-Lin Guan, Sharon Frase, Douglas R Green, Xinwei Cao, Mondira Kundu
Mammalian ULK1 (unc-51 like kinase 1) and ULK2, Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-51, and Drosophila melanogaster Atg1 are serine/threonine kinases that regulate flux through the autophagy pathway in response to various types of cellular stress. C. elegans UNC-51 and D. melanogaster Atg1 also promote axonal growth and defasciculation; disruption of these genes results in defective axon guidance in invertebrates. Although disrupting ULK1/2 function impairs normal neurite outgrowth in vitro, the role of ULK1 and ULK2 in the developing brain remains poorly characterized...
November 3, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097398/cell-biology-of-the-mitochondrion
#7
Alexander M van der Bliek, Margaret M Sedensky, Phil G Morgan
Mitochondria are best known for harboring pathways involved in ATP synthesis through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Major advances in understanding these roles were made with Caenorhabditiselegans mutants affecting key components of the metabolic pathways. These mutants have not only helped elucidate some of the intricacies of metabolism pathways, but they have also served as jumping off points for pharmacology, toxicology, and aging studies. The field of mitochondria research has also undergone a renaissance, with the increased appreciation of the role of mitochondria in cell processes other than energy production...
November 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095935/beyond-the-polymerase-%C3%AE-theory-production-of-ros-as-a-mode-of-nrti-induced-mitochondrial-toxicity
#8
Reuben L Smith, Josephine M E Tan, Martijs J Jonker, Aldo Jongejan, Thomas Buissink, Steve Veldhuijzen, Antoine H C van Kampen, Stanley Brul, Hans van der Spek
Use of some HIV-1 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) is associated with severe adverse events. However, the exact mechanisms behind their toxicity has not been fully understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction after chronic exposure to specific NRTIs has predominantly been assigned to mitochondrial polymerase-γ inhibition by NRTIs. However, an increasing amount of data suggests that this is not the sole mechanism. Many NRTI induced adverse events have been linked to the incurrence of oxidative stress, although the causality of events leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and their role in toxicity is unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081733/modulation-of-alpha-synuclein-expression-and-associated-effects-by-microrna-let-7-in-transgenic-c-elegans
#9
Shamsuzzama, Lalit Kumar, Aamir Nazir
Neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multi-factorial disorder lacking complete cure. Understanding the complete mechanism of initiation and progression of this disease has been quite challenging; however, progress has been made toward deciphering certain genetic aspects related to the disease condition. Genetics studies have provided clues toward the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in various disease conditions. One of the crucial miRNA molecules, let-7, is highly conserved miRNA and is known to regulate important functions of development and viability; its altered expression has been reported in C...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074967/a-proteomic-analysis-provides-novel-insights-into-the-stress-responses-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-towards-nematicidal-cry6a-toxin-from-bacillus-thuringiensis
#10
Bing Wang, Haiwen Wang, Jing Xiong, Qiaoni Zhou, Huan Wu, Liqiu Xia, Lin Li, Ziquan Yu
Cry6A represents a novel family of nematicidal crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis. It has distinctive architecture as well as mechanism of action from Cry5B, a highly focused family of nematicidal crystal proteins, and even from other insecticidal crystal proteins containing the conserved three-domain. However, how nematode defends against Cry6A toxin remains obscure. In this study, the global defense pattern of Caenorhabditis elegans against Cry6Aa2 toxin was investigated by proteomic analysis. In response to Cry6Aa2, 12 proteins with significantly altered abundances were observed from worms, participating in innate immune defense, insulin-like receptor (ILR) signaling pathway, energy metabolism, and muscle assembly...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074413/galantamine-attenuates-n-n-dimethyl-hydrazine-induced-neoplastic-colon-damage-by-inhibiting-acetylcholinesterase-and-bimodal-regulation-of-nicotinic-cholinergic-neurotransmission
#11
Shreesh Raj Sammi, Jitendra K Rawat, Neetu Raghav, Ajay Kumar, Subhadeep Roy, Manjari Singh, Swetlana Gautam, Rajnish K Yadav, Uma Devi, Rakesh Pandey, Gaurav Kaithwas
The present study reveals the effect of galantamine (GAL) against 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer. Wistar albino rats were arbitrarily divided into four groups (n = 8). Group 1 served as normal control (normal saline, 3ml/kg/day, p.o.); group 2, 3 and 4 received DMH (20mg/kg/week, s.c.), for 6 weeks; groups 3 and 4 also received GAL (2 and 4mg/kg/day, p.o) for 6 weeks. DMH treated rats showed decreased heart rate variability (HRV) factors, increased incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) along with the decrease in the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase...
October 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069955/shatavarin-iv-elicits-lifespan-extension-and-alleviates-parkinsonism-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Shachi Shuchi Smita, Shreesh Raj Sammi, Tulsankar S Laxman, Rabi S Bhatta, Rakesh Pandey
Shatavarin IV (SIV), a steroidal saponin is a major bioactive phytomolecule present in roots of Asparagus racemosus (Liliaceae) known for its anticancer activity. Age associated neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by alpha-synuclein aggregation in dopaminergic neuron resulting in neurodegeneration. The invention of bioactive molecules that delay aging and age associated disorders endorses development of natural phytomolecule as a therapeutic agent for curing age related diseases. Therefore, present study for the first time explores the potential of SIV against aging and Parkinsonism utilizing Caenorhabditis elegans model system...
October 25, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069345/adaptive-evolution-under-extreme-genetic-drift-in-oxidatively-stressed-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Stephen F Christy, Riana I Wernick, Michael J Lue, Griselda Velasco, Dana K Howe, Dee R Denver, Suzanne Estes
A mutation-accumulation (MA) experiment with Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes was conducted in which replicate, independently evolving lines were initiated from a low-fitness mitochondrial electron transport chain mutant, gas-1 . The original intent of the study was to assess the effect of ETC dysfunction involving elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on patterns of spontaneous germline mutation. In contrast to results of standard MA experiments, gas-1 MA lines evolved slightly higher mean fitness alongside reduced among-line genetic variance compared to their ancestor...
October 23, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065374/response-of-nematode-communities-to-metals-and-pahs-in-freshwater-microcosms
#14
Arne Haegerbaeumer, Sebastian Höss, Peter Heininger, Walter Traunspurger
Freshwater microcosms were used to investigate the effects of various metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), applied as single substances and in mixtures, on sediment-inhabiting nematode assemblages. Several community measures, including nematode abundance, biomass, species richness, species composition and the NemaSPEAR[%]-index, were assessed and their changes in response to the chemical treatments were compared with the results of single-species toxicity testing using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
October 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063832/daf-16-foxo-promotes-gluconeogenesis-and-trehalose-synthesis-during-starvation-to-support-survival
#15
Jonathan D Hibshman, Alexander E Doan, Brad T Moore, Rebecca Ew Kaplan, Anthony Hung, Amy K Webster, Dhaval P Bhatt, Rojin Chitrakar, Matthew D Hirschey, L Ryan Baugh
daf-16/FoxO is required to survive starvation in Caenorhabditis elegans, but how daf-16IFoxO promotes starvation resistance is unclear. We show that daf-16/FoxO restructures carbohydrate metabolism by driving carbon flux through the glyoxylate shunt and gluconeogenesis and into synthesis of trehalose, a disaccharide of glucose. Trehalose is a well-known stress protectant, capable of preserving membrane organization and protein structure during abiotic stress. Metabolomic, genetic, and pharmacological analyses confirm increased trehalose synthesis and further show that trehalose not only supports survival as a stress protectant but also serves as a glycolytic input...
October 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062158/expression-of-cehsp17-protein-in-response-to-heat-shock-and-heavy-metal-ions
#16
Anastasia N Ezemaduka, Yunbiao Wang, Xiujun Li
Small heat shock proteins (sHSP) are ubiquitously found in all organisms, and with other heat shock proteins (HSP) such as HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, HSP100 made up the molecular chaperone family. They are involved in a wide range of biological processes which include among others cell resistance to biological and environmental stress conditions. In this study, we show by western blotting that CeHSP17, an sHSP of Caenorhabiditis elegans, is significantly induced by high temperatures. Furthermore, in response to metal stress, the CeHSP17 protein expression was significantly induced by cadmium and zinc at high concentration of clearly cytotoxic range in wild-type C...
September 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061563/rescue-of-atxn3-neuronal-toxicity-in-c-elegans-by-chemical-modification-of-er-stress
#17
Yasmin Fardghassemi, Arnaud Tauffenberger, Sarah Gosselin, J Alex Parker
Background: Polyglutamine expansion diseases are a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders that develop when a CAG repeat in the causative genes are unstably expanded above a certain threshold. The expansion of trinucleotide CAG repeats cause hereditary adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, spinobulbar muscular atrophy and multiple forms of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). The most common dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxia is the type 3 (SCA3) also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is an autosomal dominant, progressive neurological disorder...
October 23, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048250/inhibition-of-abeta-proteotoxicity-by-paeoniflorin-in-i-caenorhabditis-elegans-i-through-regulation-of-oxidative-and-heat-shock-stress-responses
#18
Liping Ai, Fan Yang, Jie Song, Yan Chen, Lingyun Xiao, Qiangqiang Wang, Liangyi Wang, Haifeng Li, Tao Lei, Zebo Huang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common form of dementia and amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregation is considered to be one of its main causes. Paeoniflorin has been previously shown to attenuate cognitive damage inflicted by exogenous Aβ protein. Using transgenic <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> models expressing human Aβ1-42, we demonstrate here that paeoniflorin can delay progressive paralysis caused by endogenous Aβ expression and reduce the amount of toxic Aβ oligomers in vivo although it has no effect on Aβ aggregation <i>in vitro</i>...
October 19, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041955/pluripotent-nontumorigenic-multilineage-differentiating-stress-enduring-cells-muse-cells-a-seven-year-retrospective
#19
REVIEW
Samantha C Fisch, María L Gimeno, Julia D Phan, Ariel A Simerman, Daniel A Dumesic, Marcelo J Perone, Gregorio D Chazenbalk
Multilineage differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, discovered in the spring of 2010 at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan, were quickly recognized by scientists as a possible source of pluripotent cells naturally present within mesenchymal tissues. Muse cells normally exist in a quiescent state, singularly activated by severe cellular stress in vitro and in vivo. Muse cells have the capacity for self-renewal while maintaining pluripotent cell characteristics indicated by the expression of pluripotent stem cell markers...
October 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036198/the-homeodomain-interacting-protein-kinase-hpk-1-preserves-protein-homeostasis-and-longevity-through-master-regulatory-control-of-the-hsf-1-chaperone-network-and-torc1-restricted-autophagy-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Ritika Das, Justine A Melo, Manjunatha Thondamal, Elizabeth A Morton, Adam B Cornwell, Beresford Crick, Joung Heon Kim, Elliot W Swartz, Todd Lamitina, Peter M Douglas, Andrew V Samuelson
An extensive proteostatic network comprised of molecular chaperones and protein clearance mechanisms functions collectively to preserve the integrity and resiliency of the proteome. The efficacy of this network deteriorates during aging, coinciding with many clinical manifestations, including protein aggregation diseases of the nervous system. A decline in proteostasis can be delayed through the activation of cytoprotective transcriptional responses, which are sensitive to environmental stress and internal metabolic and physiological cues...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
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