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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732077/mutations-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-orthologs-of-human-genes-required-for-mitochondrial-trna-modification-cause-similar-electron-transport-chain-defects-but-different-nuclear-responses
#1
Carmen Navarro-González, Ismaïl Moukadiri, Magda Villarroya, Ernesto López-Pascual, Simon Tuck, M-Eugenia Armengod
Several oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) diseases are caused by defects in the post-transcriptional modification of mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs). Mutations in MTO1 or GTPBP3 impair the modification of the wobble uridine at position 5 of the pyrimidine ring and cause heart failure. Mutations in TRMU affect modification at position 2 and cause liver disease. Presently, the molecular basis of the diseases and why mutations in the different genes lead to such different clinical symptoms is poorly understood...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723894/cysteine-protease-cathepsin-b-mediates-radiation-induced-bystander-effects
#2
Yu Peng, Man Zhang, Lingjun Zheng, Qian Liang, Hanzeng Li, Jeng-Ting Chen, Hongyan Guo, Sawako Yoshina, Yu-Zen Chen, Xiang Zhao, Xiaoqi Wu, Bin Liu, Shohei Mitani, Jau-Song Yu, Ding Xue
The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) refers to a unique process in which factors released by irradiated cells or tissues exert effects on other parts of the animal not exposed to radiation, causing genomic instability, stress responses and altered apoptosis or cell proliferation. Although RIBEs have important implications for radioprotection, radiation safety and radiotherapy, the molecular identities of RIBE factors and their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model in which to study RIBEs, and identify the cysteine protease CPR-4, a homologue of human cathepsin B, as the first RIBE factor in nematodes, to our knowledge...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716093/c-elegans-sup-46-an-hnrnpm-family-rna-binding-protein-that-prevents-paternally-mediated-epigenetic-sterility
#3
Wendy L Johnston, Aldis Krizus, Arun K Ramani, Wade Dunham, Ji Young Youn, Andrew G Fraser, Anne-Claude Gingras, James W Dennis
BACKGROUND: In addition to DNA, gametes contribute epigenetic information in the form of histones and non-coding RNA. Epigenetic programs often respond to stressful environmental conditions and provide a heritable history of ancestral stress that allows for adaptation and propagation of the species. In the nematode C. elegans, defective epigenetic transmission often manifests as progressive germline mortality. We previously isolated sup-46 in a screen for suppressors of the hexosamine pathway gene mutant, gna-2(qa705)...
July 17, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713491/mulberry-anthocyanin-extract-ameliorates-oxidative-damage-in-hepg2-cells-and-prolongs-the-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-through-mapk-and-nrf2-pathways
#4
Fujie Yan, Yushu Chen, Ramila Azat, Xiaodong Zheng
Mulberry anthocyanins possess many pharmacological effects including liver protection, anti-inflammation, and anticancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether mulberry anthocyanin extract (MAE) exerts beneficial effects against oxidative stress damage in HepG2 cells and Caenorhabditis elegans. In vitro, MAE prevented cytotoxicity, increased glucose consumption and uptake, and eliminated excessive intracellular free radicals in H2O2-induced cells. Moreover, MAE pretreatment maintained Nrf2, HO-1, and p38 MAPK stimulation and abolished upregulation of p-JNK, FOXO1, and PGC-1α that were involved in oxidative stress and insulin signalling modulation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698593/differential-adiponectin-signalling-couples-er-stress-with-lipid-metabolism-to-modulate-ageing-in-c-elegans
#5
Emmanouil Kyriakakis, Nikolaos Charmpilas, Nektarios Tavernarakis
The metabolic and endocrine functions of adipose tissue and the ability of organisms to cope with cellular stress have a direct impact on physiological ageing and the aetiology of various diseases such as obesity-related pathologies and cancer. The endocrine effects of adipose tissue are mediated by secreted adipokines, which modulate metabolic processes and influence related maladies. Although a plethora of molecules and signaling pathways associate ageing with proteotoxic stress and cellular metabolism, our understanding of how these pathways interconnect to coordinate organismal physiology remains limited...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689715/exploration-of-low-temperature-microrna-function-in-an-anoxia-tolerant-vertebrate-ectotherm-the-red-eared-slider-turtle-trachemys-scripta-elegans
#6
Kyle K Biggar, Kenneth B Storey
As a model for vertebrate long-term survival in oxygen-restricted environments, the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) can adapt at the biochemical level to survive in oxygen-free (anoxic) cold water (<10°C). This impressive ability is enabled through a coordinated suppression of energy-expensive, non-essential, cell processes. This study explored the anoxia-responsive expression of several microRNA species (miR-1a, -133, -17, -107, -148a, -21, -103, -210, -20a, -365 and -29b) in adult turtles exposed to 5h and 20h anoxia (at 5±1°C)...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676501/lifespan-extension-by-peroxidase-dual-oxidase-mediated-ros-signaling-through-pyrroloquinoline-quinone-in-c-elegans
#7
Hiroyuki Sasakura, Hiroki Moribe, Masahiko Nakano, Kazuto Ikemoto, Kosei Takeuchi, Ikue Mori
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), originally characterized based on their harmful effects on cells or organisms, are now recognized as important signal molecules regulating various biological processes. In particular, low levels of ROS released from mitochondria extend lifespan. Here, we identified a novel mechanism of generating appropriate levels of ROS at the plasma membrane through a peroxidase/dual oxidase system, which could extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). A redox co-factor, pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), activates dual oxidase (DUOX)/BLI-3 to produce the ROS H2O2 at the plasma membrane, which is subsequently degraded by peroxidase/MLT-7, eventually ensuring the adequate levels of ROS...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674941/coffee-extract-and-caffeine-enhance-the-heat-shock-response-and-promote-proteostasis-in-an-hsf-1-dependent-manner-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Jessica Brunquell, Stephanie Morris, Alana Snyder, Sandy D Westerheide
As the population ages, there is a critical need to uncover strategies to combat diseases of aging. Studies in the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have demonstrated the protective effects of coffee extract and caffeine in promoting the induction of conserved longevity pathways including the insulin-like signaling pathway and the oxidative stress response. We were interested in determining the effects of coffee and caffeine treatment on the regulation of the heat shock response. The heat shock response is a highly conserved cellular response that functions as a cytoprotective mechanism during stress, mediated by the heat shock transcription factor HSF-1...
July 4, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673184/toxicogenomics-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-the-nematode-c-elegans
#9
Laura Gonzalez-Moragas, Si-Ming Yu, Núria Benseny-Cases, Stephen Stürzenbaum, Anna Roig, Anna Laromaine
We present a mechanistic study of the effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in Caenorhabditis elegans combining a genome-wide analysis with the investigation of specific molecular markers frequently linked to nanotoxicity. The effects of two different coatings were explored: citrate, an anionic stabilizer, and bovine serum albumin, as a pre-formed protein corona. The transcriptomic study identified differentially expressed genes following an exposure to SPIONs. The expression of genes involved in oxidative stress, metal detoxification response, endocytosis, intestinal integrity and iron homeostasis was quantitatively evaluated...
July 4, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673026/3%C3%AE-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic-acid-modulates-dietary-restriction-mediated-longevity-and-ameliorates-toxic-protein-aggregation-in-c-elegans
#10
Hema Negi, Shilpi Khare Saikia, Rakesh Pandey
Species from lower invertebrates to a spectrum of mammals show anti-aging health benefits of phytochemical(s). Here, we explored the pro-longevity effects of a natural triterpenoid, ursolic acid (3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid; UA) in Caenorhabditis elegans with maximal lifespan being evident at 25µM UA. Similar to eat-2 mutants, UA uptake by worm results in reduced fat storage and attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), independent of superoxide dismutase(s) activation. The genetic requirements for UA mediated longevity are quite similar to dietary restriction (DR) achieved through SKN-1/ NRF-2 exhibiting up regulation of downstream target genes gcs-1 and daf-9...
June 30, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669960/-effect-of-herba-scutellariae-barbatae-flavonoids-in-delaying-aging-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-in-vitro
#11
Wei Zhou, Jing-Ming Lin, Su-Li Wang, Hai-Zhen Lin
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Herba Scutellariae Barbatae flavonoids (HF) in delaying aging of Caenorhabditis elegans and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. METHODS: The effects of 30 or 50 mg/L of HF on nematode life span, reproductive capacity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzyme activity of C. elegans were assessed, and the effects of HF on the expressions of the genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and the aging-related genes were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR in both C...
June 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669120/the-protection-of-novel-2-arylethenylquinoline-derivatives-against-impairment-of-associative-learning-memory-induced-by-neural-a%C3%AE-in-c-elegans-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#12
Qidi He, Guan Huang, Yixin Chen, Xiaoqin Wang, Zhishu Huang, Zuanguang Chen
Cerebral deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), a fundamental feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), damages the neurocytes and impairs the cognition functions and associative learning memory of AD patients. A series of novel 2-arylethenylquinoline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in our previous study, which inhibited Aβ aggregation in vitro effectively at the concentration of 20 μmol/L and exhibited high antioxidant activity. In order to verify the capacity of anti-AD in vivo, the transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C...
July 1, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667441/lifespan-extending-and-stress-resistance-properties-of-brazilin-from-caesalpinia-sappan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Eun Byeol Lee, Ming Ming Xing, Dae Keun Kim
This study contributes to the continual discovery of lifespan-extending compounds from plants, using the Caenorhabditis elegans model system. An ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanol extract from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan showed a significant lifespan-extending activity. Subsequent activity-guided chromatography of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction led to the isolation of brazilin. Brazilin showed potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and superoxide anion quenching activities and also revealed a lifespan-extending activity in C...
June 30, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662696/contribution-of-trans-regulatory-eqtl-to-cryptic-genetic-variation-in-c-elegans
#14
Basten L Snoek, Mark G Sterken, Roel P J Bevers, Rita J M Volkers, Arjen Van't Hof, Rachel Brenchley, Joost A G Riksen, Andrew Cossins, Jan E Kammenga
BACKGROUND: Cryptic genetic variation (CGV) is the hidden genetic variation that can be unlocked by perturbing normal conditions. CGV can drive the emergence of novel complex phenotypes through changes in gene expression. Although our theoretical understanding of CGV has thoroughly increased over the past decade, insight into polymorphic gene expression regulation underlying CGV is scarce. Here we investigated the transcriptional architecture of CGV in response to rapid temperature changes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
June 29, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662060/a-conserved-mitochondrial-surveillance-pathway-is-required-for-defense-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
Elissa Tjahjono, Natalia V Kirienko
All living organisms exist in a precarious state of homeostasis that requires constant maintenance. A wide variety of stresses, including hypoxia, heat, and infection by pathogens perpetually threaten to imbalance this state. Organisms use a battery of defenses to mitigate damage and restore normal function. Previously, we described a Caenorhabditis elegans-Pseudomonas aeruginosa assay (Liquid Killing) in which toxicity to the host is dependent upon the secreted bacterial siderophore pyoverdine. Although pyoverdine is also indispensable for virulence in mammals, its cytological effects are unclear...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650631/effect-of-the-biphenyl-neolignan-honokiol-on-a%C3%AE-42-induced-toxicity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-a%C3%AE-42-fibrillation-cholinesterase-activity-dpph-radicals-and-iron-ii-chelation
#16
Srinivas Kantham, Stephen Chan, Gawain McColl, Jared Miles, Suresh Kumar Veliyath, Girdhar Singh Deora, Satish N Dighe, Samira Khabbazi, Marie-Odile Parat, Benjamin P Ross
The biphenyl neolignan honokiol is a neuroprotectant which has been proposed as a treatment for central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The death of cholinergic neurons in AD is attributed to multiple factors, including: accumulation and fibrillation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) within the brain; metal ion toxicity; and oxidative stress. In this study, we used a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans model expressing full length Aβ42 as a convenient in vivo system for examining the effect of honokiol against Aβ-induced toxicity...
June 26, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649202/neuronal-chemosensation-and-osmotic-stress-response-converge-in-the-regulation-of-aqp-8-in-c-elegans
#17
Carla Igual Gil, Mirko Jarius, Jens P von Kries, Anne-Katrin Rohlfing
Aquaporins occupy an essential role in sustaining the salt/water balance in various cells types and tissues. Here, we present new insights into aqp-8 expression and regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show, that upon exposure to osmotic stress, aqp-8 exhibits a distinct expression pattern within the excretory cell compared to other C. elegans aquaporins expressed. This expression is correlated to the osmolarity of the surrounding medium and can be activated physiologically by osmotic stress or genetically in mutants with constitutively active osmotic stress response...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644434/ageing-and-hypoxia-cause-protein-aggregation-in-mitochondria
#18
Daniel M Kaufman, Xia Wu, Barbara A Scott, Omar A Itani, Marc R Van Gilst, James E Bruce, C Michael Crowder
Aggregation of cytosolic proteins is a pathological finding in disease states, including ageing and neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously reported that hypoxia induces protein misfolding in Caenorhabditis elegans mitochondria, and electron micrographs suggested protein aggregates. Here, we seek to determine whether mitochondrial proteins actually aggregate after hypoxia and other cellular stresses. To enrich for mitochondrial proteins that might aggregate, we performed a proteomics analysis on purified C...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638078/the-stress-response-factor-daf-16-foxo-is-required-for-multiple-compound-families-to-prolong-the-function-of-neurons-with-huntington-s-disease
#19
Francesca Farina, Emmanuel Lambert, Lucie Commeau, François-Xavier Lejeune, Nathalie Roudier, Cosima Fonte, J Alex Parker, Jacques Boddaert, Marc Verny, Etienne-Emile Baulieu, Christian Neri
Helping neurons to compensate for proteotoxic stress and maintain function over time (neuronal compensation) has therapeutic potential in aging and neurodegenerative disease. The stress response factor FOXO3 is neuroprotective in models of Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease and motor-neuron diseases. Neuroprotective compounds acting in a FOXO-dependent manner could thus constitute bona fide drugs for promoting neuronal compensation. However, whether FOXO-dependent neuroprotection is a common feature of several compound families remains unknown...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627510/glycogen-controls-caenorhabditis-elegans-lifespan-and-resistance-to-oxidative-stress
#20
Ivan Gusarov, Bibhusita Pani, Laurent Gautier, Olga Smolentseva, Svetlana Eremina, Ilya Shamovsky, Olga Katkova-Zhukotskaya, Alexander Mironov, Evgeny Nudler
A high-sugar diet has been associated with reduced lifespan in organisms ranging from worms to mammals. However, the mechanisms underlying the harmful effects of glucose are poorly understood. Here we establish a causative relationship between endogenous glucose storage in the form of glycogen, resistance to oxidative stress and organismal aging in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that glycogen accumulated on high dietary glucose limits C. elegans longevity. Glucose released from glycogen and used for NADPH/glutathione reduction renders nematodes and human hepatocytes more resistant against oxidative stress...
June 19, 2017: Nature Communications
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