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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549065/c-elegans-daf-16-foxo-interacts-with-tgf-%C3%A3-bmp-signaling-to-induce-germline-tumor-formation-via-mtorc1-activation
#1
Wenjing Qi, Yijian Yan, Dietmar Pfeifer, Erika Donner V Gromoff, Yimin Wang, Wolfgang Maier, Ralf Baumeister
Activation of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 by reduced insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) is considered to be beneficial in C. elegans due to its ability to extend lifespan and to enhance stress resistance. In the germline, cell-autonomous DAF-16 activity prevents stem cell proliferation, thus acting tumor-suppressive. In contrast, hypodermal DAF-16 causes a tumorous germline phenotype characterized by hyperproliferation of the germline stem cells and rupture of the adjacent basement membrane. Here we show that cross-talk between DAF-16 and the transforming growth factor ß (TGFß)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling pathway causes germline hyperplasia and results in disruption of the basement membrane...
May 26, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544390/phenotypic-plasticity-and-remodeling-in-the-stress-induced-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer
#2
REVIEW
Rebecca J Androwski, Kristen M Flatt, Nathan E Schroeder
Organisms are often capable of modifying their development to better suit their environment. Under adverse conditions, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans develops into a stress-resistant alternative larval stage called dauer. The dauer stage is the primary survival stage for C. elegans in nature. Large-scale tissue remodeling during dauer conveys resistance to harsh environments. The environmental and genetic regulation of the decision to enter dauer has been extensively studied. However, less is known about the mechanisms regulating tissue remodeling...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544111/kallistatin-reduces-vascular-senescence-and-aging-by-regulating-microrna-34a-sirt1-pathway
#3
Youming Guo, Pengfei Li, Lin Gao, Jingmei Zhang, Zhirong Yang, Grant Bledsoe, Eugene Chang, Lee Chao, Julie Chao
Kallistatin, an endogenous protein, protects against vascular injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation in hypertensive rats and enhancing the mobility and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). We aimed to determine the role and mechanism of kallistatin in vascular senescence and aging using cultured EPCs, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Human kallistatin significantly decreased TNF-α-induced cellular senescence in EPCs, as indicated by reduced senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression, and elevated telomerase activity...
May 24, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539408/temporal-regulation-of-epithelium-formation-mediated-by-foxa-mklp1-mgcracgap-and-par-6
#4
Stephen E Von Stetina, Jennifer Liang, Georgios Marnellos, Susan E Mango
To establish the animal body plan, embryos link the external epidermis to the internal digestive tract. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this linkage is achieved by the Arcade Cells, which form an epithelial bridge between the foregut and epidermis, but little is known about how development of these three epithelia is coordinated temporally. The Arcade Cell epithelium is generated after the epidermis and digestive tract epithelia have matured, ensuring that both organs can withstand the mechanical stress of embryo elongation; mis-timing of epithelium formation leads to defects in morphogenesis...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537553/longitudinal-imaging-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-in-a-microfabricated-device-reveals-variation-in-behavioral-decline-during-aging
#5
Matthew A Churgin, Sang-Kyu Jung, Chih-Chieh Yu, Xiangmei Chen, David M Raizen, Christopher Fang-Yen
The roundworm C. elegans is a mainstay of aging research due to its short lifespan and easily manipulable genetics. Current, widely used methods for long-term measurement of C. elegans are limited by low throughput and the difficulty of performing longitudinal monitoring of aging phenotypes. Here we describe the WorMotel, a microfabricated device for long-term cultivation and automated longitudinal imaging of large numbers of C. elegans confined to individual wells. Using the WorMotel, we find that short-lived and long-lived strains exhibit patterns of behavioral decline that do not temporally scale between individuals or populations, but rather resemble the shortest and longest lived individuals in a wild type population...
May 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533928/leucine-nicotinic-acid-synergy-stimulates-ampk-sirt1-signaling-and-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-hyperlipidemia-and-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#6
Antje Bruckbauer, Jheelam Banerjee, Quiang Cao, Xin Cui, Jia Jing, Lin Zha, Fenfen Li, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Michael B Zemel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nicotinic acid (NA), a lipid-lowering drug, serves as a source of NAD(+), the cofactor for Sirt1. Leucine (Leu) stimulates the AMPK/Sirt1 axis and amplifies the effects of other AMPK/Sirt1 activating compounds. Therefore, we tested the interactive effects of leucine and low dose NA on AMPK/Sirt1 signaling and downstream effects of lipid metabolism in cell culture, C. elegans and mice. METHODS: LDL-receptor knockout mice were fed an atherogenic Western diet supplemented with leucine (24 g/kg diet) and sub-therapeutic NA combinations (50 mg/kg diet and 250 mg/kg diet) or low therapeutic NA (1000 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to evaluate markers of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531761/3%C3%AE-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic-acid-confers-protection-against-znonps-induced-adversity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Hema Negi, Shilpi Khare Saikia, Ranjana Kanaujia, Satish Jaiswal, Rakesh Pandey
Despite their well reported potent risk towards human health and environment Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) find an extensive commercial usage due to their antimicrobial properties. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a natural triterpene ursolic acid (3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid; UA) for overcoming the cytotoxic challenges of ZnONPs employing Ceanorhabditis elegans. The 24h LC50 of Zn-ONPs (<50nm TEM) was deduced as 4.75mgL(-1). UA (25μM) was observed to defend against this toxicity by attenuating Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) resulting into better survival at 2mgL(-1) in a time dependent behavior...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526752/the-apical-ecm-preserves-embryonic-integrity-and-distributes-mechanical-stress-during-morphogenesis
#8
Thanh Thi Kim Vuong-Brender, Shashi Kumar Suman, Michel Labouesse
Epithelia are bound by both basal and apical extracellular matrices (ECM). While the composition and function of the former have been intensively investigated, less is known about the latter. The embryonic sheath, the ECM apical to the C. elegans embryonic epidermis, has been suggested to promote its elongation. In an RNAi screen for the components of the sheath, we identified the Zona Pellucida domain proteins NOAH-1 and NOAH-2. We found that these proteins act in the same pathway, and in parallel to three other putative sheath proteins, SYM-1, LET-4 and FBN-1/Fibrillin, to ensure embryonic integrity and promote elongation...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505088/1-4-naphthoquinone-triggers-nematode-lethality-by-inducing-oxidative-stress-and-activating-insulin-igf-signaling-pathway-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Jia Wang, Guangzhi Zeng, Xiaobing Huang, Zhe Wang, Ninghua Tan
Plant-parasitic nematodes are destructive pathogens causing enormous economic losses worldwide. With the withdrawal of fumigants, organophosphates and carbamates, pathogenic nematode control is more difficult. Phytochemicals are the plant secondary metabolites and are friendly for men and the environment. For developing new nematocidal candidates, we screened 790 phytochemicals using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans and found 10 active compounds, 3 of which were further evaluated for their inhibitory activities against egg hatching of C...
May 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503972/molecular-mechanisms-of-anti-oxidant-and-anti-aging-effects-induced-by-convallatoxin-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Jia Xu, Youming Guo, Tianzhuo Sui, Qifei Wang, Yue Zhang, Ruining Zhang, Mingyang Wang, Shuwen Guan, Liping Wang
Convallatoxin is widely used as a cardiac glycoside in acute and chronic congestive heart-failure and paroxysmal tachycardia, with many effects and underlying protective mechanisms on inflammation and cellular proliferation. However, convallatoxin has not been investigated in its antioxidant effects and lifespan extension in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we found that convallatoxin (20 μM) could significantly prolong the lifespan of wild-type C. elegans up to 16.3% through daf-16, but not sir-2.1 signaling and increased thermotolerance and resistance to paraquat-induced oxidative stress...
May 14, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495447/characterization-of-gene-expression-associated-with-the-adaptation-of-the-nematode-c-elegans-to-hypoxia-and-reoxygenation-stress-reveals-an-unexpected-function-of-the-neuroglobin-glb-5-in-innate-immunity
#11
Binyamin Zuckerman, Zohar Abergel, Veronica Zelmanovich, Leonor Romero, Rachel Abergel, Leonid Livshits, Yoav Smith, Einav Gross
Oxygen (O2) is a double-edged sword to cells, for while it is vital for energy production in all aerobic animals and insufficient O2 (hypoxia) can lead to cell death, the reoxygenation of hypoxic tissues may trigger the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can destroy any biological molecule. Indeed, both hypoxia and hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) stress are harmful, and may play a critical role in the pathophysiology of many human diseases, such as myocardial ischemia and stroke. Therefore, understanding how animals adapt to hypoxia and H/R stress is critical for developing better treatments for these diseases...
May 8, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494583/isolation-identification-and-biological-evaluation-of-phenolic-compounds-from-the-traditional-north-american-confectionery-maple-sugar
#12
Yongqiang Liu, Kenneth Rose, Nicholas Dasilva, Shelby Johnson, Navindra P Seeram
Maple sap, collected from the sugar maple (Acer saccharum) tree, is boiled to produce the popular plant-derived sweetener, maple syrup, which can then be further evaporated to yield the traditional North American confectionery, maple sugar. While maple sap and maple syrup have been previously studied, the phytochemical constituents of maple sugar are unknown. Herein, thirty phenolic compounds, 1-30, primarily lignans, were isolated and identified (by HRESIMS and NMR) from maple sugar. The isolates included the phenylpropanoid-based lignan tetramers, (erythro,erythro)-4'',4'''-dihydroxy-3,3',3'',3''',5,5'-hexamethoxy-7,9';7',9-diepoxy-4,8'';4',8'''-bisoxy-8,8'-dineolignan-7'',7''',9'',9'''-tetraol, 29, and (threo,erythro)-4'',4'''-dihydroxy-3,3',3'',3''',5,5'-hexamethoxy-7,9';7',9-diepoxy-4,8'';4',8'''-bisoxy-8,8'-dineolignan-7'',7''',9'',9'''-tetraol, 30, neither of which have been identified from maple sap or maple syrup before...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493927/protective-effects-and-functional-mechanisms-of-lactobacillus-gasseri-sbt2055-against-oxidative-stress
#13
Eiji Kobatake, Hisako Nakagawa, Takahiro Seki, Tadaaki Miyazaki
Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) is one of the probiotic lactic acid bacteria. Recently, we demonstrated that feeding with LG2055 extended the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans and that the prolongevity effect was dependent upon the regulation of oxidative stress response. In this study, we assessed whether LG2055 regulated the oxidative stress response of mammalian cells. In NIH-3T3 cells and primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, low cell proliferation rates and high reactive oxygen species levels were observed following paraquat treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490708/-advance-in-glutathione-s-transferase-kappa-1
#14
Chun Hu, Lin Sun
Glutathione S-transferase kappa 1 (GSTK1) is a key regulator for adiponectin secretion and multimerization. In Caenorhabditis elegans, GSTK1 is involved in energy production and lipid metabolism. Meanwhile, the GSTK1 level is negatively correlated with obesity. It may alleviate the endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated downregulation of adiponectin. Moreover, a polymorphism in human GSTK1 promoter is related with insulin secretion and fat deposition. Therefore, GSTK1 might be a novel target for the treatment of insulin resistance and the relevant metabolic diseases...
April 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471052/supplementation-with-triptolide-increases-resistance-to-environmental-stressors-and-lifespan-in-c-elegans
#15
Sung-Jin Kim, Sun-Mi Beak, Sang-Kyu Park
Triptolide is a major active compound found in Tripterygium wilfordii., also known as Thunder God Vine. Triptolide has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we examined the effect of dietary supplementation with triptolide on response to environmental stressors and lifespan in vivo using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. Treatment with 50 mg/L of triptolide in the growth media increased resistance to oxidative stress and reduced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459841/skn-1-is-required-for-interneuron-sensory-integration-and-foraging-behavior-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Mark A Wilson, Wendy B Iser, Tae Gen Son, Anne Logie, Joao V Cabral-Costa, Mark P Mattson, Simonetta Camandola
Nrf2/skn-1, a transcription factor known to mediate adaptive responses of cells to stress, also regulates energy metabolism in response to changes in nutrient availability. The ability to locate food sources depends upon chemosensation. Here we show that Nrf2/skn-1 is expressed in olfactory interneurons, and is required for proper integration of multiple food-related sensory cues in Caenorhabditis elegans. Compared to wild type worms, skn-1 mutants fail to perceive that food density is limiting, and display altered chemo- and thermotactic responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456303/antioxidant-enzymes-and-their-role-in-phoxim-and-carbaryl-stress-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Yan Han, Shaojuan Song, Haihua Wu, Jianzhen Zhang, Enbo Ma
Pesticide exposure can induce oxidative stress and cause changes to antioxidant enzymes in living organisms. In the present study, the effects of phoxim (an organophosphorus insecticide) and carbaryl (a carbamate insecticide) on antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression were investigated in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. The results show that phoxim exposure can induce superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and decrease glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity at lower concentrations...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453520/wdr23-regulates-nrf2-independently-of-keap1
#18
Jacqueline Y Lo, Brett N Spatola, Sean P Curran
Cellular adaptation to stress is essential to ensure organismal survival. NRF2/NFE2L2 is a key determinant of xenobiotic stress responses, and loss of negative regulation by the KEAP1-CUL3 proteasome system is implicated in several chemo- and radiation-resistant cancers. Advantageously using C. elegans alongside human cell culture models, we establish a new WDR23-DDB1-CUL4 regulatory axis for NRF2 activity that operates independently of the canonical KEAP1-CUL3 system. WDR23 binds the DIDLID sequence within the Neh2 domain of NRF2 to regulate its stability; this regulation is not dependent on the KEAP1-binding DLG or ETGE motifs...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449301/the-profile-and-dynamics-of-rna-modifications-in-animals
#19
Pieter van Delft, Alper Akay, Sabrina M Huber, Christoph Bueschl, Konrad L M Rudolph, Tomás Di Domenico, Rainer Schuhmacher, Eric A Miska, Shankar Balasubramanian
More than a hundred distinct modified nucleosides have been identified in RNA, but little is known about their distribution across different organisms, their dynamic nature and their response to cellular and environmental stress. Mass-spectrometry-based methods have been at the forefront of identifying and quantifying modified nucleosides. However, they often require synthetic reference standards, which do not exist in the case of many modified nucleosides, and this therefore impedes their analysis. Here we use a metabolic labelling approach to achieve rapid generation of bio-isotopologues of the complete Caenorhabditis elegans transcriptome and its modifications and use them as reference standards to characterise the RNA modification profile in this multicellular organism through an untargeted liquid-chromatography tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) approach...
March 16, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447066/neuronal-functions-of-foxo-daf-16
#20
REVIEW
Sun Y Kim, Ashley E Webb
The FOXO family of transcription factors plays a conserved role in longevity and tissue homeostasis across species. In the mammalian nervous system, emerging evidence has implicated FOXOs in cognitive performance, stem cell maintenance, regeneration, and protection against stress. Much of what we know about neuronal functions of FOXO emerged from recent studies in C. elegans. Similar to mammalian FOXO, the worm FOXO ortholog, called DAF-16, regulates learning and memory, regeneration, and stress resistance in neurons...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
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