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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428286/a-genetic-analysis-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-detoxification-response
#1
Tetsunari Fukushige, Harold E Smith, Johji Miwa, Michael W Krause, John A Hanover
Oxidative damage contributes to human diseases of aging including diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders. Reactive oxygen species resulting from xenobiotic and endogenous metabolites are sensed by a poorly understood process, triggering a cascade of regulatory factors and leading to the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 (SKN-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans). Nrf2/SKN-1 activation promotes the induction of the Phase II detoxification system that serves to limit oxidative stress. We have extended a previous C...
April 19, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424053/stress-induced-nuclear-granules-form-in-response-to-accumulation-of-misfolded-proteins-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Katherine M Sampuda, Mason Riley, Lynn Boyd
BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can affect the viability or fecundity of an organism. Environmental stressors may affect the genome or the proteome and can cause cellular distress by contributing to protein damage or misfolding. This study examines the cellular response to environmental stress in the germline of the nematode, C. elegans. RESULTS: Salt stress, oxidative stress, and starvation, but not heat shock, induce the relocalization of ubiquitin, proteasome, and the TIAR-2 protein into distinct subnuclear regions referred to as stress induced nuclear granules (SINGs)...
April 19, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410423/daf-18-pten-signals-through-aak-1-ampk-to-inhibit-mpk-1-mapk-in-feedback-control-of-germline-stem-cell-proliferation
#3
Patrick Narbonne, Paul S Maddox, Jean-Claude Labbé
Under replete growth conditions, abundant nutrient uptake leads to the systemic activation of insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) and the promotion of stem cell growth/proliferation. Activated IIS can stimulate the ERK/MAPK pathway, the activation of which also supports optimal stem cell proliferation in various systems. Stem cell proliferation rates can further be locally refined to meet the resident tissue's need for differentiated progeny. We have recently shown that the accumulation of mature oocytes in the C...
April 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401650/caenorhabditis-elegans-orthologs-of-human-genes-differentially-expressed-with-age-are-enriched-for-determinants-of-longevity
#4
George L Sutphin, Grant Backer, Susan Sheehan, Shannon Bean, Caroline Corban, Teresa Liu, Marjolein J Peters, Joyce B J van Meurs, Joanne M Murabito, Andrew D Johnson, Ron Korstanje
We report a systematic RNAi longevity screen of 82 Caenorhabditis elegans genes selected based on orthology to human genes differentially expressed with age. We find substantial enrichment in genes for which knockdown increased lifespan. This enrichment is markedly higher than published genomewide longevity screens in C. elegans and similar to screens that preselected candidates based on longevity-correlated metrics (e.g., stress resistance). Of the 50 genes that affected lifespan, 46 were previously unreported...
April 12, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400847/gengnianchun-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-enhances-oxidative-stress-resistance-and-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-modulating-daf-16-foxo
#5
Fanhui Meng, Jun Li, Wenjun Wang, Yan Fu
Objective. Gengnianchun (GNC), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is primarily used to improve declining functions related to aging. In this study, we investigated its prolongevity and stress resistance properties and explored the associated regulatory mechanism using a Caenorhabditis elegans model. Methods. Wild-type C. elegans N2 was used for lifespan analysis and oxidative stress resistance assays. Transgenic animals were used to investigate pathways associated with antioxidative stress activity. The effects of GNC on levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of specific genes were examined...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397803/tomatidine-enhances-lifespan-and-healthspan-in-c-elegans-through-mitophagy-induction-via-the-skn-1-nrf2-pathway
#6
Evandro F Fang, Tyler B Waltz, Henok Kassahun, Qiping Lu, Jesse S Kerr, Marya Morevati, Elayne M Fivenson, Bradley N Wollman, Krisztina Marosi, Mark A Wilson, Wendy B Iser, D Mark Eckley, Yongqing Zhang, Elin Lehrmann, Ilya G Goldberg, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Mark P Mattson, Hilde Nilsen, Vilhelm A Bohr, Kevin G Becker
Aging is a major international concern that brings formidable socioeconomic and healthcare challenges. Small molecules capable of improving the health of older individuals are being explored. Small molecules that enhance cellular stress resistance are a promising avenue to alleviate declines seen in human aging. Tomatidine, a natural compound abundant in unripe tomatoes, inhibits age-related skeletal muscle atrophy in mice. Here we show that tomatidine extends lifespan and healthspan in C. elegans, an animal model of aging which shares many major longevity pathways with mammals...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395669/single-swim-sessions-in-c-elegans-induce-key-features-of-mammalian-exercise
#7
Ricardo Laranjeiro, Girish Harinath, Daniel Burke, Bart P Braeckman, Monica Driscoll
BACKGROUND: Exercise exerts remarkably powerful effects on metabolism and health, with anti-disease and anti-aging outcomes. Pharmacological manipulation of exercise benefit circuits might improve the health of the sedentary and the aging populations. Still, how exercised muscle signals to induce system-wide health improvement remains poorly understood. With a long-term interest in interventions that promote animal-wide health improvement, we sought to define exercise options for Caenorhabditis elegans...
April 10, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392283/uncoupling-of-oxidative-stress-resistance-and-lifespan-in-long-lived-isp-1-mitochondrial-mutants-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Dylan J Dues, Claire E Schaar, Benjamin K Johnson, Megan J Bowman, Mary E Winn, Megan M Senchuk, Jeremy M Van Raamsdonk
Mutations affecting components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain have been shown to increase lifespan in multiple species including the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. While it was originally proposed that decreased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from lower rates of electron transport could account for the observed increase in lifespan, recent evidence indicates that ROS levels are increased in at least some of these long-lived mitochondrial mutants. Here, we show that the long-lived mitochondrial mutant isp-1 worms have increased resistance to oxidative stress...
April 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386252/caenorhabditis-elegans-as-a-model-for-microbiome-research
#9
Fan Zhang, Maureen Berg, Katja Dierking, Marie-Anne Félix, Michael Shapira, Buck S Samuel, Hinrich Schulenburg
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is used as a central model system across biological disciplines. Surprisingly, almost all research with this worm is performed in the absence of its native microbiome, possibly affecting generality of the obtained results. In fact, the C. elegans microbiome had been unknown until recently. This review brings together results from the first three studies on C. elegans microbiomes, all published in 2016. Meta-analysis of the data demonstrates a considerable conservation in the composition of the microbial communities, despite the distinct geographical sample origins, study approaches, labs involved and perturbations during worm processing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381521/biphasic-adaptation-to-osmotic-stress-in-the-c-elegans-germ-line
#10
Michael B Davis, Andrea Montalbano, Megan P Wood, Jennifer A Schisa
Cells respond to environmental stress in multiple ways. In the germ line, heat shock and nutritive stress trigger the assembly of large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules via liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). The RNP granules are hypothesized to maintain the quality of oocytes during stress. The goal of this study was to investigate the cellular response to glucose in the germ line and determine if it is an osmotic stress response. We found that exposure to 500 mM glucose induces the assembly of RNP granules in the germ line within one hour...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377794/antioxidant-cytotoxic-and-toxic-activities-of-propolis-from-two-native-bees-in-brazil-scaptotrigona-depilis-and-melipona-quadrifasciata-anthidioides
#11
Thaliny Bonamigo, Jaqueline Ferreira Campos, Tamaeh Monteiro Alfredo, José Benedito Perrella Balestieri, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Edgar Julian Paredes-Gamero, Kely de Picoli Souza, Edson Lucas Dos Santos
Propolis is a natural mixture of compounds produced by various bee species, including stingless bees. This compound has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antitumor activities. The present study aimed to determine the chemical constituents as well as the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and toxic activities of ethanol extracts of propolis obtained from the stingless bees Scaptotrigona depilis and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, which are found in Brazil. Phytosterols, terpenes, phenolic compounds, and tocopherol were identified in the ethanol extracts of propolis (EEPs) in different concentrations...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377762/bifid-shape-is-intrinsic-to-bifidobacterium-adolescentis
#12
Dhanashree, Sharika Rajashekharan, Balamurugan Krishnaswamy, Rajagopal Kammara
Although the genus Bifidobacterium was originally named for its bifid morphology, not all bifidobacterial species have a similar structure, and very few of them adopt a bifid shape under stress conditions. The exposure of respective bifidobacterial species to various conditions, such as different pH, temperatures, medium components, in vivo growth in Caenorhabditis elegans, and subculture, did not affect their diverse morphologies. Extensive scanning electron microscopy studies suggested that the bifid shape of B...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377576/the-camp-pka-pathway-mediated-fat-mobilization-is-required-for-cold-tolerance-in-c-elegans
#13
Fang Liu, Yi Xiao, Xing-Lai Ji, Ke-Qin Zhang, Cheng-Gang Zou
Low temperature has a great impact on animal life. Homoiotherms such as mammals increase their energy expenditure to produce heat by activating the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA)-hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) pathway under cold stress. Although poikilothermic animals do not have the ability to regulate body temperature, whether this pathway is required for cold tolerance remains unknown. We have now achieved this using the genetically tractable model animal Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate that cold stress activates PKA signaling, which in turn up-regulates the expression of a hormone-sensitive lipase hosl-1...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369609/4-bromodiphenyl-ether-bde-3-induces-germ-cell-apoptosis-by-induction-of-ros-and-dna-damage-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Xinyue You, Jing Xi, Yiyi Cao, Jinfu Zhang, Yang Luan
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may affect male reproductive function; however, the underlying mechanism is still uncertain. By using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), a commonly used model to study basic biological processes in apoptosis, we investigated the toxic effects of 4-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE-3), the most fundamental mono-BDE generated from degradation of PBDEs in the environment. We found that BDE-3 treated worms exhibited decreased life spans, impaired fecundity and delayed egg laying...
March 27, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366735/regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-1-modulates-paraquat-induced-oxidative-stress-and-longevity-via-the-insulin-like-signaling-pathway-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Mingyu Wu, Xin Kang, Qiang Wang, Chunyu Zhou, Chandra Mohan, Ai Peng
Insulin or insulin like signaling (IIS) pathway is a crucial pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans associated with mediating longevity, and stress resistance. Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) also modulate stress resistance and longevity in multiple in vitro and in vivo models. However, the mechanism underlying RGS mediating stress resistance and longevity remains largely unclear. Here we report that rgs-1, an important member of rgs family, is a novel modulator of IIS pathway in C. elegans. We found that the loss of rgs-1 dramatically promoted paraquat resistance in C...
March 31, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365379/phosphotransferase-systems-in-enterococcus-faecalis-og1rf-enhance-anti-stress-capacity-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#16
Zhen Peng, Matthias A Ehrmann, Anna Waldhuber, Christine Niemeyer, Thomas Miethke, Julia-Stefanie Frick, Tao Xiong, Rudi F Vogel
Phosphotransferase systems are common and essential in bacteria, which are in charge of sugar transportation and phosphorylation. However, phosphotransferase systems were found in recent years to be associated with environmental stress factors. This study investigated the role of the mannose/fructose/sorbose phosphotransferase systems in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF in adaption to harsh environments by construction of pts mutants. More than one mannose/fructose/sorbose phosphotransferase system was found in E...
March 29, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355222/transaldolase-inhibition-impairs-mitochondrial-respiration-and-induces-a-starvation-like-longevity-response-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Christopher F Bennett, Jane J Kwon, Christine Chen, Joshua Russell, Kathlyn Acosta, Nikolay Burnaevskiy, Matthew M Crane, Alessandro Bitto, Helen Vander Wende, Marissa Simko, Victor Pineda, Ryan Rossner, Brian M Wasko, Haeri Choi, Shiwen Chen, Shirley Park, Gholamali Jafari, Bryan Sands, Carissa Perez Olsen, Alexander R Mendenhall, Philip G Morgan, Matt Kaeberlein
Mitochondrial dysfunction can increase oxidative stress and extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Homeostatic mechanisms exist to cope with disruptions to mitochondrial function that promote cellular health and organismal longevity. Previously, we determined that decreased expression of the cytosolic pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme transaldolase activates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) and extends lifespan. Here we report that transaldolase (tald-1) deficiency impairs mitochondrial function in vivo, as evidenced by altered mitochondrial morphology, decreased respiration, and increased cellular H2O2 levels...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347729/selenoprotein-t-is-required-for-pathogenic-bacteria-avoidance-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Laura Romanelli-Cedrez, Inés Carrera, Lucía Otero, Antonio Miranda-Vizuete, Marco Mariotti, Mark J Alkema, Gustavo Salinas
Selenoprotein T (SELENOT) is an endoplasmatic reticulum (ER)-associated redoxin that contains the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec, U) within a CXXU motif within a thioredoxin-like fold. Its precise function in multicellular organisms is not completely understood although it has been shown in mammals to be involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis, antioxidant and neuroendocrine functions. Here, we use the model organism C. elegans to address SELENOT function in a whole organism throughout its life cycle. C. elegans possess two genes encoding SELENOT protein orthologues (SELT-1...
March 24, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341649/f-box-protein-xrep-4-is-a-new-regulator-of-the-oxidative-stress-response-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Cheng-Wei Wu, Ying Wang, Keith P Choe
The transcription factor SKN-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans is a homologue of the mammalian Nrf-2 protein and functions to promote oxidative stress resistance and longevity. SKN-1 mediates protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the transcriptional activation of genes involved in antioxidant defense and phase II detoxification. Although many core regulators of SKN-1 have been identified, much remains unknown about this complex signaling pathway. We carried out an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis screen and isolated six independent mutants with attenuated SKN-1 dependent gene activation in response to acrylamide...
March 24, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333578/hormetic-heat-shock-and-hsf-1-overexpression-improve-c-elegans-survival-and-proteostasis-by-inducing-autophagy
#20
Caroline Kumsta, Malene Hansen
The cellular recycling process of macroautophagy/autophagy is an essential homeostatic system induced by various stresses, but it remains unclear how autophagy contributes to organismal stress resistance. In a recent study, we report that a mild and physiologically beneficial ("hormetic") heat shock as well as overexpression of the heat-shock responsive transcription factor HSF-1 systemically increases autophagy in C. elegans. Accordingly, we found HSF-1- and heat stress-inducible autophagy to be required for C...
March 23, 2017: Autophagy
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