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Elegans apoptosis

Dong Zhou
With the increasing concerns regarding the toxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA), BPA has been gradually replaced by its analogues in the industrial applications, such as bisphenol S (BPS). As comparative toxicity evaluation of bisphenol analogs is scarce, it is necessary to conduct the comparative analysis. In this study, the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was used to evaluate low-concentration BPS toxicity, and 72-h exposure from L1 larvae was conducted. Multiple indicators at the physiological, biochemical and molecular levels were tested...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Christopher W Williams, Jyoti Iyer, Yan Liu, Kevin F O'Connell
CDK11, a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, has been implicated in a diverse array of functions including transcription, RNA processing, sister chromatid cohesion, spindle assembly, centriole duplication and apoptosis. Despite its involvement in many essential functions, little is known about the requirements for CDK11 and its partner Cyclin L in a developing multicellular organism. Here we investigate the function of CDK11 and Cyclin L during development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Worms express two CDK11 proteins encoded by distinct loci: CDK-11...
June 7, 2018: Developmental Biology
Marcello Germoglio, Adele Adamo
The evolutionary conserved RAD-51 protein is essential for homologous recombination in the germ line as well as homologous repair of DNA double strand breaks in all eukaryotic cells. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans the rad-51 gene is transcribed into messenger-RNAs potentially coding three alternative protein isoforms. Null rad-51 alleles display embryonic lethality, severe defects in chromosome structure and high level of germ line apoptosis. To dissect its functions, we genetically modified the C. elegans rad-51 gene by CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing technology, obtaining a separation-of-function (sfi-) mutant allele that only disrupts the long transcript isoform...
June 8, 2018: Genetics
Xiaoli Wang, Jie Yang, Hui Li, Shu Guo, Muhammad Tariq, Haibo Chen, Chen Wang, Yongdi Liu
In order to gain insights into the chronic effects and mechanisms of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), the animal model Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was chosen for toxicity study. Multiple endpoints, including the physiological (growth and locomotion behaviors), biochemical (reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipofuscin accumulation, and cell apoptosis), and molecular (stress-related gene expressions) levels, were tested by chronic exposure for 10 d to low concentrations of HBCD (0.2 nM-200 nM)...
May 25, 2018: Chemosphere
Yue Zhou, Qinggang Xu, Xinghua Zhou, Shuang Song, Beiwei Zhu
Bioactive peptides derived from mussels have multiple healthcare functions. Herein, we aimed to examine the effects of mussel peptide preparation on lifespan, stress resistance, apoptosis and aging in Caenorhabditis elegans. Lifespan was determined by counting the number of surviving nematodes daily. ROS level and lipofuscin were measured using a fluorescent microscope. The mussel protein was prepared and hydrolyzed, and then fractionated by ultrafiltration. The fraction (<3 kDa) was purified by gel filtration to obtain the bioactive peptides, and the peptide sequences included in the fractions were identified, which were mostly composed of peptides with <20 amino acid residues...
May 24, 2018: Food & Function
Jessica Camacho, Lisa Truong, Zeyneb Kurt, Yen-Wei Chen, Marco Morselli, Gerardo Gutierrez, Matteo Pellegrini, Xia Yang, Patrick Allard
How artificial environmental cues are biologically integrated and transgenerationally inherited is still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of inheritance of reproductive outcomes elicited by the model environmental chemical Bisphenol A in C. elegans. We show that Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure causes the derepression of an epigenomically silenced transgene in the germline for 5 generations, regardless of ancestral response. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), histone modification quantitation, and immunofluorescence assays revealed that this effect is associated with a reduction of the repressive marks H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 in whole worms and in germline nuclei in the F3, as well as with reproductive dysfunctions, including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
Charlotte Scholtes, Stéphanie Bellemin, Edwige Martin, Maïté Carre-Pierrat, Bertrand Mollereau, Kathrin Gieseler, Ludivine Walter
Mitochondria are double-membrane subcellular organelles with highly conserved metabolic functions including ATP production. Mitochondria shapes change continually through the combined actions of fission and fusion events rendering mitochondrial network very dynamic. Mitochondria are largely implicated in pathologies and mitochondrial dynamics is often disrupted upon muscle degeneration in various models. Currently, the exact roles of mitochondria in the molecular mechanisms that lead to muscle degeneration remain poorly understood...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sandeep Gopal, Roger Pocock
The Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) germline is used to study several biologically important processes including stem cell development, apoptosis, and chromosome dynamics. While the germline is an excellent model, the analysis is often two dimensional due to the time and labor required for three-dimensional analysis. Major readouts in such studies are the number/position of nuclei and protein distribution within the germline. Here, we present a method to perform automated analysis of the germline using confocal microscopy and computational approaches to determine the number and position of nuclei in each region of the germline...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lihong Ma, Qi Zhao, Wenhao Chen, Yanqiao Zhang
Lin-28 homolog B (Lin28B) is a RNA binding protein conserved between Caenorhabditis elegans and humans, and it has important roles in regulating development. The overexpression of Lin28B has been observed in various human malignant tumors and the upregulation of Lin28B predicts tumor progression and/or poor prognosis. The majority of studies suggested that Lin28B is an oncogene that promotes the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. However, few studies have focused on the function of Lin28B in chemotherapy...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Arturo Papaluca, J Richard Wagner, H Uri Saragovi, Dindial Ramotar
In Caenorhabditis elegans, two DNA glycosylases, UNG-1 and NTH-1, and two AP endonucleases, APN-1 and EXO-3, have been characterized from the base-excision repair (BER) pathway that repairs oxidatively modified DNA bases. UNG-1 removes uracil, while NTH-1 can remove 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-hmU), an oxidation product of thymine, as well as other lesions. Both APN-1 and EXO-3 can incise AP sites and remove 3'-blocking lesions at DNA single strand breaks, and only APN-1 possesses 3'- to 5'-exonulease and nucleotide incision repair activities...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fengjie Chen, Cuiyun Wei, Qiuyu Chen, Jie Zhang, Ling Wang, Zhen Zhou, Minjie Chen, Yong Liang
Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) is considered a less-toxic replacement for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), with multiple applications in industrial and consumer products. Previous studies comparing their toxicity generally used similar exposure levels, without taking internal concentrations into account. The current study compared the reproductive toxicity of PFOS and PFBS, at similar internal concentrations, to Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). PFBS was much less bioaccumulative than PFOS. The 48-h median lethal concentrations (LC50 ) for PFOS and PFBS were 1...
August 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jerome Teuliere, Ismar Kovacevic, Zhirong Bao, Gian Garriga
C. elegans cell divisions that produce an apoptotic daughter cell exhibit Daughter Cell Size Asymmetry (DCSA), producing a larger surviving daughter cell and a smaller daughter cell fated to die. Genetic screens for mutants with defects in apoptosis identified several genes that are also required for the ability of these divisions to produce daughter cells that differ in size. One of these genes, ham-1, encodes a putative transcription factor that regulates a subset of the asymmetric cell divisions that produce an apoptotic daughter cell...
2018: PloS One
Skylar D King, Chipo F Gray, Luhua Song, Rachel Nechushtai, Tina L Gumienny, Ron Mittler, Pamela A Padilla
Programmed cell death, which occurs through a conserved core molecular pathway, is important for fundamental developmental and homeostatic processes. The human iron-sulfur binding protein NAF-1/CISD2 binds to Bcl-2 and its disruption in cells leads to an increase in apoptosis. Other members of the CDGSH iron sulfur domain (CISD) family include mitoNEET/CISD1 and Miner2/CISD3. In humans, mutations in CISD2 result in Wolfram syndrome 2, a disease in which the patients display juvenile diabetes, neuropsychiatric disorders and defective platelet aggregation...
April 17, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Simon Berger, Evelyn Lattmann, Tinri Aegerter-Wilmsen, Michael Hengartner, Alex Hajnal, Andrew deMello, Xavier Casadevall I Solvas
Live-imaging of C. elegans is essential for the study of conserved cellular pathways (e.g. EGFR/Wnt signaling) and morphogenesis in vivo. However, the usefulness of live imaging as a research tool has been severely limited by the need to immobilize worms prior to and during imaging. Conventionally, immobilization is achieved by employing both physical and chemical interventions. These are known to significantly affect many physiological processes, and thus limit our understanding of dynamic developmental processes...
May 1, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Yang Li, Yu Zhang, Qiwen Gan, Meng Xu, Xiao Ding, Guihua Tang, Jingjing Liang, Kai Liu, Xuezhao Liu, Xin Wang, Lingli Guo, Zhiyang Gao, Xiaojiang Hao, Chonglin Yang
Lysosomes are degradation and signaling centers within the cell, and their dysfunction impairs a wide variety of cellular processes. To understand the cellular effect of lysosome damage, we screened natural small-molecule compounds that induce lysosomal abnormality using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as a model system. A group of vobasinyl-ibogan type bisindole alkaloids (ervachinines A-D) were identified that caused lysosome enlargement in C. elegans macrophage-like cells. Intriguingly, these compounds triggered cell death in the germ line independently of the canonical apoptosis pathway...
April 2, 2018: Protein & Cell
Xinlu Wang, Fei Fei, Jie Qu, Chunyuan Li, Yuwei Li, Shiwu Zhang
Septins are a conserved family of cytoskeletal GTPases present in different organisms, including yeast, drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans and humans. In humans, septins are involved in various cellular processes, including exocytosis, apoptosis, leukemogenesis, carcinogenesis and neurodegeneration. Septin 7 is unique out of 13 human septins. Mammalian septin 6, septin 7, septin 2 and septin 9 coisolate together in complexes to form the core unit for the generation of the septin filaments. Physiological septin filaments are hetero-oligomeric complexes consisting of core septin hexamers and octamers...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Mahlet D Mersha, Karla R Sanchez, Murali K Temburni, Harbinder S Dhillon
Bisphenols, such as bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) are polymerizing agents widely used in the production of plastics and numerous everyday-use products. Based on their chemical structure and estradiol-like biological properties, they have been classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC). Long-term exposure to EDCs, even at low doses, has been linked to various health defects including cancer, behavioral disorders and infertility, with greater vulnerability indicated during early developmental periods...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kostoula Troulinaki, Sven Büttner, Anaïs Marsal Cots, Simona Maida, Katharina Meyer, Fabio Bertan, Anna Gioran, Antonia Piazzesi, Alessandra Fornarelli, Pierluigi Nicotera, Daniele Bano
Impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism contributes to a wide range of pathologic conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is required for the correct maintenance of mitochondrial electron transport chain. An emerging body of clinical evidence indicates that several mutations in the AIFM1 gene are causally linked to severe forms of mitochondrial disorders. Here we investigate the consequence of WAH-1/AIF deficiency in the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Alexey Moskalev, Mikhail Shaposhnikov, Nadezhda Zemskaya, Alexey Belyi, Eugenia Dobrovolskaya, Anna Patova, Zulfiya Guvatova, Elena Lukyanova, Anastasiya Snezhkina, Anna Kudryavtseva
BACKGROUND: We have previously showed that the carotenoid fucoxanthin can increase the lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the geroprotective effect of fucoxanthin have not been studied so far. RESULTS: Here, we studied the effects of fucoxanthin on the Drosophila aging process at the molecular and the whole organism levels. At the organismal level, fucoxanthin increased the median lifespan and had a positive effect on fecundity, fertility, intestinal barrier function, and nighttime sleep...
February 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Meirong Bai, Roman Vozdek, Aleš Hnízda, Chenxiao Jiang, Bingying Wang, Ladislav Kuchar, Tiejun Li, Yuefan Zhang, Chase Wood, Liang Feng, Yongjun Dang, Dengke K Ma
Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that can be secreted and protects dopamine neurons and cardiomyocytes from ER stress and apoptosis. The mechanism of action of extracellular MANF has long been elusive. From a genetic screen for mutants with abnormal ER stress response, we identified the gene Y54G2A.23 as the evolutionarily conserved C. elegans MANF orthologue. We find that MANF binds to the lipid sulfatide, also known as 3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide present in serum and outer-cell membrane leaflets, directly in isolated forms and in reconstituted lipid micelles...
March 1, 2018: Nature Communications
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