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Elegans apoptosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532516/properties-of-realgar-bioleaching-using-an-extremely-acidophilic-bacterium-and-its-antitumor-mechanism-as-an-anticancer-agent
#1
REVIEW
Peng Chen, Ruixiang Xu, Lei Yan, Zhengrong Wu, Yan Wei, Wenbin Zhao, Xin Wang, Qinjian Xie, Hongyu Li
Realgar is a naturally occurring arsenic sulfide (or Xionghuang, in Chinese). It contains over 90% tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (As4S4). Currently, realgar has been confirmed the antitumor activities, both in vitro and in vivo, of realgar extracted using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans). Bioleaching, a new technology to greatly improve the use rate of arsenic extraction from realgar using bacteria, is a novel methodology that addressed a limitation of the traditional method for realgar preparation...
May 22, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524858/caspase-dependent-non-apoptotic-processes-in-development
#2
REVIEW
Yu-Ichiro Nakajima, Erina Kuranaga
Caspases are at the core of executing apoptosis by orchestrating cellular destruction with proteolytic cascades. Caspase-mediated proteolysis also controls diverse nonlethal cellular activities such as proliferation, differentiation, cell fate decision, and cytoskeletal reorganization. During the last decade or so, genetic studies of Drosophila have contributed to our understanding of the in vivo mechanism of the non-apoptotic cellular responses in developmental contexts. Furthermore, recent studies using C...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481930/expression-of-human-bcl-xl-ser49-and-ser62-mutants-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-causes-germline-defects-and-aneuploidy
#3
Prasamit Saurav Baruah, Myriam Beauchemin, J Alexander Parker, Richard Bertrand
An interesting feature of Bcl-xL protein is the presence of an unstructured loop domain between α1 and α2 helices, a domain not essential for its anti-apoptotic function and absent in CED-9 protein. Within this domain, Bcl-xL undergoes dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at Ser49 and Ser62 during G2 and mitosis in human cells. Studies have revealed that when these residues are mutated, cells harbour mitotic defects, including chromosome mis-attachment, lagging, bridging and mis-segregation with, ultimately, chromosome instability and aneuploidy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472769/spatial-function-of-the-oxidative-dna-damage-response-in-radiation-induced-bystander-effects-in-intra-and-inter-system-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Qingqing Li, Jue Shi, Lianyun Chen, Furu Zhan, Hang Yuan, Jun Wang, An Xu, Lijun Wu
Though the signaling events involved in radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been investigated both in vitro and in vivo, the spatial function of these communications, especially the related signaling pathways, is not fully elucidated. In the current study, significant increases of DNA damage were clearly observed in C. elegans germline upon irradiation to both intra-system of posterior pharynx and inter-system of vulva, in which more severe damage, even to F1 generation worms, was shown for vulva irradiation...
April 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447571/neuroprotective-effects-of-betulin-in-pharmacological-and-transgenic-c-elegans-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Chia-Wen Tsai, Rong-Tzong Tsai, Shih-Ping Liu, Chang-Shi Chen, Min-Chen Tsai, Shao-Hsuan Chien, Huey-Shan Hung, Shinn-Zong Lin, Woei-Cherng Shyu, Ru-Huei Fu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common degenerative disorder of the central nervous system in the elderly.It is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, as well as by motor dysfunction. Although the causes of PD are not well understood, aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons contributes to this disease. Currently, therapeutics for PD provide satisfactory symptom relief, but not a cure. Treatment strategies include attempts to identify new drugs that will prevent or arrest the progressive course of PD by correcting disease-specific pathogenic process...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409303/size-matters-how-c-elegans-asymmetric-divisions-regulate-apoptosis
#6
Jerome Teuliere, Gian Garriga
Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death used by metazoans to eliminate abnormal cells, control cell number, and shape the development of organs. The use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for the study of apoptosis has led to important insights into how cells die and how their corpses are removed. Eighty percent of these apoptotic cell deaths occur during nervous system development and in daughters of neuroblasts that divide asymmetrically. Pioneering work defined a conserved apoptosis pathway that is initiated in C...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378570/evaluation-of-the-antioxidant-property-and-effects-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-of-xiangxi-flavor-vinegar-a-hunan-local-traditional-vinegar
#7
Run-Ting Huang, Qing Huang, Gen-Liang Wu, Chun-Guang Chen, Zong-Jun Li
Xiangxi flavor vinegar (XV) is one of Hunan Province's traditional fermented vinegars. It is produced from herb, rice, and spring water with spontaneous liquid-state fermentation techniques. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant property of XV by analyzing its antioxidant compounds, its free radical scavenging property in vitro and in vivo, and its effects on antioxidant enzyme activity and apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans. The results showed that XV is rich in antioxidants. In particular, ligustrazine reached 6...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369609/4-bromodiphenyl-ether-bde-3-induces-germ-cell-apoptosis-by-induction-of-ros-and-dna-damage-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Xinyue You, Jing Xi, Yiyi Cao, Jinfu Zhang, Yang Luan
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may affect male reproductive function; however, the underlying mechanism is still uncertain. By using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), a commonly used model to study basic biological processes in apoptosis, we investigated the toxic effects of 4-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE-3), the most fundamental mono-BDE generated from degradation of PBDEs in the environment. We found that BDE-3 treated worms exhibited decreased life spans, impaired fecundity and delayed egg laying...
March 27, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324491/monitoring-mitophagy-during-aging-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Nikolaos Charmpilas, Konstantinos Kounakis, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Mitochondria constitute the main energy-producing centers of eukaryotic cells. In addition, they are involved in several crucial cellular processes, such as lipid metabolism, calcium buffering, and apoptosis. As such, their malfunction can be detrimental for proper cellular physiology and homeostasis. Mitophagy is a mechanism that protects and maintains cellular function by sequestering harmful or dysfunctional mitochondria to lysosomes for degradation. In this report, we present experimental procedures for quantitative, in vivo monitoring of mitophagy events in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294943/a-team-of-heterochromatin-factors-collaborates-with-small-rna-pathways-to-combat-repetitive-elements-and-germline-stress
#10
Alicia N McMurchy, Przemyslaw Stempor, Tessa Gaarenstroom, Brian Wysolmerski, Yan Dong, Darya Aussianikava, Alex Appert, Ni Huang, Paulina Kolasinska-Zwierz, Alexandra Sapetschnig, Eric A Miska, Julie Ahringer
Repetitive sequences derived from transposons make up a large fraction of eukaryotic genomes and must be silenced to protect genome integrity. Repetitive elements are often found in heterochromatin; however, the roles and interactions of heterochromatin proteins in repeat regulation are poorly understood. Here we show that a diverse set of C. elegans heterochromatin proteins act together with the piRNA and nuclear RNAi pathways to silence repetitive elements and prevent genotoxic stress in the germ line. Mutants in genes encoding HPL-2/HP1, LIN-13, LIN-61, LET-418/Mi-2, and H3K9me2 histone methyltransferase MET-2/SETDB1 also show functionally redundant sterility, increased germline apoptosis, DNA repair defects, and interactions with small RNA pathways...
March 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230788/the-adverse-effects-of-triptolide-on-the-reproductive-system-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-oogenesis-impairment-and-decreased-oocyte-quality
#11
Qinli Ruan, Yun Xu, Rui Xu, Jiaying Wang, Yongqing Hua, Meng Wang, Jinao Duan
Previous studies have revealed that Triptolide damages female reproductive capacity, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the effects of Triptolide on the germline and explore its possible mechanisms. Our data show that exposure for 4 h to 50 and 100 mg/L Triptolide reduced C. elegans fertility, led to depletion and inactivation of spermatids with the changes in the expression levels of related genes, and increased the number of unfertilized oocytes through damaging chromosomes and DNA damage repair mechanisms...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211869/non-apoptotic-cell-death-in-animal-development
#12
REVIEW
Lena M Kutscher, Shai Shaham
Programmed cell death (PCD) is an important process in the development of multicellular organisms. Apoptosis, a form of PCD characterized morphologically by chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, and cytoplasm compaction, and molecularly by the activation of caspase proteases, has been extensively investigated. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, mice, and the developing chick have revealed, however, that developmental PCD also occurs through other mechanisms, morphologically and molecularly distinct from apoptosis...
February 17, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167500/mirnas-cooperate-in-apoptosis-regulation-during-c-elegans-development
#13
Ryan Sherrard, Sebastian Luehr, Heinke Holzkamp, Katherine McJunkin, Nadin Memar, Barbara Conradt
Programmed cell death occurs in a highly reproducible manner during Caenorhabditis elegans development. We demonstrate that, during embryogenesis, miR-35 and miR-58 bantam family microRNAs (miRNAs) cooperate to prevent the precocious death of mothers of cells programmed to die by repressing the gene egl-1, which encodes a proapoptotic BH3-only protein. In addition, we present evidence that repression of egl-1 is dependent on binding sites for miR-35 and miR-58 family miRNAs within the egl-1 3' untranslated region (UTR), which affect both mRNA copy number and translation...
January 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121014/membrane-ion-channels-and-receptors-in-animal-lifespan-modulation
#14
REVIEW
Yi Sheng, Lanlan Tang, Lijun Kang, Rui Xiao
Acting in the interfaces between environment and membrane compartments, membrane ion channels and receptors transduce various physical and chemical cues into downstream signaling events. Not surprisingly, these membrane proteins play essential roles in a wide range of cellular processes such as sensory perception, synaptic transmission, cellular growth and development, fate determination, and apoptosis. However, except insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors, the functions of membrane receptors in animal lifespan modulation have not been well appreciated...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088539/the-dna-damage-response-of-c-elegans-affected-by-gravity-sensing-and-radiosensitivity-during-the-shenzhou-8-spaceflight
#15
Ying Gao, Dan Xu, Lei Zhao, Yeqing Sun
Space radiation and microgravity are recognized as primary and inevitable risk factors for humans traveling in space, but the reports regarding their synergistic effects remain inconclusive and vary across studies due to differences in the environmental conditions and intrinsic biological sensitivity. Thus, we studied the synergistic effects on transcriptional changes in the global genome and DNA damage response (DDR) by using dys-1 mutant and ced-1 mutant of C. elegans, which respectively presented microgravity-insensitivity and radiosensitivity when exposure to spaceflight condition (SF) and space radiation (SR)...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079890/structural-insight-into-an-evolutionarily-ancient-programmed-cell-death-regulator-the-crystal-structure-of-marine-sponge-bhp2-bound-to-lb-bak-2
#16
Sofia Caria, Mark G Hinds, Marc Kvansakul
Sponges of the porifera family harbor some of the evolutionary most ancient orthologs of the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family, a protein family critical to regulation of apoptosis. The genome of the sponge Geodia cydonium contains the putative pro-survival Bcl-2 homolog BHP2, which protects sponge tissue as well as mammalian Hek-293 and NIH-3T3 cells against diverse apoptotic stimuli. The Lake Baikal demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis has been shown to encode both putative pro-survival Bcl-2 (LB-Bcl-2) and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 members (LB-Bak-2), which have been implied in axis formation (branches) in L...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057267/the-remarkably-diverse-family-of-t-box-factors-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
REVIEW
P G Okkema
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple metazoan animal that is widely used as a model to understand the genetic control of development. The completely sequenced C. elegans genome contains 22 T-box genes, and they encode factors that show remarkable diversity in sequence, DNA-binding specificity, and function. Only three of the C. elegans T-box factors can be grouped into the conserved subfamilies found in other organisms, while the remaining factors are significantly diverged and unlike those in most other animals...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035971/aflatoxin-b%C3%A2-induced-developmental-and-dna-damage-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Wei-Hong Feng, Kathy S Xue, Lili Tang, Phillip L Williams, Jia-Sheng Wang
Aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) is a ubiquitous mycotoxin produced by toxicogenic Aspergillus species. AFB₁ has been reported to cause serious adverse health effects, such as cancers and abnormal development and reproduction, in animals and humans. AFB₁ is also a potent genotoxic mutagen that causes DNA damage in vitro and in vivo. However, the link between DNA damage and abnormal development and reproduction is unclear. To address this issue, we examined the DNA damage, germline apoptosis, growth, and reproductive toxicity following exposure to AFB₁, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a study model...
December 26, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003440/from-the-cover-zno-nanoparticles-enhanced-germ-cell-apoptosis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-in-comparison-with-zncl2
#19
Brittany O'Donnell, Lily Huo, Joseph R Polli, Li Qiu, David N Collier, Baohong Zhang, Xiaoping Pan
Effects of ZnO NPs and ionic Zn on germline apoptosis and the regulation of genes in the apoptosis pathway were investigated in vivo using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans.Age synchronized Bristol N2 worms were exposed to ZnO NPs and ZnCl2 at concentrations of 6.14 × 10-1, 61.4, and 614 μM form larval stage 1 (L1) to early adulthood. Possible ZnO nanoparticles were observed under the worm cuticle and also in the gonadal region by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ZnO NPs and ZnCl2 both significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells as compared with controls in the 61...
April 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982058/shengmai-formula-suppressed-over-activated-ras-mapk-pathway-in-c-elegans-by-opening-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore-via-regulating-cyclophilin-d
#20
Yan Liu, Dejuan Zhi, Menghui Li, Dongling Liu, Xin Wang, Zhengrong Wu, Zhanxin Zhang, Dongqing Fei, Yang Li, Hongmei Zhu, Qingjian Xie, Hui Yang, Hongyu Li
Since about 30% of all human cancers contain mutationally activated Ras, down regulating the over-activation of Ras/MAPK pathway represents a viable approach for treating cancers. Over-activation of Ras/MAPK pathway is accompanied by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). One approach for developing anti-cancer drugs is to target ROS production and their accumulation. To test this idea, we have employed C. elegans of let-60 (gf) mutant, which contain over-activated let-60 (the homolog of mammalian ras) and exhibit tumor-like symptom of multivulva phenotype, to determine whether anti-oxidants can affect their tumor-like phenotype...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
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