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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390878/neuroprotective-effects-of-betulin-in-pharmacological-and-transgenic-caenorhabditis-elegans-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Chia-Wen Tsai, Rong-Tzong Tsai, Shih-Ping Liu, Chang-Shi Chen, Min-Chen Tsai, Shao-Hsuan Chien, Huey-Shan Hung, Shinn-Zong Lin, Woei-Cherng Shyu, Ru-Huei Fu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common degenerative disorder of the central nervous system in the elderly. It is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, as well as by motor dysfunction. Although the causes of PD are not well understood, aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons contributes to this disease. Current therapeutics for PD provides satisfactory symptom relief but not a cure. Treatment strategies include attempts to identify new drugs that will prevent or arrest the progressive course of PD by correcting disease-specific pathogenic process...
December 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358669/brap-2-promotes-dna-damage-induced-germline-apoptosis-in-c-elegans-through-the-regulation-of-skn-1-and-akt-1
#2
Dayana R D'Amora, Queenie Hu, Monica Pizzardi, Terrance J Kubiseski
As part of the DNA damage response (DDR) network, the tumour suppressor Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) is activated to facilitate DNA repair, transcription and cell cycle control. BRC-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of BRCA1, has conserved function in DNA double strand break repair, wherein a loss of brc-1 results in high levels of germline apoptosis. BRAP2/IMP was initially identified as a BRCA1 associated binding protein and previously we have shown that the C. elegans brap-2 deletion mutant experiences BRC-1 dependent larval arrest when exposed to low concentrations of paraquat...
January 22, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346364/mutations-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-neuroligin-like-glit-1-the-apoptosis-pathway-and-the-calcium-chaperone-crt-1-increase-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-after-6-ohda-treatment
#3
Sarah-Lena Offenburger, Elisabeth Jongsma, Anton Gartner
The loss of dopaminergic neurons is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease, the aetiology of which is associated with increased levels of oxidative stress. We used C. elegans to screen for genes that protect dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and isolated glit-1 (gliotactin (Drosophila neuroligin-like) homologue). Loss of the C. elegans neuroligin-like glit-1 causes increased dopaminergic neurodegeneration after treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), an oxidative-stress inducing drug that is specifically taken up into dopaminergic neurons...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339410/maintenance-of-genome-integrity%C3%A2-by-mi2-homologs-chd-3-and-let-418-in%C3%A2-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Carolyn A Turcotte, Solomon A Sloat, Julia A Rigothi, Erika Rosenkranse, Alexandra L Northrup, Nicolas P Andrews, Paula M Checchi
Meiotic recombination depends upon the tightly coordinated regulation of chromosome dynamics and is essential for the production of haploid gametes. Central to this process is the formation and repair of meiotic double-stranded breaks (DSBs), which must take place within the constraints of a specialized chromatin architecture. Here, we demonstrate a role for the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex in orchestrating meiotic chromosome dynamics in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our data reveal that the conserved Mi2 homologs Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein (CHD-3) and its paralog LET-418 facilitate meiotic progression by ensuring faithful repair of DSBs through homologous recombination...
January 16, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238344/scrambled-eggs-apoptotic-cell-clearance-by-non-professional-phagocytes-in-the-drosophila-ovary
#5
REVIEW
Sandy B Serizier, Kimberly McCall
For half of a century, it has been known that non-professional phagocytes, such as fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells, are capable of efferocytosis (engulfment of apoptotic cells). Non-professional phagocytes differ from professional phagocytes in the range and efficiency of engulfment. Much of the recognition and underlying signaling machinery between non-professional and professional phagocytes is the same, but it is not known how the engulfment capacity of non-professional phagocytes is controlled...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202295/constitutive-map-kinase-activation-suppresses-germline-apoptosis-in-nth-1-dna-glycosylase-deficient-c-elegans
#6
Henok Kassahun, Tanima SenGupta, Alfonso Schiavi, Silvia Maglioni, Hanne K Skjeldam, Katarzyna Arczewska, Nicole L Brockway, Suzanne Estes, Lars Eide, Natascia Ventura, Hilde Nilsen
Oxidation of DNA bases, an inevitable consequence of oxidative stress, requires the base excision repair (BER) pathway for repair. Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established model to study phenotypic consequences and cellular responses to oxidative stress. To better understand how BER affects phenotypes associated with oxidative stress, we characterised the C. elegans nth-1 mutant, which lack the only DNA glycosylase dedicated to repair of oxidative DNA base damage, the NTH-1 DNA glycosylase. We show that nth-1 mutants have mitochondrial dysfunction characterised by lower mitochondrial DNA copy number, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species...
November 29, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192322/%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-induce-cell-death-through-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-glioblastoma-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Soyeon Kim, Kaipeng Jing, Soyeon Shin, Soyeon Jeong, Seung-Hyeon Han, Heyrim Oh, Yoon-Seon Yoo, Jeongsu Han, Young-Joo Jeon, Jun-Young Heo, Gi-Ryang Kweon, Seung-Kiel Park, Jong-Il Park, Tong Wu, Kyu Lim
Among brain tumors, glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type and is associated with the lowest patient survival rate. Numerous lines of evidence have established that omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) have potential for the prevention and therapy of several types of cancers. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω3-PUFA, was reported to inhibit growth and induce apoptotic and autophagic cell death in several cancer cell lines; however, its effects on GBM cells are still unknown. in the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effect of DHA on the GBM cell lines, D54MG, U87MG, U251MG and GL261...
January 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183158/critical-roles-of-glutaredoxin-in-brain-cells-implications-for-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Olga Gorelenkova Miller, John J Mieyal
SIGNIFICANCE: Glutaredoxin (Grx1), an evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitous enzyme, regulates redox signal transduction and protein redox homeostasis by catalyzing reversible S-glutathionylation. Grx1 plays different roles in different cell types. In Parkinson's disease (PD), Grx1 regulates apoptosis signaling in dopaminergic neurons, so that loss of Grx1 leads to increased cell death; in microglial cells, Grx1 regulates pro-inflammatory signaling, so that upregulation of Grx1 promotes cytokine production...
November 28, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114996/impaired-p53-cep-1-is-associated-with-lifespan-extension-through-an-age-related-imbalance-in-the-energy-metabolism-of-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#9
Sumino Yanase, Hitoshi Suda, Kayo Yasuda, Naoaki Ishii
In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the mammalian tumor suppressor p53 ortholog CEP-1 mediates the stress response, activates germ line apoptosis and regulates meiotic chromosome segregation. A reduction in its expression, which frequently occurs in mammalian cancer cells, extends lifespan and induces an adaptive response in C. elegans. However, these effects do not involve an increase in oxidative stress resistance. Here, we showed that intermittent exposure to hyperoxia, which induces oxidative stress resistance and lowers the production of ROS derived from mitochondrial respiration in C...
November 8, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107862/gypsophila-elegans-isoorientin-2%C3%A2-o-%C3%AE-l-arabinopyranosyl-ameliorates-porcine-serum-induced-immune-liver-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-and-suppressing-hsc-activation
#10
Facheng Bai, Quanfang Huang, Jinbin Wei, Shujuan Lv, Yuxin Chen, Chunhong Liang, Ling Wei, Zhongpeng Lu, Xing Lin
The present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Gypsophila elegans isoorientin-2″-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl (GEI) on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), to reveal the underlying mechanism of GEI against hepatic fibrosis. Our study showed that GEI significantly alleviated liver injury induced by porcine serum (PS) in rats; it notably alleviated collagen accumulation as evidenced by a significant decrease in the levels of collagen biomarkers including hyaluronic acid, laminin, hydroxyproline and procollagen III N-terminal peptide...
November 3, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079422/automated-three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-germline
#11
Sandeep Gopal, Peter Boag, Roger Pocock
The Caenorhabditis elegans germline is widely used as a model to study stem cell development, chromosome dynamics and apoptosis. Major readouts of germline phenotypes such as cell counting and protein expression profiling are routinely analyzed manually and in a two-dimensional manner. The major disadvantages of the existing approaches are 1) they are time-consuming and laborious and 2) there is an inability to study the effects of genetic mutations in three dimensions. Here, we demonstrate a rapid, automated method for analyzing the three-dimensional distribution of proteins, germline nuclei and cytoskeletal structures in the C...
October 25, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026837/binding-site-analysis-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-nr4a-nuclear-receptor-nhr-6-during-development
#12
Brandon Praslicka, Jeremy S Harmson, Joohyun Kim, Vittobai Rashika Rangaraj, Aikseng Ooi, Chris R Gissendanner
Members of the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors make up a highly conserved, functionally diverse group of transcription factors implicated in a multitude of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism and DNA repair. The gene nhr-6, which encodes the sole C. elegans NR4A nuclear receptor homolog, has a critical role in organogenesis and regulates the development of the spermatheca organ system. Our previous work revealed that nhr-6 is required for spermatheca cell divisions in late L3 and early L4 and spermatheca cell differentiation during the mid L4 stage...
2017: Nuclear Receptor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944912/dhhp%C3%A2-6-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia%C3%A2-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-through-the-inhibition-of-apoptosis
#13
Yingshi Ji, Xin Yan, Yang Hu, Huan Xue, Jianfeng Sun, Huaqiu Chen, Jiayu Zhang, Liping Wang, Baigong Xue, Li Sun
As a novel reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, deuterohemin His peptide‑6 (DhHP‑6) has been demonstrated to prolong the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans and has also exhibited protective effects in myocardial ischemia‑reperfusion injury. Whether similar effects occur during cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion (CIR) injury remains to be elucidated. The present study evaluated the function of DhHP‑6 and its underlying mechanisms in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats. The focal transient MCAO model was implemented using the Longa method of ischemia for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 22 h in male Wistar rats...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940692/dpff-1-transcription-factor-deficiency-causes-the-aberrant-activation-of-mpk-1-and-meiotic-defects-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-germline
#14
Emmanuel Villanueva-Chimal, Laura S Salinas, Laura P Fernández-Cardenas, Gabriela Huelgas-Morales, Alejandro Cabrera-Wrooman, Rosa E Navarro
The d4 family of transcription factors consists of three members in mammals. DPF1/neuro-d4 is expressed mainly in neurons and the peripheral nervous system, and is important for brain development. DPF2/requiem/ubi-d4 is expressed ubiquitously and presumably functions as an apoptotic factor, especially during the deprivation of trophic factors. DPF3/cer-d4 is expressed in neurons and in the heart, and is important for heart development and function in zebrafish. In Drosophila, there is only one member, dd4, whose function is still unknown, but it is expressed in many tissues and is particularly abundant in the brain of developing embryos and in adults...
September 23, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939506/impact-of-teflubenzuron-on-the-rockpool-shrimp-palaemon-elegans
#15
Pål A Olsvik, Bjørn T Lunestad, Ann-Lisbeth Agnalt, Ole B Samuelsen
Concerns have been raised over the environmental impacts of antiparasitic drugs used to delouse farmed salmon. Released into the marine environment, some of these drugs can have negative impact on non-targeted crustaceans in the vicinity of farming facilities. In this study, we examined the molecular effect of the insecticide teflubenzuron on a shrimp species inhabiting the littoral zone, the rockpool shrimp (Palaemon elegans). Rockpool shrimp was exposed for 98days to a dose representing 2% of a regular teflubenzuron medication applied to Atlantic salmon...
September 20, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932706/global-proteomics-revealed-klebsiella-pneumoniae-induced-autophagy-and-oxidative-stress-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-inhibiting-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-during-infection
#16
Arumugam Kamaladevi, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan
The enterobacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae invades the intestinal epithelium of humans by interfering with multiple host cell response. To uncover a system-level overview of host response during infection, we analyzed the global dynamics of protein profiling in Caenorhabditis elegans using quantitative proteomics approach. Comparison of protein samples of nematodes exposed to K. pneumoniae for 12, 24, and 36 h by 2DE revealed several changes in host proteome. A total of 266 host-encoded proteins were identified by 2DE MALDI-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS and the interacting partners of the identified proteins were predicted by STRING 10...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928743/the-toll-for-trafficking-toll-like-receptor-7-delivery-to-the-endosome
#17
REVIEW
Carlene Petes, Natalya Odoardi, Katrina Gee
Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7 is an endosomal innate immune sensor capable of detecting single-stranded ribonucleic acid. TLR7-mediated induction of type I interferon and other inflammatory cytokine production is important in antiviral immune responses. Furthermore, altered TLR7 expression levels are implicated in various autoimmune disorders, indicating a key role for this receptor in modulating inflammation. This review is focused on the regulation of TLR7 expression and localization compared to that of the other endosomal TLRs: TLR3, 8, and 9...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891792/pgam5-promotes-lasting-foxo-activation-after-developmental-mitochondrial-stress-and-extends-lifespan-in-drosophila
#18
Martin Borch Jensen, Yanyan Qi, Rebeccah Riley, Liya Rabkina, Heinrich Jasper
The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) has been associated with long lifespan across metazoans. In Caenorhabditis elegans, mild developmental mitochondrial stress activates UPR(mt) reporters and extends lifespan. We show that similar developmental stress is necessary and sufficient to extend Drosophila lifespan, and identify Phosphoglycerate Mutase 5 (PGAM5) as a mediator of this response. Developmental mitochondrial stress leads to activation of FoxO, via Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) and Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK)...
September 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888921/n-4-b-4-4-5-5-tetramethyl-1-3-2-dioxaborolan-methyl-2-deoxycytidine-as-a-potential-boron-delivery-agent-with-respect-to-glioblastoma
#19
Łukasz Uram, Joanna Nizioł, Piotr Maj, Justyna Sobich, Wojciech Rode, Tomasz Ruman
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a central nervous system tumor of grade IV, according to the WHO classification, extremely resistant to all currently used forms of therapy, including resection, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combined therapy. Therefore, more effective treatment strategies of this tumor are needed, with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) being a potential solution, provided a proper cancer cells-targeted 10B delivery agent is found. In search of such an agent, toxicity and capacity to target DNA of a boronated derivative of 2'-deoxycytidine, N(4)-[B-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan)methyl]-2'-deoxycytidine (1), was tested against human tumor vs...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885586/senna-singueana-antioxidant-hepatoprotective-antiapoptotic-properties-and-phytochemical-profiling-of-a-methanol-bark-extract
#20
Mansour Sobeh, Mona F Mahmoud, Rehab A Hasan, Haroan Cheng, Assem M El-Shazly, Michael Wink
Natural products are considered as an important source for the discovery of new drugs to treat aging-related degenerative diseases and liver injury. The present study profiled the chemical constituents of a methanol extract from Senna singueana bark using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS and 36 secondary metabolites were identified. Proanthocyanidins dominated the extract. Monomers, dimers, trimers of (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)guibourtinidol, (ent)cassiaflavan, and (epi)afzelechin represented the major constituents...
September 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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