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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107363/age-dependent-neuroendocrine-signaling-from-sensory-neurons-modulates-the-effect-of-dietary-restriction-on-longevity-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
Marissa Fletcher, Dennis H Kim
Dietary restriction extends lifespan in evolutionarily diverse animals. A role for the sensory nervous system in dietary restriction has been established in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, but little is known about how neuroendocrine signals influence the effects of dietary restriction on longevity. Here, we show that DAF-7/TGFβ, which is secreted from the C. elegans amphid, promotes lifespan extension in response to dietary restriction in C. elegans. DAF-7 produced by the ASI pair of sensory neurons acts on DAF-1/TGFβ receptors expressed on interneurons to inhibit the co-SMAD DAF-3...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093294/strehler-mildvan-correlation-is-a-degenerate-manifold-of-gompertz-fit
#2
Andrei E Tarkhov, Leonid I Menshikov, Peter O Fedichev
Gompertz empirical law of mortality is often used in practical research to parametrize survival fraction as a function of age with the help of just two quantities: the Initial Mortality Rate (IMR) and the Gompertz exponent, inversely proportional to the Mortality Rate Doubling Time (MRDT). The IMR is often found to be inversely related to the Gompertz exponent, which is the dependence commonly referred to as Strehler-Mildvan (SM) correlation. In this paper, we address fundamental uncertainties of the Gompertz parameters inference from experimental Kaplan-Meier plots and show, that a least squares fit often leads to an ill-defined non-linear optimization problem, which is extremely sensitive to sampling errors and the smallest systematic demographic variations...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076789/reduced-insulin-igf-1-signaling-restores-the-dynamic-properties-of-key-stress-granule-proteins-during-aging
#3
Marie C Lechler, Emily D Crawford, Nicole Groh, Katja Widmaier, Raimund Jung, Janine Kirstein, Jonathan C Trinidad, Alma L Burlingame, Della C David
Low-complexity "prion-like" domains in key RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) mediate the reversible assembly of RNA granules. Individual RBPs harboring these domains have been linked to specific neurodegenerative diseases. Although their aggregation in neurodegeneration has been extensively characterized, it remains unknown how the process of aging disturbs RBP dynamics. We show that a wide variety of RNA granule components, including stress granule proteins, become highly insoluble with age in C. elegans and that reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) daf-2 receptor signaling efficiently prevents their aggregation...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076775/nutritional-programming-of-lifespan-by-foxo-inhibition-on-sugar-rich-diets
#4
Adam J Dobson, Marina Ezcurra, Charlotte E Flanagan, Adam C Summerfield, Matthew D W Piper, David Gems, Nazif Alic
Consumption of unhealthy diets is exacerbating the burden of age-related ill health in aging populations. Such diets can program mammalian physiology to cause long-term, detrimental effects. Here, we show that, in Drosophila melanogaster, an unhealthy, high-sugar diet in early adulthood programs lifespan to curtail later-life survival despite subsequent dietary improvement. Excess dietary sugar promotes insulin-like signaling, inhibits dFOXO-the Drosophila homolog of forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors-and represses expression of dFOXO target genes encoding epigenetic regulators...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043053/the-decay-of-redox-stress-response-capacity-is-a-substantive-characteristic-of-aging-revising-the-redox-theory-of-aging
#5
Jiao Meng, Zhenyu Lv, Xinhua Qiao, Xiaopeng Li, Yazi Li, Yuying Zhang, Chang Chen
Aging is tightly associated with redox events. The free radical theory of aging indicates that redox imbalance may be an important factor in the aging process. Most studies about redox and aging focused on the static status of oxidative stress levels, there has been little research investigating differential responses to redox challenge during aging. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans and human fibroblasts as models to compare differential responses to oxidative stress challenge in young and old individuals...
December 28, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041875/snev-hprp19-hpso4-regulates-adipogenesis-of-human-adipose-stromal-cells
#6
Abdulhameed Khan, Hanna Dellago, Lucia Terlecki-Zaniewicz, Michael Karbiener, Sylvia Weilner, Florian Hildner, Viktoria Steininger, Christian Gabriel, Christoph Mück, Pidder Jansen-Dürr, Ara Hacobian, Marcel Scheideler, Regina Grillari-Voglauer, Markus Schosserer, Johannes Grillari
Aging is accompanied by loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue. This may be due to reduced differentiation capacity or deficiency in DNA damage repair (DDR) factors. Here we investigated the role of SNEV(hPrp19/hPso4), which was implicated in DDR and senescence evasion, in adipogenic differentiation of human adipose stromal cells (hASCs). We showed that SNEV is induced during adipogenesis and localized both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. Knockdown of SNEV perturbed adipogenic differentiation and led to accumulation of DNA damage in hASCs upon oxidative stress...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039571/identification-of-a-previously-undetected-metabolic-defect-in-the-complex-ii-caenorhabditis-elegans-mev-1-mutant-strain-using-respiratory-control-analysis
#7
Sheng Fong, Li Fang Ng, Li Theng Ng, Philip K Moore, Barry Halliwell, Jan Gruber
Hypometabolism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ageing and ageing-related diseases. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offers the opportunity to study "living mitochondria" in a small (~1 mm) animal replete with a highly stereotypical, yet complex, anatomy and physiology. Basal oxygen consumption rate is often employed as a proxy for energy metabolism in this context. This parameter is traditionally measured using single-chamber Clark electrodes without the addition of metabolic modulators...
December 30, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039083/2-3-dehydrosilybin-a-b-as-a-pro-longevity-and-anti-aggregation-compound
#8
Konstantina Filippopoulou, Nikoletta Papaevgeniou, Maria Lefaki, Anna Paraskevopoulou, David Biedermann, Vladimír Křen, Niki Chondrogianni
Aging is an unavoidable process characterized by gradual failure of homeostasis that constitutes a critical risk factor for several age-related disorders. It has been unveiled that manipulation of various key pathways may decelerate the aging progression and the triggering of age-related diseases. As a consequence, the identification of compounds, preferably natural-occurring, administered through diet, with lifespan-extending, anti-aggregation and anti-oxidation properties that in parallel exhibit negligible side-effects is the main goal in the battle against aging...
December 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017329/prohibitin-2-is-an-inner-mitochondrial-membrane-mitophagy-receptor
#9
Yongjie Wei, Wei-Chung Chiang, Rhea Sumpter, Prashant Mishra, Beth Levine
The removal of unwanted or damaged mitochondria by autophagy, a process called mitophagy, is essential for key events in development, cellular homeostasis, tumor suppression, and prevention of neurodegeneration and aging. However, the precise mechanisms of mitophagy remain uncertain. Here, we identify the inner mitochondrial membrane protein, prohibitin 2 (PHB2), as a crucial mitophagy receptor involved in targeting mitochondria for autophagic degradation. PHB2 binds the autophagosomal membrane-associated protein LC3 through an LC3-interaction region (LIR) domain upon mitochondrial depolarization and proteasome-dependent outer membrane rupture...
January 12, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006915/%C3%AE-dihydroagarofuran-type-sesquiterpenes-from-the-seeds-of-celastrus-monospermus-and-their-lifespan-extending-effects-on-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Lei Gao, Rujun Zhang, Jianfeng Lan, Ruonan Ning, Di Wu, Di Chen, Weimin Zhao
Seventeen β-dihydroagarofuran-type sesquiterpenes were isolated from the seeds of Celastrus monospermus, and, among them, 15 (1-15) were identified as new natural products. Nine isolates were evaluated for their lifespan-extending effect using the standard model animal nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. As a result, all of the tested compounds prolonged the lifespan of C. elegans when compared to the blank control group (p < 0.0001). Among them, celaspermin E (5) extended the average lifespan and maximum lifespan of C...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003440/zno-nanoparticles-enhanced-germ-cell-apoptosis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-in-comparison-with-zncl2
#11
Brittany O'Donnell, Lily Huo, Joseph R Polli, Li Qiu, David Collier, Baohong Zhang, Xiaoping Pan
Effects of ZnO NPs and ionic Zn on germline apoptosis and the regulation of genes in the apoptosis pathway were investigated in vivo using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Age synchronized Bristol N2 worms were exposed to ZnO NPs and ZnCl2 at concentrations of 6.14×10(-1), 61.4, and 614 μM form larval stage 1 (L1) to early adulthood. Possible ZnO nanoparticles were observed under the worm cuticle and also in the gonadal region by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ZnO NPs and ZnCl2 both significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells as compared to controls in the 61...
December 20, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995966/identification-of-an-evolutionary-conserved-structural-loop-that-is-required-for-the-enzymatic-and-biological-function-of-tryptophan-2-3-dioxygenase
#12
Helen Michels, Renée I Seinstra, Joost C M Uitdehaag, Mandy Koopman, Martijn van Faassen, Céline N Martineau, Ido P Kema, Rogier Buijsman, Ellen A A Nollen
The enzyme TDO (tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase; TDO-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans) is a potential therapeutic target to cancer but is also thought to regulate proteotoxic events seen in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. To better understand its function and develop specific compounds that target TDO we need to understand the structure of this molecule. In C. elegans we compared multiple different CRISPR/Cas9-induced tdo-2 deletion mutants and identified a motif of three amino acids (PLD) that is required for the enzymatic conversion of tryptophan to N-formylkynurenine...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992858/proteins-that-accumulate-with-age-in-human-skeletal-muscle-aggregates-contribute-to-declines-in-muscle-mass-and-function-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Srinivas Ayyadevara, Meenakshisundaram Balasubramaniam, Pooja Suri, Samuel G Mackintosh, Alan J Tackett, Dennis H Sullivan, Robert J Shmookler Reis, Richard A Dennis
Protein aggregation increases with age in normal tissues, and with pathology and age in Alzheimer's hippocampus and mouse cardiac muscle. We now ask whether human skeletal muscle accumulates aggregates with age. Detergent-insoluble protein aggregates were isolated from vastus lateralis biopsies from 5 young (23-27 years of age) and 5 older (64-80 years) adults. Aggregates, quantified after gel electrophoresis, contain 2.1-fold more protein (P<0.0001) when isolated from older subjects relative to young. Of 515 proteins identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, 56 (11%) were significantly more abundant in older muscle, while 21 (4%) were depleted with age (each P<0...
December 15, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989925/cholesterol-regulates-daf-16-nuclear-localization-and-fasting-induced-longevity-in-c-elegans
#14
Akiko Ihara, Masaharu Uno, Koichi Miyatake, Sakiko Honjoh, Eisuke Nishida
Cholesterol has attracted significant attention as a possible lifespan regulator. It has been reported that serum cholesterol levels have an impact on mortality due to age-related disorders such as cardiovascular disease. Diet is also known to be an important lifespan regulator. Dietary restriction retards the onset of age-related diseases and extends lifespan in various organisms. Although cholesterol and dietary restriction are known to be lifespan regulators, it remains to be established whether cholesterol is involved in dietary restriction-induced longevity...
October 29, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984715/metformin-restraining-nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling-to-fight-cancer-and-aging
#15
Jorge Iván Castillo-Quan, T Keith Blackwell
In this issue of Cell, Wu et al. employed C. elegans and human cell experiments to identify a pathway through which metformin increases lifespan and inhibits growth. A key transcriptional target, ACAD10, is activated when metformin induces nuclear exclusion of the GTPase RagC, thereby inhibiting mTORC1 through an unexpected mechanism.
December 15, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976467/rapid-species-level-identification-of-salvias-by-chemometric-processing-of-ambient-ionisation-mass-spectrometry-derived-chemical-profiles
#16
Justine E Giffen, Ashton D Lesiak, A John Dane, Robert B Cody, Rabi A Musah
INTRODUCTION: The Salvia genus contains numerous economically important plants that have horticultural, culinary and nutraceutical uses. They are often similar in appearance, making species determination difficult. Species identification of dried Salvia products is also challenging since distinguishing plant morphological features are no longer present. OBJECTIVE: The development of a simple high-throughput method of analysis of fresh and dried Salvia leaves that would permit rapid species-level identification and detection of diagnostic biomarkers...
January 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974500/starvation-induced-stress-response-is-critically-impacted-by-ceramide-levels-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Mingxue Cui, Yi Wang, Jonathon Cavaleri, Taylor Kelson, Yudong Teng, Min Han
Our understanding of the cellular mechanisms by which animals regulate their response to starvation is limited despite the strong relevance of the problem to major human health issues. The L1 diapause of Caenorhabditis elegans, where first-stage larvae arrest in response to a food-less environment, is an excellent system to study this mechanism. We found through genetic manipulation and lipid analysis that ceramide biosynthesis, particularly those with longer fatty acid side chains, critically impacts animal survival during L1 diapause...
December 14, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958277/a-genome-wide-screen-of-bacterial-mutants-that-enhance-dauer-formation-in-c-elegans
#18
Amit Khanna, Jitendra Kumar, Misha A Vargas, LaKisha Barrett, Subhash Katewa, Patrick Li, Tom McCloskey, Amit Sharma, Nicole Naudé, Christopher Nelson, Rachel Brem, David W Killilea, Sean D Mooney, Matthew Gill, Pankaj Kapahi
Molecular pathways involved in dauer formation, an alternate larval stage that allows Caenorhabditis elegans to survive adverse environmental conditions during development, also modulate longevity and metabolism. The decision to proceed with reproductive development or undergo diapause depends on food abundance, population density, and temperature. In recent years, the chemical identities of pheromone signals that modulate dauer entry have been characterized. However, signals derived from bacteria, the major source of nutrients for C...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942749/the-role-of-dietary-carbohydrates-in-organismal-aging
#19
REVIEW
Dongyeop Lee, Heehwa G Son, Yoonji Jung, Seung-Jae V Lee
Carbohydrates are essential nutrients that are used as a primary source of energy. Carbohydrate utilization should be properly controlled, as abnormal regulation of carbohydrate metabolism is associated with diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke. These metabolic syndromes have become a serious problem in developed countries, and there is an increased need for research examining the influence of carbohydrates on animal physiology. Diets enriched in glucose, a major carbohydrate, are also associated with accelerated aging in several model organisms, including yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans (C...
December 10, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919065/splicing-factor-1-modulates-dietary-restriction-and-torc1-pathway-longevity-in-c-elegans
#20
Caroline Heintz, Thomas K Doktor, Anne Lanjuin, Caroline C Escoubas, Yue Zhang, Heather J Weir, Sneha Dutta, Carlos Giovanni Silva-García, Gitte H Bruun, Ianessa Morantte, Gerta Hoxhaj, Brendan D Manning, Brage S Andresen, William B Mair
Ageing is driven by a loss of transcriptional and protein homeostasis and is the key risk factor for multiple chronic diseases. Interventions that attenuate or reverse systemic dysfunction associated with age therefore have the potential to reduce overall disease risk in the elderly. Precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is a fundamental link between gene expression and the proteome, and deregulation of the splicing machinery is linked to several age-related chronic illnesses. However, the role of splicing homeostasis in healthy ageing remains unclear...
January 5, 2017: Nature
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