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Elegans aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915791/segmentation-and-classification-of-two-channel-c-elegans-nucleus-labeled-fluorescence-images
#1
Mengdi Zhao, Jie An, Haiwen Li, Jiazhi Zhang, Shang-Tong Li, Xue-Mei Li, Meng-Qiu Dong, Heng Mao, Louis Tao
BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by a gradual breakdown of cellular structures. Nuclear abnormality is a hallmark of progeria in human. Analysis of age-dependent nuclear morphological changes in Caenorhabditis elegans is of great value to aging research, and this calls for an automatic image processing method that is suitable for both normal and abnormal structures. RESULTS: Our image processing method consists of nuclear segmentation, feature extraction and classification...
September 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915560/pharynx-mitochondrial-ca-2-dynamics-in-live-c-elegans-worms-during-aging
#2
Pilar Alvarez-Illera, Paloma García-Casas, Jessica Arias-Del-Val, Rosalba I Fonteriz, Javier Alvarez, Mayte Montero
Progressive decline in mitochondrial function is generally considered one of the hallmarks of aging. We have expressed a Ca(2+) sensor in the mitochondrial matrix of C. elegans pharynx cells and we have measured for the first time mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]M) dynamics in the pharynx of live C. elegans worms during aging. Our results show that worms stimulated with serotonin display a pharynx [Ca(2+)]M oscillatory kinetics that includes both high frequency oscillations (up to about 1Hz) and very prolonged "square-wave" [Ca(2+)]M increases, indicative of energy depletion of the pharynx cells...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912432/mitigating-motor-neuronal-loss-in-c-elegans-model-of-als8
#3
Wendy Zhang, Antonio Colavita, Johnny K Ngsee
ALS8 is a late-onset familial autosomal dominant form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) caused by a point mutation (P56S) in the VAPB gene (VAMP associated protein isoform B). Here, we generated two C. elegans models of the disease: a transgenic model where human VAPB wild-type (WT) or P56S mutant was expressed in a subset of motor neurons, and a second model that targeted inducible knockdown of the worm's orthologue, vpr-1. Overexpression of human VAPB in DA neurons caused a backward locomotion defect, axonal misguidance, and premature neuronal death...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910305/aspirin-increases-metabolism-through-germline-signalling-to-extend-the-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Xiao-Bing Huang, Xiao-Hui Mu, Qin-Li Wan, Xiao-Ming He, Gui-Sheng Wu, Huai-Rong Luo
Aspirin is a prototypic cyclooxygenase inhibitor with a variety of beneficial effects on human health. It prevents age-related diseases and delays the aging process. Previous research has shown that aspirin might act through a dietary restriction-like mechanism to extend lifespan. To explore the mechanism of action of aspirin on aging, we determined the whole-genome expression profile of Caenorhabditis elegans treated with aspirin. Transcriptome analysis revealed the RNA levels of genes involved in metabolism were primarily increased...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885586/senna-singueana-antioxidant-hepatoprotective-antiapoptotic-properties-and-phytochemical-profiling-of-a-methanol-bark-extract
#5
Mansour Sobeh, Mona F Mahmoud, Rehab A Hasan, Haroan Cheng, Assem M El-Shazly, Michael Wink
Natural products are considered as an important source for the discovery of new drugs to treat aging-related degenerative diseases and liver injury. The present study profiled the chemical constituents of a methanol extract from Senna singueana bark using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS and 36 secondary metabolites were identified. Proanthocyanidins dominated the extract. Monomers, dimers, trimers of (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)guibourtinidol, (ent)cassiaflavan, and (epi)afzelechin represented the major constituents...
September 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882853/neuronal-inhibition-of-the-autophagy-nucleation-complex-extends-life-span-in-post-reproductive-c-elegans
#6
Thomas Wilhelm, Jonathan Byrne, Rebeca Medina, Ena Kolundžić, Johannes Geisinger, Martina Hajduskova, Baris Tursun, Holger Richly
Autophagy is a ubiquitous catabolic process that causes cellular bulk degradation of cytoplasmic components and is generally associated with positive effects on health and longevity. Inactivation of autophagy has been linked with detrimental effects on cells and organisms. The antagonistic pleiotropy theory postulates that some fitness-promoting genes during youth are harmful during aging. On this basis, we examined genes mediating post-reproductive longevity using an RNAi screen. From this screen, we identified 30 novel regulators of post-reproductive longevity, including pha-4 Through downstream analysis of pha-4, we identified that the inactivation of genes governing the early stages of autophagy up until the stage of vesicle nucleation, such as bec-1, strongly extend both life span and health span...
September 7, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878670/daf-16-foxo-transcription-factor-in-aging-and-longevity
#7
REVIEW
Xiaojuan Sun, Wei-Dong Chen, Yan-Dong Wang
Aging is associated with age-related diseases and an increase susceptibility of cancer. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms that underlie aging and longevity would contribute to implications for preventing and treating the age-dependent diseases or cancers. Multiple signaling pathways such as the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway, TOR signaling, AMPK pathway, JNK pathway and germline signaling have been found to be involved in aging and longevity. And DAF-16/FOXO, as a key transcription factor, could integrate different signals from these pathways to modulate aging, and longevity via shuttling from cytoplasm to nucleus...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867808/approaches-for-studying-autophagy-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
REVIEW
Yanfang Chen, Vincent Scarcelli, Renaud Legouis
Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is an intracellular degradative process, well conserved among eukaryotes. By engulfing cytoplasmic constituents into the autophagosome for degradation, this process is involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Autophagy induction triggers the formation of a cup-shaped double membrane structure, the phagophore, which progressively elongates and encloses materials to be removed. This double membrane vesicle, which is called an autophagosome, fuses with lysosome and forms the autolysosome...
August 30, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857552/precision-electrophile-tagging-in-c-elegans
#9
Marcus J C Long, Daniel A Urul, Shivansh Chawla, Hong-Yu Lin, Yi Zhao, Joseph A Haegele, Yiran Wang, Yimon Aye
Electrophile adduction to privileged sensor proteins and the resulting phenotypically-dominant responses are increasingly appreciated to be essential for metazoan health. Functional similarities between the biological electrophiles and electrophilic pharmacophores commonly found in covalent drugs further fortify the translational relevance of these small-molecule sentinels. Genetically-encodable or small-molecule-based fluorescent reporters along with redox-proteomics have revolutionized the observation and profiling of cellular redox states and electrophile-sensor proteins, respectively...
August 31, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854356/multilayered-reprogramming-in-response-to-persistent-dna-damage-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#10
Diletta Edifizi, Hendrik Nolte, Vipin Babu, Laia Castells-Roca, Michael M Mueller, Susanne Brodesser, Marcus Krüger, Björn Schumacher
DNA damage causally contributes to aging and age-related diseases. Mutations in nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes cause highly complex congenital syndromes characterized by growth retardation, cancer susceptibility, and accelerated aging in humans. Orthologous mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans lead to growth delay, genome instability, and accelerated functional decline, thus allowing investigation of the consequences of persistent DNA damage during development and aging in a simple metazoan model. Here, we conducted proteome, lipidome, and phosphoproteome analysis of NER-deficient animals in response to UV treatment to gain comprehensive insights into the full range of physiological adaptations to unrepaired DNA damage...
August 29, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844646/counteracting-ascarosides-act-through-distinct-neurons-to-determine-the-sexual-identity-of-c-%C3%A2-elegans-pheromones
#11
Erin Z Aprison, Ilya Ruvinsky
Sex pheromones facilitate reproduction by attracting potential mates and altering their behavior and physiology. In C. elegans, males and hermaphrodites secrete similar blends of pheromone molecules, two of which are present in different relative concentrations: ascr#3, which is more abundant in hermaphrodites, and ascr#10, which is more abundant in males. It is not currently understood how this compositional difference results in sex-specific effects, for example, the slower aging of the hermaphrodite germline in the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of male pheromones...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840220/microfluidic-systems-for-high-throughput-and-high-content-screening-using-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
REVIEW
Matteo Cornaglia, Thomas Lehnert, Martin A M Gijs
In a typical high-throughput drug screening (HTS) process, up to millions of chemical compounds are applied to cells cultured in well plates, aiming to find molecules that exhibit a robust dose-response, as evidenced for example by a fluorescence signal. In high-content screening (HCS), one goes a step further by linking the tested compounds to phenotypic information, obtained, for instance, from microscopic cell images, thereby creating richer data sets that also require more advanced analysis methods. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans came into the screening picture due to the wide availability of its mutants and human disease models, its relatively easy culture and short life cycle...
August 25, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839194/an-automated-compound-screening-for-anti-aging-effects-on-the-function-of-c-elegans-sensory-neurons
#13
Daphne Bazopoulou, Amrita R Chaudhury, Alexandros Pantazis, Nikos Chronis
Discovery of molecular targets or compounds that alter neuronal function can lead to therapeutic advances that ameliorate age-related neurodegenerative pathologies. Currently, there is a lack of in vivo screening technologies for the discovery of compounds that affect the age-dependent neuronal physiology. Here, we present a high-throughput, microfluidic-based assay for automated manipulation and on-chip monitoring and analysis of stimulus-evoked calcium responses of intact C. elegans at various life stages...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835694/coherent-raman-imaging-of-live-muscle-sarcomeres-assisted-by-sfg-microscopy
#14
Hyunmin Kim, Do-Young Kim, Kyung-Il Joo, Jung-Hye Kim, Soon Moon Jeong, Eun Seong Lee, Jeong-Hoon Hahm, Kyuhyung Kim, Dae Woon Moon
In this study, we used spectrally focused coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (spCARS) microscopy assisted by sum-frequency generation (SFG) to monitor the variations in the structural morphology and molecular vibrations of a live muscle of Caenorhabditis elegans. The subunits of the muscle sarcomeres, such as the M-line, myosin, dense body, and α-actinin, were alternatively observed using spCARS microscopy for different sample orientations, with the guidance of a myosin positional marker captured by SFG microscopy...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831863/emodin-extends-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-through-insulin-igf-1-signaling-pathway-depending-on-daf-16-and-sir-2-1
#15
Xuan Zhao, Lulu Lu, Yonghao Qi, Miao Li, Lijun Zhou
The naturally occurring anthraquinone emodin has been serving primarily as an anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory agent. However, little is known about its potential on anti-aging. This investigation examined the effect of emodin on lifespan and focused on its physiological molecular mechanisms in vivo. Using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as an animal model, we found emodin could extend lifespan of worms and improve their antioxidant capacity. Our mechanistic studies revealed that emodin might function via insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway involving, specifically the core transcription factor DAF-16...
August 23, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827345/indoles-from-commensal-bacteria-extend-healthspan
#16
Robert Sonowal, Alyson Swimm, Anusmita Sahoo, Liping Luo, Yohei Matsunaga, Ziqi Wu, Jui A Bhingarde, Elizabeth A Ejzak, Ayush Ranawade, Hiroshi Qadota, Domonica N Powell, Christopher T Capaldo, Jonathan M Flacker, Rhienallt M Jones, Guy M Benian, Daniel Kalman
Multiple studies have identified conserved genetic pathways and small molecules associated with extension of lifespan in diverse organisms. However, extending lifespan does not result in concomitant extension in healthspan, defined as the proportion of time that an animal remains healthy and free of age-related infirmities. Rather, mutations that extend lifespan often reduce healthspan and increase frailty. The question arises as to whether factors or mechanisms exist that uncouple these processes and extend healthspan and reduce frailty independent of lifespan...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817671/immunohistochemical-analysis-reveals-variations-in-proteasome-tissue-expression-in-c-elegans
#17
Elisa Mikkonen, Caj Haglund, Carina I Holmberg
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial part in normal cell function by mediating intracellular protein clearance. We have previously shown that UPS-mediated protein degradation varies in a cell type-specific manner in C. elegans. Here, we use formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded C. elegans sections to enable studies on endogenous proteasome tissue expression. We show that the proteasome immunoreactivity pattern differs between cell types and within subcellular compartments in adult wild-type (N2) C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815872/a-multimethod-computational-simulation-approach-for-investigating-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-dysfunction-in-degenerative-aging
#18
Timothy E Hoffman, Katherine J Barnett, Lyle Wallis, William H Hanneman
Research in biogerontology has largely focused on the complex relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and biological aging. In particular, the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging (MFRTA) has been well accepted. However, this theory has been challenged by recent studies showing minimal increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) as not entirely deleterious in nature, and even beneficial under the appropriate cellular circumstances. To assess these significant and nonintuitive observations in the context of a functional system, we have taken an in silico approach to expand the focus of the MFRTA by including other key mitochondrial stress response pathways, as they have been observed in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
August 16, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814374/from-bench-laboratory-to-bed-hospital-home-how-to-explore-effective-natural-and-synthetic-pak1-blockers-longevity-promoters-for-cancer-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Hiroshi Maruta, Mok-Ryeon Ahn
PAK family kinases are RAC/CDC42-activated kinases that were first found in a soil amoeba 4 decades ago, and 2 decades later, were discovered in mammals as well. Since then at least 6 members of this family have been identified in mammals. One of them called PAK1 has been best studied so far, mainly because it is essential not only for malignant cell growth and metastasis, but also for many other diseases/disorders such as diabetes (type 2), AD (Alzheimer's disease), hypertension, and a variety of inflammatory or infectious diseases, which definitely shorten our lifespan...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808619/gastrointestinal-parasites-in-captive-and-free-ranging-cebus-albifrons-in-the-western-amazon-ecuador
#20
Sarah Martin-Solano, Gabriel A Carrillo-Bilbao, William Ramirez, Maritza Celi-Erazo, Marie-Claude Huynen, Bruno Levecke, Washington Benitez-Ortiz, Bertrand Losson
Currently, there is a lack of surveys that report the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in the white-headed capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons). We therefore assessed the presence and richness (= number of different parasite genera) of parasites in C. albifrons in wildlife refuges (n = 11) and in a free-ranging group near a human village (n = 15) in the Ecuadorian Amazon. In the 78 samples collected (median of 3 samples per animal), we identified a total of 6 genera of gastrointestinal parasites, representing protozoa, nematodes, acanthocephalans and cestodes...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
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