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Elegans aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524858/caspase-dependent-non-apoptotic-processes-in-development
#1
REVIEW
Yu-Ichiro Nakajima, Erina Kuranaga
Caspases are at the core of executing apoptosis by orchestrating cellular destruction with proteolytic cascades. Caspase-mediated proteolysis also controls diverse nonlethal cellular activities such as proliferation, differentiation, cell fate decision, and cytoskeletal reorganization. During the last decade or so, genetic studies of Drosophila have contributed to our understanding of the in vivo mechanism of the non-apoptotic cellular responses in developmental contexts. Furthermore, recent studies using C...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503972/molecular-mechanisms-of-anti-oxidant-and-anti-aging-effects-induced-by-convallatoxin-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Jia Xu, Youming Guo, Tianzhuo Sui, Qifei Wang, Yue Zhang, Ruining Zhang, Mingyang Wang, Shuwen Guan, Liping Wang
Convallatoxin is widely used as a cardiac glycoside in acute and chronic congestive heart-failure and paroxysmal tachycardia, with many effects and underlying protective mechanisms on inflammation and cellular proliferation. However, convallatoxin has not been investigated in its antioxidant effects and lifespan extension in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we found that convallatoxin (20 μM) could significantly prolong the lifespan of wild-type C. elegans up to 16.3% through daf-16, but not sir-2.1 signaling and increased thermotolerance and resistance to paraquat-induced oxidative stress...
May 14, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499251/sequestration-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-membrane-phospholipids-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-dauer-larva-attenuates-eicosanoid-biosynthesis-for-prolonged-survival
#3
Sin Man Lam, Zehua Wang, Jie Li, Xun Huang, Guanghou Shui
Mechanistic basis governing the extreme longevity and developmental quiescence of dauer juvenile, a "non-ageing" developmental variant of Caenorhabditis elegans, has remained largely obscure. Using a lipidomic approach comprising multiple reaction monitoring transitions specific to distinct fatty acyl moieties, we demonstrated that in comparison to other developmental stages, the membrane phospholipids of dauer larva contain a unique enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Esterified PUFAs in phospholipids exhibited temporal accumulation throughout the course of dauer endurance, followed by sharp reductions prior to termination of diapause...
May 4, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493873/modeling-of-a-negative-feedback-mechanism-explains-antagonistic-pleiotropy-in-reproduction-in-domesticated-caenorhabditis-elegans-strains
#4
Edward E Large, Raghavendra Padmanabhan, Kathie L Watkins, Richard F Campbell, Wen Xu, Patrick T McGrath
Most biological traits and common diseases have a strong but complex genetic basis, controlled by large numbers of genetic variants with small contributions to a trait or disease risk. The effect-size of most genetic variants is not absolute and is instead dependent upon multiple factors such as the age and genetic background of an organism. In order to understand the mechanistic basis of these changes, we characterized heritable trait differences between two domesticated strains of C. elegans. We previously identified a major effect locus, caused in part by a mutation in a component of the NURF chromatin remodeling complex, that regulates reproductive output in an age-dependent manner...
May 11, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484847/genetic-kidney-diseases-caenorhabditis-elegans-as-model-system
#5
REVIEW
Athina Ganner, Elke Neumann-Haefelin
Despite its apparent simplicity, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a high rating as a model in molecular and developmental biology and biomedical research. C. elegans has no excretory system comparable with the mammalian kidney but many of the genes and molecular pathways involved in human kidney diseases are conserved in C. elegans. The plethora of genetic, molecular and imaging tools available in C. elegans has enabled major discoveries in renal research and advanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of genetic kidney diseases...
May 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471052/supplementation-with-triptolide-increases-resistance-to-environmental-stressors-and-lifespan-in-c-elegans
#6
Sung-Jin Kim, Sun-Mi Beak, Sang-Kyu Park
Triptolide is a major active compound found in Tripterygium wilfordii., also known as Thunder God Vine. Triptolide has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we examined the effect of dietary supplementation with triptolide on response to environmental stressors and lifespan in vivo using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. Treatment with 50 mg/L of triptolide in the growth media increased resistance to oxidative stress and reduced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466284/a-microfluidic-diode-for-sorting-and-immobilization-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Lijie Yang, Tao Hong, Yin Zhang, Jose Guillermo Sanchez Arriola, Brian L Nelms, Richard Mu, Deyu Li
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a powerful model organism extensively used in studies of human aging and diseases. Despite the numerous advantages of C. elegans as a model system, two biological characteristics may introduce complexity and variability to most studies: 1. it exhibits different biological features, composition and behaviors at different developmental stages; 2. it has very high mobility. Therefore, synchronization and immobilization of worm populations are often required. Conventionally, these processes are implemented through manual and chemical methods, which can be laborious, time-consuming and of low-throughput...
June 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463453/a-simple-answer-to-complex-questions-c-elegans-as-an-experimental-model-for-examining-the-dna-damage-response-and-disease-genes
#8
Matthias Rieckher, Arturo Bujarrabal, Markus A Doll, Najmeh Soltanmohammadi, Björn Schumacher
The genetic information is constantly challenged by genotoxic attacks. DNA repair mechanisms evolved early in evolution and recognize and remove the various lesions. A complex network of DNA damage responses (DDR) orchestrates a variety of physiological adaptations to the presence of genome instability. Erroneous repair or malfunctioning of the DDR causes cancer development and the accumulation of DNA lesions drives the aging process. For understanding the complex DNA repair and DDR mechanisms it is pivotal to employ simple metazoan as model systems...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449399/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-bombyx-mori-fat-body-tissue-following-dietary-restriction
#9
Ye Pan, Peng Lü, Qinyun Wang, Feifei Zhu, Chengjun Li, Yuanqing He, Keping Chen
Dietary restriction (DR) refers to a reduction in food intake to induce undernutrition but not malnutrition, which extends the lifespan of multiple species. Although there are invertebrate aging models, such as the Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, aging studies in Lepidoptera are few in number and the underlying life-extending molecular mechanisms are not clear. Research on a broader range of animals is necessary to support generalizations on mechanisms of aging and rates of aging. The aim of this study was to further investigate genes and pathways associated with DR in Bombyx mori...
May 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447066/neuronal-functions-of-foxo-daf-16
#10
REVIEW
Sun Y Kim, Ashley E Webb
The FOXO family of transcription factors plays a conserved role in longevity and tissue homeostasis across species. In the mammalian nervous system, emerging evidence has implicated FOXOs in cognitive performance, stem cell maintenance, regeneration, and protection against stress. Much of what we know about neuronal functions of FOXO emerged from recent studies in C. elegans. Similar to mammalian FOXO, the worm FOXO ortholog, called DAF-16, regulates learning and memory, regeneration, and stress resistance in neurons...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445141/downregulation-of-protein-kinase-ck2-activity-induces-age-related-biomarkers-in-c-elegans
#11
Jeong-Hwan Park, Joo-Hyun Lee, Jeong-Woo Park, Dong-Yun Kim, Jeong-Hoon Hahm, Hong Gil Nam, Young-Seuk Bae
Studies show that a decrease in protein kinase CK2 (CK2) activity is associated with cellular senescence. However, the role of CK2 in organism aging is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether protein kinase CK2 (CK2) modulated longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. CK2 activity decreased with advancing age in the worms. Knockdown of kin-10 (the ortholog of CK2β) led to a short lifespan phenotype and induced age-related biomarkers, including retardation of locomotion, decreased pharyngeal pumping rate, increased lipofuscin accumulation, and reduced resistance to heat and oxidative stress...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435840/microbial-flora-probiotics-bacillus-subtilis-and-the-search-for-a-long-and-healthy-human-longevity
#12
COMMENT
Facundo Rodriguez Ayala, Carlos Bauman, Sebastián Cogliati, Cecilia Leñini, Marco Bartolini, Roberto Grau
Probiotics are live microorganisms that have beneficial effects on host health, including extended lifespan, when they are administered or present in adequate quantities. However, the mechanisms by which probiotics stimulate host longevity remain unclear and very poorly understood. In a recent study (Nat. Commun. 8, 14332 (2017) doi: 10.1038/ncomms14332), we used the spore-forming probiotic bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to study the mechanism by which a probiotic bacterium affects host longevity...
March 16, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434978/calycosin-promotes-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-through-insulin-signaling-pathway-via-daf-16-age-1-and-daf-2
#13
Lulu Lu, Xuan Zhao, Jianyong Zhang, Miao Li, Yonghao Qi, Lijun Zhou
The naturally occurring calycosin is a known antioxidant that prevents redox imbalance in organisms. However, calycosin's effect on lifespan and its physiological molecular mechanisms are not yet well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that calycosin could prolong the lifespan of Caenorhabditiselegans, and that such extension was associated with its antioxidant capability as well as its ability to enhance stress resistance and reduce ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation. To explore mechanisms of this longevity effect, we assessed the impact of calycosin on lifespans of insulin-signaling impaired worms: daf-2, age-1, and daf-16 mutants...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428286/a-genetic-analysis-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-detoxification-response
#14
Tetsunari Fukushige, Harold E Smith, Johji Miwa, Michael W Krause, John A Hanover
Oxidative damage contributes to human diseases of aging including diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders. Reactive oxygen species resulting from xenobiotic and endogenous metabolites are sensed by a poorly understood process, triggering a cascade of regulatory factors and leading to the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 (SKN-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans). Nrf2/SKN-1 activation promotes the induction of the Phase II detoxification system that serves to limit oxidative stress. We have extended a previous C...
April 19, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423308/how-a-mutation-that-slows-aging-can-also-disproportionately-extend-end-of-life-decrepitude
#15
Katie Podshivalova, Rex A Kerr, Cynthia Kenyon
The goal of aging research is to extend healthy, active life. For decades, C. elegans daf-2 insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor mutants have served as a model for extended lifespan and youthfulness. However, a recent report suggested that their longevity is associated with an undesirable phenotype: a disproportionately long period of decrepitude at the end of life. In the human population, such an outcome would be a burden to society, bringing into question the relevance of daf-2 mutants as a model for life extension...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405595/in-vivo-mitophagy-monitoring-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-to-determine-mitochondrial-homeostasis
#16
Konstantinos Palikaras, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Perturbation of mitochondrial function is a major hallmark of several pathological conditions and ageing, underlining the essential role of fine-tuned mitochondrial activity (Lopez-Otin et al., 2013). Mitochondrial selective autophagy, known as mitophagy, mediates the removal of dysfunctional and/or superfluous organelles, preserving cellular and organismal homeostasis (Palikaras and Tavernarakis, 2014; Pickrell and Youle, 2015; Scheibye-Knudsen et al., 2015). In this protocol, we describe a method for assessing mitophagy in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
April 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404998/a-single-biochemical-activity-underlies-the-pleiotropy-of-the-aging-related-protein-clk-1
#17
Ju-Ling Liu, Callista Yee, Ying Wang, Siegfried Hekimi
The Caenorhabditis elegans clk-1 gene and the orthologous mouse gene Mclk1 encode a mitochondrial hydroxylase that is necessary for the biosynthesis of ubiquinone (UQ). Mutations in these genes produce broadly pleiotropic phenotypes in both species, including a lengthening of animal lifespan. A number of features of the C. elegans clk-1 mutants, including a maternal effect, particularly extensive pleiotropy, as well as unexplained differences between alleles have suggested that CLK-1/MCLK1 might have additional functions besides that in UQ biosynthesis...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404661/quantitative-assessment-of-fat-levels-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-using-dark-field-microscopy
#18
Anthony D Fouad, Shelly Teng, Shelley H Pu, Julian R Mark, Moyu Fu, Kevin Zhang, Jonathan Huang, David M Raizen, Christopher Fang-Yen
The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used as a model for studying conserved pathways for fat storage, aging, and metabolism. The most broadly used methods for imaging fat in C. elegans require fixing and staining the animal. Here, we show that dark field images acquired through an ordinary light microscope can be used to estimate fat levels in worms. We define a metric based on the amount of light scattered per area, and show that this light scattering metric is strongly correlated with worm fat levels as measured by Oil Red O staining across a wide variety of genetic backgrounds and feeding conditions...
April 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401650/caenorhabditis-elegans-orthologs-of-human-genes-differentially-expressed-with-age-are-enriched-for-determinants-of-longevity
#19
George L Sutphin, Grant Backer, Susan Sheehan, Shannon Bean, Caroline Corban, Teresa Liu, Marjolein J Peters, Joyce B J van Meurs, Joanne M Murabito, Andrew D Johnson, Ron Korstanje
We report a systematic RNAi longevity screen of 82 Caenorhabditis elegans genes selected based on orthology to human genes differentially expressed with age. We find substantial enrichment in genes for which knockdown increased lifespan. This enrichment is markedly higher than published genomewide longevity screens in C. elegans and similar to screens that preselected candidates based on longevity-correlated metrics (e.g., stress resistance). Of the 50 genes that affected lifespan, 46 were previously unreported...
April 12, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400847/gengnianchun-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-enhances-oxidative-stress-resistance-and-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-modulating-daf-16-foxo
#20
Fanhui Meng, Jun Li, Wenjun Wang, Yan Fu
Objective. Gengnianchun (GNC), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is primarily used to improve declining functions related to aging. In this study, we investigated its prolongevity and stress resistance properties and explored the associated regulatory mechanism using a Caenorhabditis elegans model. Methods. Wild-type C. elegans N2 was used for lifespan analysis and oxidative stress resistance assays. Transgenic animals were used to investigate pathways associated with antioxidative stress activity. The effects of GNC on levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of specific genes were examined...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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