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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087607/type-2-diabetes-obesity-and-breast-cancer-risk-the-multiethnic-cohort
#1
Gertraud Maskarinec, Simone Jacobs, Song-Yi Park, Christopher A Haiman, Veronica Wendy Setiawan, Lynne R Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been more consistently associated with breast cancer than type 2 diabetes (T2D). This analysis examined the combination of the two factors in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). METHODS: Women aged 45-75 years entered the MEC in 1993-1996 by completing a questionnaire. T2D status was self-reported at baseline, two follow-up questionnaires, and confirmed by administrative data. Cancers were identified from tumor registries and deaths through vital records until 2010...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087302/the-long-term-effect-of-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-on-tuberculin-skin-testing-a-55-year-follow-up-study
#2
James D Mancuso, Rupal M Mody, Cara H Olsen, Lee H Harrison, Mathuram Santosham, Naomi E Aronson
BACKGROUND: Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination (BCG) is known to cause false positive tuberculin skin test (TST) results from cross-reactions to mycobacterial antigens. However, the duration of BCG influence on the TST is poorly characterized. The objective of the study was to assess the long-term effect of BCG vaccination on TST reactivity. METHODS: Data on TST reactivity were prospectively collected during 1935-47 as part of a clinical trial among American Indians / Alaskan Natives and retrospectively thereafter between 1948 and 1998...
January 10, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081061/vital-signs-decrease-in-incidence-of-diabetes-related-end-stage-renal-disease-among-american-indians-alaska-natives-united-states-1996-2013
#3
Ann Bullock, Nilka Ríos Burrows, Andrew S Narva, Karen Sheff, Israel Hora, Akaki Lekiachvili, Hannah Cain, David Espey
BACKGROUND: American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest diabetes prevalence among any racial/ethnic group in the United States. Among AI/AN, diabetes accounts for 69% of new cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), defined as kidney failure treated with dialysis or transplantation. During 1982-1996, diabetes-related ESRD (ESRD-D) in AI/AN increased substantially and disproportionately compared with other racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: Data from the U...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077183/the-prevalence-of-aphanomyces-astaci-in-invasive-signal-crayfish-from-the-uk-and-implications-for-native-crayfish-conservation
#4
J James, S Nutbeam-Tuffs, J Cable, A Mrugała, N Viñuela-Rodriguez, A Petrusek, B Oidtmann
The crayfish plague agent, Aphanomyces astaci, has spread throughout Europe, causing a significant decline in native European crayfish. The introduction and dissemination of this pathogen is attributed to the spread of invasive North American crayfish, which can act as carriers for A. astaci. As native European crayfish often succumb to infection with A. astaci, determining the prevalence of this pathogen in non-native crayfish is vital to prioritize native crayfish populations for managed translocation. In the current study, 23 populations of invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from the UK were tested for A...
January 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074030/working-model-of-the-deep-relationships-of-diverse-modern-human-genetic-lineages-outside-of-africa
#5
Mark Lipson, David Reich
A major topic of interest in human prehistory is how the large-scale genetic structure of modern populations outside of Africa was established. Demographic models have been developed that capture the relationships among small numbers of populations or within particular geographical regions, but constructing a phylogenetic tree with gene flow events for a wide diversity of non-Africans remains a difficult problem. Here, we report a model that provides a good statistical fit to allele-frequency correlation patterns among East Asians, Australasians, Native Americans, and ancient western and northern Eurasians, together with archaic human groups...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072836/pre-migration-trauma-exposure-and-mental-health-functioning-among-central-american-migrants-arriving-at-the-us-border
#6
Allen Keller, Amy Joscelyne, Megan Granski, Barry Rosenfeld
In recent years, increasing numbers of families and individuals have arrived at the U.S. border from Central America, in particular, from Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala. This study sought to examine pre-migration trauma exposure and current mental health functioning of migrant families arriving at the U.S. border from the Northern Triangle region, with specific attention to the reasons offered for leaving their home country and the frequency with which migrant families appear to satisfy legal criteria for asylum We interviewed 234 adults in McAllen, Texas, using a structured interview and standardized questionnaires to assess exposure to trauma prior to migration, reasons for leaving their home country and symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071982/longitudinal-prediction-of-suicide-attempts-for-a-diverse-adolescent-sample-of-native-hawaiians-pacific-peoples-and-asian-americans
#7
Earl S Hishinuma, Myra D Smith, Kayne McCarthy, Mark Lee, Deborah A Goebert, Jeanelle J Sugimoto-Matsuda, Naleen N Andrade, Jaques B Philip, Jane J Chung-Do, Reid S Hamamoto, Joy K L Andrade
OBJECTIVE: To determine the longitudinal predictors of past-6-month suicide attempts for a diverse adolescent sample of Native Hawaiians, Pacific peoples, and Asian Americans. METHOD: This study utilized longitudinal data from the Hawaiian High Schools Health Survey (N = 2,083, 9th to 11th graders, 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 school years). A stepwise multiple logistic regression was conducted. RESULTS: The final model consisted of three statistically significant predictors: (1) Time 1 suicide attempt, odds ratio = 30...
January 10, 2017: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056514/race-as-a-predictor-of-palliative-care-referral-time-hospice-utilization-and-hospital-length-of-stay
#8
Brooke Worster, Declan Kennedy Bell, Vibin Roy, Amy Cunningham, Marianna LaNoue, Susan Parks
BACKGROUND: Palliative care is associated with significant benefits, including reduced pain and suffering, an increased likelihood of patients dying in their preferred location, and decreased health-care expenditures. Racial and ethnic disparities are well-documented in hospice use and referral patterns; however, it is unclear whether these disparities apply to inpatient palliative care services. OBJECTIVE: To determine if race is a significant predictor of time to inpatient palliative care consult, patient enrollment in hospice, and patients' overall hospital length of stay among patients of an inpatient palliative care service...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056139/children-s-use-of-semantic-context-in-perception-of-foreign-accented-speech
#9
Rachael Frush Holt, Tessa Bent
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate children's use of semantic context to facilitate foreign-accented word recognition in noise. Method: Monolingual American English speaking 5- to 7-year-olds (n = 168) repeated either Mandarin- or American English-accented sentences in babble, half of which contained final words that were highly predictable from context. The same final words were presented in the low- and high-predictability sentences. Results: Word recognition scores were better in the high- than low-predictability contexts...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056115/a-tiered-approach-to-retinopathy-of-prematurity-screening-tarp-using-a-weight-gain-predictive-model-and-a-telemedicine-system
#10
Jaclyn Gurwin, Lauren A Tomlinson, Graham E Quinn, Gui-Shuang Ying, Agnieshka Baumritter, Gil Binenbaum
Importance: The Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase Retinopathy of Prematurity (e-ROP) Study telemedicine system of remote fundus image grading and The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Retinopathy of Prematurity (CHOP-ROP) postnatal weight gain predictive model are 2 approaches for improving ROP screening efficiency. Current screening has low specificity for severe ROP. Objective: To describe a tiered approach to ROP screening (TARP) for identifying children who develop severe ROP using telemedicine and a predictive model synergistically...
January 5, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055108/impact-of-ethnicity-on-the-outcome-of-men-with-metastatic-hormone-sensitive-prostate-cancer
#11
Brandon Bernard, Vinayak Muralidhar, Yu-Hui Chen, Srikala S Sridhar, Edith P Mitchell, Curtis A Pettaway, Michael A Carducci, Paul L Nguyen, Christopher J Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes are impacted by socioeconomic and biologic factors. Ethnicity plays a role in the former, but little is known about the responsiveness of metastatic PCa to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) among races. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry was used to identify men who were diagnosed with distant, de novo, metastatic PCa from 2004 to 2012. Patterns of presentation, overall survival (OS), and PCa-specific mortality (PCSM) were determined for each race...
January 5, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052506/predicting-north-american-scolytinae-invasions-in-the-southern-hemisphere
#12
Maria Victoria Lantschner, Thomas H Atkinson, Juan C Corley, Andrew M Liebhold
Scolytinae species are recognized as one of the most important tree mortality agents in coniferous forests worldwide, and many are known invaders because they are easily transported in wood products. Nonnative trees planted in novel habitats often exhibit exceptional growth, in part because they escape herbivore (such as Scolytinae) pressure from their native range. Increasing accidental introductions of forest pest species as a consequence of international trade, however, is expected to diminish enemy release of nonnative forest trees...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052168/a-review-of-tenure-for-black-latino-and-native-american-faculty-in-academic-medicine
#13
Zedeena E Fisher, José E Rodríguez, Kendall M Campbell
OBJECTIVES: Tenure policies in US medical schools have been under scrutiny for decades while black/African American, Latino, and Native American faculty continue to be underrepresented in medicine. As medical institutions seek to improve diversity, tenure continues to be a major retention tool. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to investigate the role that tenure plays in the recruitment, retention, and advancement of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) faculty in academic medicine...
January 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051889/race-ethnicity-in-medical-education-an-analysis-of-a-question-bank-for-step-1-of-the-united-states-medical-licensing-examination
#14
Kelsey Ripp, Lundy Braun
: Phenomenon: There is growing concern over racial/ethnic bias in clinical care, yet how best to reduce bias remains challenging, in part because the sources of bias in medical education are poorly understood. One possible source is the routinized use of race/ethnicity in lectures, assessment, and preparatory materials, including question banks for licensing examinations. Because students worldwide use question banks to prepare for the United States Medical Licensing Examination, we examined how race/ethnicity was used in one of the most commonly recommended question banks...
January 4, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050337/race-ethnicity-and-intention-to-quit-cigarette-smoking
#15
Julia N Soulakova, Jinyu Li, Lisa J Crockett
The study examined racial/ethnic differences in smokers' intentions to quit smoking within the next 6 months. The sample included 20,693 current non-occasional smokers in the U.S. who responded to the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. The rates of intention to quit within 1 month were significantly higher for non-Hispanic (NH) Black (21%; OR = 1.44, CI = 1.24-1.67) and Hispanic (21%; OR = 1.42, CI = 1.20-1.68) than for the NH Whites (NHW, 15%). The rates of intention to quit within 6 months were significantly higher for NH Blacks (46%; OR = 1...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049630/interactions-of-the-asian-lady-beetle-harmonia-axyridis-coleoptera-coccinellidae-and-the-north-american-native-lady-beetle-coccinella-novemnotata-coleoptera-coccinellidae-prospects-for-recovery-post-decline
#16
Rafael Dal Bosco Ducatti, Todd A Ugine, John Losey
The decline of the North American native lady beetle, Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, is strongly correlated with the introduction of Coccinella septempunctata L., and C. novemnotata are locally extirpated across much of the United States. Since C. novemnotata's decline, the invasive Harmonia axyridis Pallas has become dominant in North America. This study investigated whether H. axyridis has the potential to impede the recovery of C. novemnotata populations. To determine how H. axyridis interacts with C. novemnotata via intraguild predation and competition for prey, we paired first-instar C...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045054/population-genetics-of-the-manila-clam-ruditapes-philippinarum-introduced-in-north-america-and-europe
#17
David Cordero, Marina Delgado, Baozhong Liu, Jennifer Ruesink, Carlos Saavedra
Globally, the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) stands as the second most important bivalve species in fisheries and aquaculture. Native to the Pacific coast of Asia, it is now well-established in North America and Europe, where its on-going management reflects local economic interests. The historic record of transfers spans the 20(th) century and suggests sequential movement from Japan to North America, as a hitch-hiker on oysters, and then intentional introduction in Europe, but global genetic data are missing...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038389/adherence-to-antiepileptic-drugs-among-diverse-older-americans-on-part-d-medicare
#18
Kendra Piper, Joshua Richman, Edward Faught, Roy Martin, Ellen Funkhouser, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Chen Dai, Lucia Juarez, Maria Pisu
INTRODUCTION: Older minority groups are more likely to have poor AED adherence. We describe adherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) among older Americans with epilepsy. METHODS: In retrospective analyses of 2008-2010 Medicare claims for a 5% random sample of beneficiaries augmented by minority representation, epilepsy cases in 2009 were those with ≥1 claim with ICD-9345.x or ≥2 with 780.3x, and ≥1 AED. New-onset cases had no such claims or AEDs in the year before the 2009 index event...
December 27, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035010/pneumococcal-protein-antigen-serology-varies-with-age-and-may-predict-antigenic-profile-of-colonizing-isolates
#19
T Azarian, L R Grant, M Georgieva, L L Hammitt, R Reid, S D Bentley, D Goldblatt, M Santosham, R Weatherholtz, P Burbidge, N Goklish, C M Thompson, W P Hanage, K L O'Brien, M Lipsitch
BACKGROUND: Several Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins play a role in pathogenesis and are being investigated as vaccine targets. It is largely unknown whether naturallyacquired antibodies reduce the risk of colonization with strains expressing a particular antigenic variant. METHODS: Serum IgG titers to 28 pneumococcal protein antigens were measured among 242 individuals, aged < 6 months - 78 years in Native American communities between 2007-2009. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at least 30 days after serum collection, and the protein antigen variant in each pneumococcal isolate was determined using genomic data...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032813/effects-of-the-circle-of-life-hiv-prevention-program-on-marijuana-use-among-american-indian-middle-school-youths-a-group-randomized-trial-in-a-northern-plains-tribe
#20
Nancy L Asdigian, Nancy Rumbaugh Whitesell, Ellen M Keane, Alicia C Mousseau, Carol E Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Early substance use threatens many American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, as it is a risk factor for maladaptive use and adverse health outcomes. Marijuana is among the first substances used by AI/AN youth, and its use becomes widespread during adolescence. Interventions that delay or reduce marijuana use hold the promise of curbing substance disorders and other health risk disparities in AI/AN populations. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effectiveness of the Circle of Life (COL) program in reducing marijuana use among young AI adolescents...
December 29, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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