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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143610/development-of-f1-hybrid-population-and-the-high-density-linkage-map-for-european-aspen-populus-tremula-l-using-radseq-technology
#1
Anatoly V Zhigunov, Pavel S Ulianich, Marina V Lebedeva, Peter L Chang, Sergey V Nuzhdin, Elena K Potokina
BACKGROUND: Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) technology was recently employed to identify a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for linkage mapping of a North American and Eastern Asian Populus species. However, there is also the need for high-density genetic linkage maps for the European aspen (P. tremula) as a tool for further mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and marker-assisted selection of the Populus species native to Europe. RESULTS: We established a hybrid F1 population from the cross of two aspen parental genotypes diverged in their phenological and morphological traits...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143223/accelerating-and-strengthening-native-american-health-research-through-a-collaborative-nih-initiative
#2
Aria Davis Crump, Kathy Etz, Judith A Arroyo, Nanci Hemberger, Shobha Srinivasan
This paper is intended to provide an overview of the considerations that informed the development of a National Institutes of Health funding opportunity to promote health and prevent disease in Native Americans, including American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian communities. NIH Institute staff thoughtfully considered epidemiologic research findings and feedback from constituents regarding the need for more published research overall and stronger prevention efforts to address persistent health concerns affecting many Native communities...
November 16, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142659/actinic-prurigo-in-scandinavian-adolescent-successfully-treated-with-cyclosporine-a
#3
Jan C Sitek
Actinic prurigo is a pruritic sun-induced dermatosis classified among the immunologically mediated photodermatoses. The disease is a well-known entity among Native Americans and in Central and South America, however rare in Caucasians with only a few reports from Australia, Britain and France. We report the first case of actinic prurigo in a Scandinavian patient, responding favorably to systemic treatment with cyclosporine A.
March 13, 2017: Dermatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139216/patterns-and-drivers-of-fish-extirpations-in-rivers-of-the-american-southwest-and-southeast
#4
John S Kominoski, Albert Ruhí, Megan M Hagler, Kelly Petersen, John L Sabo, Tushar Sinha, Arumugam Sankarasubramanian, Julian D Olden
Effective conservation of freshwater biodiversity requires spatially explicit investigations of how dams and hydroclimatic alterations among climate regions may interact to drive species to extinction. We investigated how dams and hydroclimatic alterations interact with species ecological and life history traits to influence past extirpation probabilities of native freshwater fishes in the Upper and Lower Colorado River (CR), Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT), and Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) basins...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132221/2009-iom-guidelines-for-gestational-weight-gain-how-well-do-they-predict-outcomes-across-ethnic-groups
#5
Amal R Khanolkar, Gillian E Hanley, Ilona Koupil, Patricia A Janssen
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the Institute Of Medicine's (IOM) 2009 guidelines for weight-gain during pregnancy are predictive of maternal and infant outcomes in ethnic minority populations. METHODS: We designed a population-based study using administrative data on 181,948 women who delivered live singleton births in Washington State between 2006-2008. We examined risks of gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, cesarean delivery, and extended hospital stay in White, Black, Native-American, East-Asian, Hispanic, South-Asian and Hawaiian/Pacific islander women according to whether they gained more or less weight during pregnancy than recommended by IOM guidelines...
November 13, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128396/family-meals-then-and-now-a-qualitative-investigation-of-intergenerational-transmission-of-family-meal-practices-in-a-racially-ethnically-diverse-and-immigrant-population
#6
Amanda C Trofholz, Mai See Thao, Mia Donley, Mireya Smith, Hassan Isaac, Jerica M Berge
Having frequent family meals has consistently been associated with better health outcomes in children/adolescents. It is important to identify how intergenerational transmission of family meal practices occurs to help families benefit from family meals. Limited studies exist that explore the intergenerational transmission of family meal practices, particularly among racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant populations. This study explores how parents describe differences and similarities between meals then and now, the lessons they learned as children about family meals, and the lessons they pass onto their children, the challenges of carrying out family meals, and how families handle the barriers/challenges to intergenerational transmission of family meal practices...
November 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121347/race-ethnic-variations-in-quitline-use-among-us-adult-tobacco-users-in-45-states-2011-2013
#7
LaTisha L Marshall, Lei Zhang, Ann M Malarcher, Nathan H Mann, Brian A King, Robert L Alexander
Introduction: State quitlines provide free telephone-based cessation services and are available in all states. However, quitlines presently reach 1% of US cigarette smokers. We assessed variations in quitline reach by race/ethnicity across 45 US states included in the National Quitline Data Warehouse, a repository on non-identifiable data reported by state quitlines. Methods: During 2011 to 2013, we analyzed 1 220 171 records from the National Quitline Data Warehouse...
November 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121001/tobacco-product-use-among-adults-united-states-2015
#8
Elyse Phillips, Teresa W Wang, Corinne G Husten, Catherine G Corey, Benjamin J Apelberg, Ahmed Jamal, David M Homa, Brian A King
Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States (1). Despite declining cigarette smoking prevalence among U.S. adults, shifts in the tobacco product landscape have occurred in recent years (2,3). Previous estimates of tobacco product use among U.S. adults were obtained from the National Adult Tobacco Survey, which ended after the 2013-2014 cycle. This year, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assessed the most recent national estimates of tobacco product use among adults aged ≥18 years using, for the first time, data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), an annual, nationally representative, in-person survey of the noninstitutionalized U...
November 10, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117360/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-the-incidence-of-pediatric-extracranial-embryonal-tumors
#9
Paola Friedrich, Elena Itriago, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Karina Ribeiro
Background: Few studies have comparatively assessed differences in the incidence of childhood cancer by race and ethnicity that could inform etiologic research. We aimed to identify disparities in the incidence of pediatric extracranial embryonal tumors by race and ethnicity in the United States using a population-based cancer registry. Methods: Cases of extracranial embryonal tumors among children age 0 to 19 years diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program 18 (n = 8188)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116568/microaggressions-diabetes-distress-and-self-care-behaviors-in-a-sample-of-american-indian-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
Kelley J Sittner, Brenna L Greenfield, Melissa L Walls
American Indian/Alaska Native people experience the highest age-adjusted prevalence of type 2 diabetes of any racial group in the United States, as well as high rates of related health problems. Chronic stressors such as perceived discrimination are important contributors to these persistent health disparities. The current study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationships between racial microaggressions, diabetes distress, and self-care behaviors (diet and exercise) in a sample of 192 American Indians with type 2 diabetes from the northern United States...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116172/building-on-sub-arctic-soil-geopolymerization-of-muskeg-to-a-densified-load-bearing-composite
#11
Gregory R Waetzig, Junsang Cho, Max Lacroix, Sarbajit Banerjee
The marshy water-saturated soil typical of the sub-Arctic represents a considerable impediment to the construction of roads, thereby greatly hindering human habitation and geological excavation. Muskeg, the native water-laden topsoil characteristic of the North American sub-Arctic, represents a particularly vexing challenge for road construction. Muskeg must either be entirely excavated, or for direct construction on muskeg, a mix of partial excavation and gradual compaction with the strategic placement of filling materials must be performed...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110330/multiethnic-polygenic-risk-scores-improve-risk-prediction-in-diverse-populations
#12
Carla Márquez-Luna, Po-Ru Loh, Alkes L Price
Methods for genetic risk prediction have been widely investigated in recent years. However, most available training data involves European samples, and it is currently unclear how to accurately predict disease risk in other populations. Previous studies have used either training data from European samples in large sample size or training data from the target population in small sample size, but not both. Here, we introduce a multiethnic polygenic risk score that combines training data from European samples and training data from the target population...
November 7, 2017: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110278/the-imperative-for-research-to-promote-health-equity-in-indigenous-communities
#13
Linda R Stanley, Randall C Swaim, Joseph Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula, Kathleen J Kelly, Annie Belcourt, James Allen
Health disparities exact a devastating toll upon Indigenous people in the USA. However, there has been scant research investment to develop strategies to address these inequities in Indigenous health. We present a case for increased health promotion, prevention, and treatment research with Indigenous populations, providing context to the recent NIH investment in the Intervention Research to Improve Native American Health (IRINAH) network. We discuss the disproportionate costs and consequences of disparities borne by Indigenous groups, the limited evidence base on effective intervention for this population, how population uniqueness often makes transfer of existing intervention models difficult, and additional challenges in creating interventions for Indigenous settings...
November 6, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109430/the-first-draft-reference-genome-of-the-american-mink-neovison-vison
#14
Zexi Cai, Bent Petersen, Goutam Sahana, Lone B Madsen, Knud Larsen, Bo Thomsen, Christian Bendixen, Mogens Sandø Lund, Bernt Guldbrandtsen, Frank Panitz
The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America. It's an important animal for the fur industry. Many efforts have been made to locate genes influencing fur quality and color, but this search has been impeded by the lack of a reference genome. Here we present the first draft genome of mink. In our study, two mink individuals were sequenced by Illumina sequencing with 797 Gb sequence generated. Assembly yielded 7,175 scaffolds with an N50 of 6.3 Mb and length of 2...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108462/the-effect-of-clear-speech-on-temporal-metrics-of-rhythm-in-spanish-accented-speakers-of-english
#15
Alison Behrman, Sarah Hargus Ferguson, Ali Akhund, Mariola Moeyaert
This paper presents a comparative analysis of temporal rhythm in native American English talkers and Spanish-accented English talkers producing clear (hyperarticulated) speech and typical, conversational-style speech. Five acoustic measures of comparative vocalic and consonantal interval duration ("temporal metrics") were obtained from speech samples of 40 adult men and women (half native and half Spanish-accented talkers). In conversational-style speech, vocalic-based metrics differed significantly between native and Spanish-accented talkers, consistent with phonotactic differences between the two native languages...
November 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106530/multimorbidity-and-immigrant-status-associations-with-area-of-origin-and-length-of-residence-in-host-country
#16
Luis Andrés Gimeno-Feliu, Amaia Calderón-Larrañaga, Esperanza Díaz, Clara Laguna-Berna, Beatriz Poblador-Plou, Carlos Coscollar, Alexandra Prados-Torres
Aim: Multimorbidity is a growing phenomenon in primary care, and knowledge of the influence of social determinants on its evolution is vital. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between multimorbidity and immigration, taking into account length of residence in the host country and area of origin of the immigrant population. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective study of all adult patients registered within the public health service of Aragon, Spain (N = 1092279; 144238 were foreign-born), based on data from the EpiChron Cohort...
July 6, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105101/ethical-challenges-inherent-in-the-evaluation-of-an-american-indian-alaskan-native-circles-of-care-project
#17
David A Julian, Tyrone Smith, R Andrew Hunt
This article provides first-person accounts of ethical issues inherent in an evaluation of the Native American Indian Center of Central Ohio (NAICCO) Circles of Care project. Circles of Care is a three-year, infrastructure development program funded through the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) which is part of the federal Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). The grant program is for American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) tribes and urban Indian communities and includes a strong emphasis on community engagement and community ownership...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102099/white-lipped-tree-viper-cryptelytrops-albolabris-envenomation-in-an-american-viper-keeper
#18
Spencer Greene, Laura Ann Galdamez, Richard Tomasheski
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are common in many regions of the United States. Bites from exotic species, however, are rare. The white-lipped tree viper, Cryptelytrops (formerly Trimeresurus) albolabris, is a pit viper native to Southeast Asia. Bites are common in countries such as Myanmar, India, Thailand, Indonesia, and China. In this report, we describe an envenomation in an American viper keeper. CASE REPORT: A healthy 28-year-old right-handed man who collects venomous snakes experienced a bite to the distal left thumb from a neonatal C...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100086/genome-wide-ancestry-and-demographic-history-of-african-descendant-maroon-communities-from-french-guiana-and-suriname
#19
Cesar Fortes-Lima, Antoine Gessain, Andres Ruiz-Linares, Maria-Cátira Bortolini, Florence Migot-Nabias, Gil Bellis, J Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Berta Nelly Restrepo, Winston Rojas, Efren Avendaño-Tamayo, Gabriel Bedoya, Ludovic Orlando, Antonio Salas, Agnar Helgason, M Thomas P Gilbert, Martin Sikora, Hannes Schroeder, Jean-Michel Dugoujon
The transatlantic slave trade was the largest forced migration in world history. However, the origins of the enslaved Africans and their admixture dynamics remain unclear. To investigate the demographic history of African-descendant Marron populations, we generated genome-wide data (4.3 million markers) from 107 individuals from three African-descendant populations in South America, as well as 124 individuals from six west African populations. Throughout the Americas, thousands of enslaved Africans managed to escape captivity and establish lasting communities, such as the Noir Marron...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099937/the-paleo-indian-entry-into-south-america-according-to-mitogenomes
#20
Stefania Brandini, Paola Bergamaschi, Marco Fernando Cerna, Francesca Gandini, Francesca Bastaroli, Emilie Bertolini, Cristina Cereda, Luca Ferretti, Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Vincenza Battaglia, Antonio Salas, Ornella Semino, Alessandro Achilli, Anna Olivieri, Antonio Torroni
Recent and compelling archaeological evidence attests to human presence ∼14.5 thousand years ago (Kya) at multiple sites in South America and a very early exploitation of extreme high-altitude Andean environments. Considering that, according to genetic evidence, human entry into North America from Beringia most likely occurred ∼16 Kya, these archeological findings would imply an extremely rapid spread along the double continent. To shed light on this issue from a genetic perspective, we first completely sequenced 217 novel modern mitogenomes of Native American ancestry from the northwestern area of South America (Ecuador and Peru); we then evaluated them phylogenetically together with other available mitogenomes (430 samples, both modern and ancient) from the same geographic area and, finally, with all closely related mitogenomes from the entire double continent...
October 31, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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