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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912065/taino-and-african-maternal-heritage-in-the-greater-antilles
#1
Areej Bukhari, Javier Rodriguez Luis, Miguel A Alfonso-Sanchez, Ralph Garcia-Bertrand, Rene J Herrera
Notwithstanding the general interest and the geopolitical importance of the island countries in the Greater Antilles, little is known about the specific ancestral Native American and African populations that settled them. In an effort to alleviate this lacuna of information on the genetic constituents of the Greater Antilles, we comprehensively compared the mtDNA compositions of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. To accomplish this, the mtDNA HVRI and HVRII regions, as well as coding diagnostic sites, were assessed in the Haitian general population and compared to data from reference populations...
September 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905220/haplotype-study-in-sca10-families-provides-further-evidence-for-a-common-ancestral-origin-of-the-mutation
#2
Giovana B Bampi, Rafael Bisso-Machado, Tábita Hünemeier, Tailise C Gheno, Gabriel V Furtado, Diego Veliz-Otani, Mario Cornejo-Olivas, Pillar Mazzeti, Maria Cátira Bortolini, Laura B Jardim, Maria Luiza Saraiva-Pereira
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and epilepsy. The disease is caused by a pentanucleotide ATTCT expansion in intron 9 of the ATXN10 gene on chromosome 22q13.3. SCA10 has shown a geographical distribution throughout America with a likely degree of Amerindian ancestry from different countries so far. Currently available data suggest that SCA10 mutation might have spread out early during the peopling of the Americas...
September 13, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904778/the-influence-of-herbivory-and-weather-on-the-vital-rates-of-two-closely-related-cactus-species
#3
Kristen E Sauby, John Kilmer, Mary C Christman, Robert D Holt, Travis D Marsico
Herbivory has long been recognized as a significant driver of plant population dynamics, yet its effects along environmental gradients are unclear. Understanding how weather modulates plant-insect interactions can be particularly important for predicting the consequences of exotic insect invasions, and an explicit consideration of weather may help explain why the impact can vary greatly across space and time. We surveyed two native prickly pear cactus species (genus Opuntia) in the Florida panhandle, USA, and their specialist insect herbivores (the invasive South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, and three native insect species) for five years across six sites...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888835/disparities-in-gestational-age-specific-fetal-mortality-rates-in-the-united-states-2009-2013
#4
Martha S Wingate, Ruben A Smith, Joann R Petrini, Wanda D Barfield
PURPOSE: Although studies have examined overall temporal changes in gestational age-specific fetal mortality rates, there is little information on the current status of racial/ethnic differences. We hypothesize that differences exist between racial/ethnic groups across gestational age and that these differences are not equally distributed. METHODS: Using the 2009-2013 data from US fetal death and live birth files for non-Hispanic white (NHW); non-Hispanic black (NHB); Hispanic; and American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) women, we conducted analyses to examine fetal mortality rates and estimate adjusted prevalence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
August 24, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888767/recent-acute-crayfish-mortality-reveals-aphanomyces-astaci-presence-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#5
Mrugała Agata, Šanda Radek, Petrusek Adam, Marić Dario, Vukić Jasna
Although the introduction of the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci to Europe is responsible for substantial declines in native crayfish populations throughout the whole continent, its presence has never been officially confirmed in many European regions, including most of the Balkan Peninsula. We demonstrate that the recent crayfish mortality observed in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Mostarsko blato karst field, Neretva river drainage) was caused by A. astaci. The causative strain is known only from European crayfish, indicating that A...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888290/experiencing-discrimination-in-los-angeles-latinos-at-the-intersection-of-legal-status-and-socioeconomic-status
#6
Nancy S Landale, R S Oropesa, Aggie J Noah
Despite its recent slowdown, immigration from Latin America continues to be a controversial issue. Some scholars argue that the social climate is increasingly inhospitable to Latinos, potentially fueling discriminatory attitudes and behaviors. However, little research has examined Latinos' experiences with discrimination, especially variation by nativity and legal status. We address this issue with research on perceived discrimination among Mexican and Central American residents of Los Angeles County, a major destination for Latin American immigrants...
September 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885999/weight-change-in-older-adults-and-mortality-the-multiethnic-cohort-study
#7
S-Y Park, L R Wilkens, G Maskarinec, C A Haiman, L N Kolonel, L L Marchand
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between weight change in older adults and mortality in a multiethnic population. METHODS: We performed a prospective analysis using data on weight change between the baseline (1993-1996) and the 10-year follow-up (2003-2007) surveys in relation to subsequent mortality among 63 040 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and California. The participants were African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latino and white, aged 45-75 years at baseline, and did not report heart disease or cancer at either survey...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885123/thirty-day-inpatient-readmissions-for-asian-american-and-pacific-islander-subgroups-compared-with-whites
#8
Tetine Sentell, Hyeong Jun Ahn, Jill Miyamura, Deborah A Taira
Asian and Pacific Islander (API) 30-day potentially preventable readmissions (PPRs) are understudied. Hawaii Health Information Corporation data from 2007-2012 statewide adult hospitalizations ( N = 495,910) were used to compare API subgroup and White PPRs. Eight percent of hospitalizations were PPRs. Seventy-two percent of other Pacific Islanders, 60% of Native Hawaiians, and 52% of Whites with a PPR were 18 to 64 years, compared with 22% of Chinese and 21% of Japanese. In multivariable models including payer, hospital, discharge year, residence location, and comorbidity, PPR disparities existed for some API subpopulations 65+ years, including Native Hawaiian men (odds ratio [OR] = 1...
November 1, 2016: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881423/thyroid-cancer-mortality-is-higher-in-filipinos-in-the-united-states-an-analysis-using-national-mortality-records-from-2003-through-2012
#9
Michelle-Linh T Nguyen, Jiaqi Hu, Katherine G Hastings, Eric J Daza, Mark R Cullen, Lisa A Orloff, Latha P Palaniappan
BACKGROUND: Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma has a favorable prognosis, but patients with multiple recurrences have drastically lower survival. Filipinos in the United States are known to have high rates of thyroid cancer incidence and disease recurrence. To the authors' knowledge, it is unknown whether Filipinos also have higher thyroid cancer mortality rates. METHODS: The authors studied thyroid cancer mortality in Filipino, non-Filipino Asian (NFA), and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adults using US death records (2003-2012) and US Census data...
September 7, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875870/a-priori-defined-diet-quality-indices-biomarkers-and-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-in-five-ethnic-groups-the-multiethnic-cohort
#10
Simone Jacobs, Carol J Boushey, Adrian A Franke, Yurii B Shvetsov, Kristine R Monroe, Christopher A Haiman, Laurence N Kolonel, Loic Le Marchand, Gertraud Maskarinec
Dietary indices have been related to risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) predominantly in white populations. The present study evaluated this association in the ethnically diverse Multiethnic Cohort and examined four diet quality indices in relation to T2D risk, homoeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and biomarkers of dyslipidaemia, inflammation and adipokines. The T2D analysis included 166 550 white, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American and Latino participants (9200 incident T2D cases)...
August 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873981/-his-native-hot-country-1-racial-science-and-environment-in-antebellum-american-medical-thought
#11
Christopher D Willoughby
Relying on a close reading of more than 4,000 medicals student theses, this essay explores the evolving medical approaches to race and environment in the early national and antebellum United States and highlights the role that medical school pedagogy played in disseminating and elaborating racial theory. Specifically, it considers the influence of racial science on medical concepts of the relationship of bodies to climates. At their core, monogenesis-belief in a single, unified human race-and polygenesis-the belief that each race was created separately-were theories about the human body's connections to the natural world...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873029/cyp450-genotype-phenotype-concordance-in-mexican-amerindian-indigenous-populations-where-to-from-here-for-global-precision-medicine
#12
Fernando de Andrés, Martha Sosa Macías, Blanca Patricia Lazalde Ramos, María-Eugenia G Naranjo, Adrián LLerena
Global precision medicine demands characterization of drug metabolism and phenotype variation in diverse populations, including the indigenous societies. A related question is the extent to which CYP450 drug metabolizing enzyme genotype and phenotype data are concordant and whether they can be used interchangeably. These issues are increasingly debated as precision medicine continues to expand as a popular research topic worldwide. We report here the first study in clinically relevant CYP450 drug metabolism phenotypes and genotypes in Mexican Amerindian indigenous subjects...
September 5, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865474/barriers-and-facilitators-to-implementation-of-va-home-based-primary-care-on-american-indian-reservations-a-qualitative-multi-case-study
#13
B Josea Kramer, Sarah D Cote, Diane I Lee, Beth Creekmur, Debra Saliba
BACKGROUND: Veterans Health Affairs (VA) home-based primary care (HBPC) is an evidence-based interdisciplinary approach to non-institutional long-term care that was developed in urban settings to provide longitudinal care for vulnerable older patients. Under the authority of a Memorandum of Understanding between VA and Indian Health Service (IHS) to improve access to healthcare, 14 VA medical centers (VAMC) independently initiated plans to expand HBPC programs to rural American Indian reservations and 12 VAMC successfully implemented programs...
September 2, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865103/the-worldwide-diversity-of-scalp-seborrhoea-as-daily-experienced-by-seven-human-ethnic-groups
#14
Florence Pouradier, Chen Liu, John Wares, Emilie Yokoyama, Catherine Collaudin, Ségolène Panhard, Didier Saint-Léger, Geneviève Loussouarn
OBJECTIVE: The re-greasing process and kinetics of the human scalp, post shampooing, has been previously documented, in vivo, on a few Caucasian subjects. The objective of the presented research is to extend such knowledge over 7 different ethnic groups. METHODS: The post shampooing re-greasing kinetics of the scalp was studied on 1325 subjects (women and men of two distinct age classes) from 7 different ethnic groups in their residential and native country. Sebum amounts were determined onto small shaved scalp areas at various times post shampooing, using the Sebumeter(®) technique...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859572/the-genetic-diversity-of-the-americas
#15
Kaustubh Adhikari, Juan Camilo Chacón-Duque, Javier Mendoza-Revilla, Macarena Fuentes-Guajardo, Andrés Ruiz-Linares
The history of the Americas involved the encounter of millions of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans. A variable admixture of these three continental groups has taken place throughout the continent, influenced by demography and a range of social factors. This variable admixture has had a major influence on the genetic makeup of populations across the continent. Here, we summarize the demographic history of the region, highlight some social factors that affected historical admixture, and review major patterns of ancestry across the Western Hemisphere based on genetic data...
August 31, 2017: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858945/impact-of-insurance-status-and-race-on-outcomes-in-nonvariceal-upper-gastrointestinal-hemorrhage-a-nationwide-analysis
#16
Marwan S Abougergi, Patrick Avila, John R Saltzman
BACKGROUND AND GOALS: We examined the interaction between race, insurance, and important outcomes in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (NVUGIH). STUDY: Adults with NVUGIH were selected from the National Inpatient Sample. PRIMARY OUTCOME: in-hospital mortality. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: treatment modalities [esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), early EGD, and endoscopic or radiologic therapy], and resource utilization (length of hospital stay and total hospitalization charges)...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855283/a-comparative-analysis-of-genetic-ancestry-and-admixture-in-the-colombian-populations-of-choc%C3%A3-and-medell%C3%A3-n
#17
Andrew B Conley, Lavanya Rishishwar, Emily T Norris, Augusto Valderrama-Aguirre, Leonardo Mariño-Ramírez, Miguel A Medina-Rivas, I King Jordan
At least twenty percent of Colombians identify as having African ancestry, yielding the second largest population of Afro-descendants in Latin America. To date, there have been relatively few studies focused on the genetic ancestry of Afro-Latino populations. We report a comparative analysis of the genetic ancestry of Chocó, a state located on Colombia's Pacific coast with a population that is >80% Afro-Colombian. We compared genome-wide patterns of genetic ancestry and admixture for Chocó to six other admixed American populations, with an emphasis on a Mestizo population from the nearby Colombian city of Medellín...
August 29, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854094/a-tale-of-two-epidemics-hcv-treatment-among-native-americans-and-veterans
#18
Brigg Reilley, Jessica Leston
In light of ongoing debates about health care budgets and rising drug prices, a current public health crisis can provide useful insights. For patients who get their health care through two separate federal agencies, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic is unfolding in vastly different ways. In..
August 31, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835767/passiflora-cincinnata-extract-delays-the-development-of-motor-signs-and-prevents-dopaminergic-loss-in-a-mice-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Luiz Eduardo Mateus Brandão, Diana Aline Morais Ferreira Nôga, Aline Lima Dierschnabel, Clarissa Loureiro das Chagas Campêlo, Ywlliane da Silva Rodrigues Meurer, Ramón Hypolito Lima, Rovena Clara Galvão Januário Engelberth, Jeferson Souza Cavalcante, Clésio Andrade Lima, Murilo Marchioro, Charles Dos Santos Estevam, José Ronaldo Santos, Regina Helena Silva, Alessandra Mussi Ribeiro
Passiflora cincinnata Masters is a Brazilian native species of passionflower. This genus is known in the American continent folk medicine for its diuretic and analgesic properties. Nevertheless, few studies investigated possible biological effects of P. cincinnata extracts. Further, evidence of antioxidant actions encourages the investigation of possible neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigates the effect of the P. cincinnata ethanolic extract (PAS) on mice submitted to a progressive model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by reserpine...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832889/stressful-life-events-and-self-reported-postpartum-depressive-symptoms-13-24-months-after-live-birth-among-non-hispanic-american-indian-alaska-native-mothers-in-oregon-results-from-a-population-based-survey
#20
Maria N Ness, Kenneth D Rosenberg, Teresa Abrahamson-Richards, Alfredo P Sandoval, Thomas M Weiser, Victoria Warren-Mears
OBJECTIVES: We explored the association between stressful life events and postpartum depressive symptoms among non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) mothers. METHODS: We analyzed self-reports of stressful life events and depressive symptoms from 298 AI/AN respondents and conducted logistic regression to examine their association. RESULTS: Of the AI/AN mothers who responded, 29.7% reported depressive symptoms during their second postpartum year...
2017: American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: the Journal of the National Center
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