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parathyroid disorders

Michael Copland, Paul Komenda, Eric D Weinhandl, Peter A McCullough, Jose A Morfin
Mineral and bone disorder is a common complication of end-stage renal disease. Notably, hyperphosphatemia likely promotes calcification of the myocardium, valves, and arteries. Hyperphosphatemia is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity along a gradient beginning at 5.0mg/dL. Among contemporary hemodialysis (HD) patients, mean serum phosphorus level is 5.2mg/dL, although 25% of patients have serum phosphorus levels of 5.5 to 6.9mg/dL; and 13%, >7.0mg/dL. Treatment of hyperphosphatemia is burdensome...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Motoko Tanaka, Kazuki Yoshida, Shingo Fukuma, Kazuko Ito, Kazutaka Matsushita, Masafumi Fukagawa, Shunichi Fukuhara, Tadao Akizawa
OBJECTIVES: Anemia is an important prognostic factor in hemodialysis patients. It has been reported that parathyroidectomy ameliorates anemia and reduces the requirement of postoperative erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of cinacalcet, which is considered as a pharmacological parathyroidectomy, on anemia in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: We used data from a prospective cohort of Japanese hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism; the criteria were: intact parathyroid hormone concentrations ≥ 180 pg/mL or use of an intravenous or oral vitamin D receptor activator...
2016: PloS One
Rangaswamy, V Ranjith, L Vikas, R Santosh
Fahr's disease or Fahr's syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by abnormal symmetrical calcifications of the basal ganglia, thalami, sub-cortical hemispheric white matter and deep cerebellar nuclei. It can be idiopathic or associated with an endocrinopathy, frequently with parathyroid disorder. Clinical spectrum of the disease is wide ranging from neurological features like seizure, syncope, stroke like events, extra-pyramidal symptoms often combined with frontal sub-cortical pattern of behavioural dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms such as psychosis, mood disorder and dementia...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Yi-Bang Cheng, Li-Hua Li, Qian-Hui Guo, Chang-Sheng Sheng, Qi-Fang Huang, Fei-Ka Li, Dong-Yan Zhang, Ji-Guang Wang, Yan Li
OBJECTIVE: Disorders of mineral metabolism predicted incidence of cardiovascular events in various clinical settings, possibly because that arterial stiffness mediate this pathway in part. We investigated the interrelationship between mineral metabolism factors and carotid-femoral PWV, and compared the effect sizes of blood pressure (BP) and mineral factors with carotid-femoral PWV in untreated Chinese. DESIGN AND METHOD: Consecutive untreated outpatients referred for ambulatory BP monitoring were recruited...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Bipradas Roy, Mary E Curtis, Letimicia S Fears, Samuel N Nahashon, Hugh M Fentress
Obesity and osteoporosis are two alarming health disorders prominent among middle and old age populations, and the numbers of those affected by these two disorders are increasing. It is estimated that more than 600 million adults are obese and over 200 million people have osteoporosis worldwide. Interestingly, both of these abnormalities share some common features including a genetic predisposition, and a common origin: bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Obesity is characterized by the expression of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), growth hormone (GH), parathyroid hormone (PTH), angiotensin II (Ang II), 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT), Advance glycation end products (AGE), and myostatin, which exert their effects by modulating the signaling pathways within bone and muscle...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Catharine M Sturgeon, Stuart Sprague, Alison Almond, Etienne Cavalier, William D Fraser, Alicia Schimnich-Algeciras, Ravinder Singh, Jean-Claude Souberbielle, Hubert W Vesper
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement in serum or plasma is a necessary tool for the exploration of calcium/phosphorus disorders, and is widely used as a surrogate marker to assess skeletal and mineral disorders associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), referred to as CKD-bone mineral disorders (CKD-BMD). CKD currently affects >10% of the adult population in the United States and represents a major health issue worldwide. Disturbances in mineral metabolism and fractures in CKD patients are associated with increased morbidity and mortality...
October 13, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Alfredo Campennì, Salvatore Giovinazzo, Salvatore Antonio Pignata, Francesca Di Mauro, Domenico Santoro, Lorenzo Curtò, Francesco Trimarchi, Rosaria Maddalena Ruggeri, Sergio Baldari
Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy, which usually occurs as a sporadic disease, and less frequently in the setting of genetic syndromes. Despite the association of parathyroid and thyroid disorders being quite common, the coexistence of parathyroid carcinoma and thyroid disease is rare. We reviewed the pertinent literature. The terms "parathyroid carcinoma" and "thyroid disease, hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, thyroid nodule(s), Graves' disease, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules" were used both separately and in reciprocal conjunction to search MEDLINE for articles published from January 2007 to March 2016...
October 15, 2016: Endocrine
Inés Olaizola, Hena Caorsi, Laura Fajardo, Alejandro Ferreiro, Nieves Campistrus, Deyanira Dolinsky, Alicia Petraglia, Pablo Ambrosoni
Introduction: The mineral bone disorder, particularly secondary hyperparathyroidism, in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a systemic impact affecting not only bone metabolism. Therefore its correction is important to prevent cardiovascular, inflammatory and immune diseases. Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of intravenous paricalcitol administered over a 6 month period for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis, with close follow-up of treatment response...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Larissa Kruger Gomes, Melani Ribeiro Custódio, Fabiana Loss de Carvalho Contieri, Miguel C Riella, Marcelo Mazza do Nascimento
Introduction: The persistence of mineral metabolism disorders after renal transplant (RT) appears to possess a negative impact over graft and patient's survival. Objectives: To evaluate the parameters of mineral metabolism and the persistence of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in transplanted patients for a 12-month period after the procedure. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 41 transplants (18 women- 44%, mean age of 39 ± 15 years) performed in a University Hospital, evaluating changes of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the prevalence of persistent HPT...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Karolína Drbalová, Kateřina Herdová, Petr Krejčí, Monika Nývltová, Svatopluk Solař, Lenka Vedralová, Pavel Záruba, David Netuka, Petr Bavor
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) is a condition in which several endocrine organs of an individual are affected by adenoma, hyperplasia and less often carcinoma, either simultaneously or at different stages of life. Two existing syndromes, MEN1 and MEN2 (2A, 2B), in literature is also mentioned MEN4, are associated also with other non-endocrine disorders. MEN1 (Wermer syndrome) affects the pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic area. 95 % of patients show very early manifestation of hyperparathyroidism, often before 40 years of age...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Soo Yeon Jung, Ha Yeong Kim, Hae Sang Park, Xiang Yun Yin, Sung Min Chung, Han Su Kim
Ideal hypoparathyroidism animal models are a prerequisite to developing new treatment modalities for this disorder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a model whereby rats were parathyroidectomized (PTX) using a fluorescent-identification method and the ideal calcium content of the diet was determined. Thirty male rats were divided into surgical sham (SHAM, n = 5) and PTX plus 0, 0.5, and 2% calcium diet groups (PTX-FC (n = 5), PTX-NC (n = 10), and PTX-HC (n = 10), respectively). Serum parathyroid hormone levels decreased to non-detectable levels in all PTX groups...
2016: PloS One
Juliana Maria de Freitas Trindade Costa, Aline Ranzolin, Cláudio Antônio da Costa Neto, Claudia Diniz Lopes Marques, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto Duarte
: Fibromyalgia (FM) and hyperparathyroidism may present similar symptoms (musculoskeletal pain, cognitive disorders, insomnia, depression and anxiety), causing diagnostic confusion. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism in a sample of patients with FM and to evaluate the association of laboratory abnormalities to clinical symptoms. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 100 women with FM and 57 healthy women (comparison group)...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Gemma Marcucci, Giuseppe Della Pepa, Maria Luisa Brandi
INTRODUCTION: Hypoparathyroidism is a rare endocrine disorder characterized by hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphatemia, due to absent or inappropriately low parathyroid hormone levels. For management of chronic hypoparathyroidism, current treatment options involve oral calcium and vitamin D. This standard treatment cannot resolve all problematic aspects of the disease, such as abnormal bone remodeling and reduced quality of life, and is associated with long-term complications, including nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, renal impairment, cataracts and cerebral calcifications...
November 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Fareed B Kamar, Bikaramjit Mann, Gregory Kline
BACKGROUND: Tumoral calcinosis is a rare manifestation of extraskeletal calcification, featuring large calcified cystic masses in the periarticular regions of large joints. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), this disorder is thought to evolve through a chronically elevated calcium-phosphorus solubility product leading to calcium precipitation in soft tissue. Treating tumoral calcinosis in these patients involves interventions to lower the calcium-phosphorus product such as reduction in vitamin D therapy and intensive hemodialysis regimens...
September 29, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Giuseppe Cianciolo, Mario Cozzolino
During the last decade, a new view into the molecular mechanisms of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) has been proposed, with fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a novel player in the field. Enhanced serum FGF23 levels cause a reduction in serum phosphate, together with calcitriol suppression and consequent hyperparathyroidism (HPT). In contrast, reduced serum FGF23 levels are associated with hyperphosphatemia, higher calcitriol levels and parathyroid hormone (PTH) suppression. In addition, serum FGF23 levels are greatly increased and positively correlated with serum phosphate levels in CKD patients...
October 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
Marco Mele, Lars Rolighed, MarieLouise Jespersen, Lars Rejnmark, Peer Christiansen
INTRODUCTION: Cancer in the parathyroid gland is rare, but parathyroid cancer is occasionally seen in relation to genetic abnormalities. Due to a limited amount of evidence, the optimal handling of these cases is not clear. Furthermore, the presence of a malignant parathyroid tumor is rarely known at the time of the initial operation; therefore, re-operations are often necessary. The aim of this study was to present the case of a patient with a previously diagnosed jaw tumor and parathyroid carcinoma that presents as a recurrence of hyperparathyroid hypercalcemia...
April 2016: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jessica Y Liu, Neil D Saunders, Aaron Chen, Collin J Weber, Jyotirmay Sharma
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are often subtle and effects of parathyroidectomy (PTX) on symptoms remains poorly characterized. Our aim was to evaluate effects of PTX on NPS in patients with PHPT. A prospective questionnaire was distributed to all patients undergoing PTX and to a thyroidectomy (TX) control group. The questionnaire included the validated scales Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) to assess for depression and anxiety respectively, as well as questions modified from Pasieka's Parathyroid Assessment of Symptoms (M-PAS)...
September 2016: American Surgeon
Silvia Lai, Mauro Ciccariello, Mira Dimko, Alessandro Galani, Silvio Lucci, Rosario Cianci, Amalia Mariotti
: Bakground/Aims: Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cronich kidney disease (CKD). The pathogenesis includes a complex, bidirectional interaction between heart and kidney termed cardiorenal syndrome type 4. The aim of study was to evaluate the association between renal and cardiovascular ultrasonographic parameters and identify early markers of cardiovascular risk. METHODS: A total of 35 patients with CKD and 25 healthy controls, were enrolled and we have evaluated inflammatory indexes, mineral metabolism, renal function, renal and cardiovascular ultrasonographic parameters...
September 26, 2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Fadil M Hannan, Valerie N Babinsky, Rajesh V Thakker
The extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) o)-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a family C G protein-coupled receptor, which detects alterations in Ca(2+) o concentrations and modulates parathyroid hormone secretion and urinary calcium excretion. The central role of the CaSR in Ca(2+) o homeostasis has been highlighted by the identification of mutations affecting the CASR gene on chromosome 3q21.1. Loss-of-function CASR mutations cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH), whereas gain-of-function mutations lead to autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia (ADH)...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Chu Zhou, Fang Wang, Jin-Wei Wang, Lu-Xia Zhang, Ming-Hui Zhao
BACKGROUND: Mineral and bone disorder (MBD), especially hyperphosphatemia, is an independently risk factor for adverse prognosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, CKD-MBD among Chinese population was poorly studied. This study aimed to investigate the status of MBD and its association with cardiovascular parameters in Chinese patients with predialysis CKD. METHODS: Chinese Cohort Study of Chronic Kidney Disease (C-STRIDE) is a prospective multicenter cohort study involving predialysis CKD patients in China...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
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