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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806048/electrolytes-calcium-disorders
#1
Craig Barstow
A normal serum calcium level is 8 to 10 mg/dL. The diagnosis of hypercalcemia (ie, levels 10.5 mg/dL or greater) should be confirmed with an albumin-adjusted or ionized calcium level. The two most common causes of hypercalcemia are hyperparathyroidism and malignancy. Drugs, notably lithium and thiazide diuretics, also can cause hypercalcemia. Patients with severe or symptomatic hypercalcemia should be treated initially with hydration to decrease calcium levels. The evaluation should include a parathyroid hormone (PTH) level...
August 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768698/the-future-advances-in-therapeutic-approach-and-management-strategies-for-men1
#2
Rachel S van Leeuwaarde, Joanne M de Laat, Carolina R C Pieterman, Koen M A Dreijerink, Menno Vriens, Gerlof D Valk
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is a rare autosomal inherited disorder associated with a high risk for patients to simultaneously develop tumours of the parathyroid glands, duodeno-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and tumors of the anterior pituitary gland. Early identification of MEN1 in patients enables presymptomatic screening of manifestations which makes timely interventions possible with the intention to prevent morbidity and mortality. Causes of death nowadays have shifted towards local or metastatic progression of malignant neuro endocrine tumors...
August 2, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760231/biochemical-testing-relevant-to-bone
#3
REVIEW
Chee Kian Chew, Bart L Clarke
Laboratory biochemical testing is critical to the clinical understanding of bone disorders. Patients with skeletal diseases have underlying themes in their pathophysiology that would be impossible to detect without biochemical assessment of serum and urine minerals, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, and bone turnover markers. Bone disorders are caused by abnormalities in signaling pathways that affect bone formation and resorption. Therapies for common bone diseases were developed in direct response to underlying biochemical abnormalities...
September 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760150/bilateral-pheochromocytoma-with-ganglioneuroma-component-associated-with-multiple-neuroendocrine-neoplasia-type-2a-a-case-report
#4
Boubacar Efared, Gabrielle Atsame-Ebang, Soufiane Tahirou, Khalid Mazaz, Nawal Hammas, Hinde El Fatemi, Laila Chbani
BACKGROUND: Composite pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas are very rare tumors composed of ordinary pheochromocytoma paragangliomas associated with neurogenic tumors. Several hereditary susceptibility disorders are known to be associated with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (2A or B). To the best of our knowledge, only four cases of composite pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 have been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old Arabic woman presented with headache, palpitations, paroxysmal hypertension, and weight loss, which she had had for the last 3 years...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748891/study-of-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-bone-disorders-in-newly-detected-advanced-renal-failure-patients-a-hospital-based-cross-sectional-study
#5
Praveen Kumar Etta, R K Sharma, Amit Gupta
We aim to evaluate the disturbances in mineral metabolism, abnormalities in bone mineral density (BMD), and extraskeletal calcification in newly detected, untreated predialysis stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients at a tertiary care hospital in North India. This is cross-sectional observational study. A total of 95 (68 males, 27 females) newly detected patients underwent clinical evaluation, biochemical assessment [serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, creatinine, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)], BMD measurement (at spine, hip, and forearm) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), lateral abdominal radiograph [for abdominal aortic calcification (AAC)], skeletal survey (to look for any abnormality including fractures), and echocardiography [for any cardiac valvular calcification (CVC)]...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748877/vitamin-d-levels-and-other-biochemical-parameters-of-mineral-bone-disorders-and-their-association-with-diastolic-dysfunction-and-left-ventricular-mass-in-young-nondiabetic-adult-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Satyendra Kumar Sonkar, Mohit Bhutani, Gyanendra Kumar Sonkar, Sant Kumar Pandey, Sharad Chandra, Vivek Bhosale
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated cardiovascular mortality is more prevalent in those with diastolic heart failure and is an early predictor, while increased left ventricular mass (LVM) is a strong independent risk factor. Hypovitaminosis D is extensively being studied as a nontraditional risk factor for CVD. The aim of the present study is to look at the association of Vitamin D and other parameters of mineral bone disorder (MBD) with diastolic dysfunction and LVM in nondiabetic young adult patients with CKD...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740581/the-parathyroid-gland-and-heart-disease
#7
Spandana J Brown, Mary D Ruppe, Laila S Tabatabai
The parathyroid glands are critical to maintaining calcium homeostasis through actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Recent clinical and molecular research has shown that direct and indirect actions of PTH also affect the heart and vasculature through downstream actions of G protein-coupled receptors in the myocardium and endothelial cells. Patients with disorders of the parathyroid gland have higher incidences of hypertension, arrhythmias, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and calcific disease which translate into increased cardiac morbidity and mortality...
April 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740534/primary-hyperparathyroidism-associated-to-thrombocytopenia-an-issue-to-consider
#8
Steven De Keukeleire, Kristoff Muylle, Georgios Tsoumalis, Stefan Vermeulen, Dirk Vogelaers
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is probably the most common endocrine disorder of the parathyroid glands, causing hypercalcemia. It is diagnosed often in persons with elevated serum calcium levels. However, hematological manifestations, such as thrombocytopenia are less known. In this case we describe the possible association of PHPT with reversible thrombocytopenia after parathyroidectomy. This hematological abnormality can be included in the spectrum of possible causes, including seemingly non-specific symptoms, in the decision tree towards surgical assessment...
January 2017: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740527/molecular-genetics-in-primary-hyperparathyroidism-the-role-of-genetic-tests-in-differential-diagnosis-disease-prevention-strategy-and-therapeutic-planning-a-2017-update
#9
REVIEW
Francesca Marini, Luisella Cianferotti, Francesca Giusti, Maria Luisa Brandi
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is one of the most frequent endocrine disease in developed countries. It mainly occurs as sporadic cases (about 90-95% of cases), while only the remaining 5-10% is represented by familial inherited parathyroid disorders due to causative mutations in specific target genes. Clinical variability among the different familial parathyroid syndromes is generally linked to the specific mutated gene and it can predispose subjects to different manifestations of parathyroid pathology, various degrees of PHPT severity, persistence and/or after-surgery recurrences...
January 2017: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728874/profile-of-chronic-kidney-disease-related-mineral-bone-disorders-in-newly-diagnosed-advanced-predialysis-diabetic-kidney-disease-patients-a-hospital-based-cross-sectional-study
#10
S Ray, A M Beatrice, A Ghosh, S Pramanik, R Bhattacharjee, S Ghosh, A Raychaudhury, S Mukhopadhyay, S Chowdhury
AIM: Chronic kidney disease related-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) has been poorly studied in pre-dialysis Indian CKD population. There are limited data on the pattern of these disturbances in diabetic CKD patients. Therefore, a study was conducted to find out the profile of mineral bone disorders in T2DM patients with pre-dialysis CKD. METHODS: In this cross-sectional design, diabetic patients with newly-diagnosed stage 4 and 5 CKD were evaluated. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25 hydroxy vitamin D and total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in all patients...
July 8, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721611/bone-targeting-parathyroid-hormone-conjugates-outperform-unmodified-pth-in-the-anabolic-treatment-of-osteoporosis-in-rats
#11
Yang Yang, Ali Aghazadeh-Habashi, Arash Panahifar, Yuchin Wu, Krishna H Bhandari, Michael R Doschak
Synthetic parathyroid hormone (PTH) is clinically indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis, through its anabolic effects on parathyroid hormone receptors (PTHRs), located on osteoblast cells. However, the bioavailability of PTH for bone cells is restricted by the short half-life of PTH and the widespread distribution of PTHRs in non-skeletal tissues. To impart affinity for mineralized bone surfaces, bisphosphonate (BP)-mediated PTH analogues were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated in vitro and in vivo...
August 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721141/impact-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-free-and-bioavailable-fractions-of-vitamin-d-and-vitamin-d-binding-protein-levels-on-metabolic-syndrome-components
#12
Marta Pelczyńska, Teresa Grzelak, Marcelina Sperling, Paweł Bogdański, Danuta Pupek-Musialik, Krystyna Czyżewska
INTRODUCTION: Various forms of vitamin D and factors involved in their metabolism can play a role in the etiopathogenesis of metabolic disorders. This paper aims to define the relationship between concentration of the hydroxylated form of vitamin D (25(OH)D), the fraction of free and bioavailable vitamin D, and of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) levels on the one hand and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome components on the other. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The studies were conducted on 79 people, including 52 with metabolic syndrome (MetS+) and 27 without it (MetS-)...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711905/the-prevalence-subtypes-and-associated-factors-of-hyperuricemia-in-lupus-nephritis-patients-at-chronic-kidney-disease-stages-1-3
#13
Simeng Liu, Yijun Gong, Hong Ren, Wen Zhang, Xiaonong Chen, Tong Zhou, Xiao Li, Nan Chen
There is a high prevalence of hyperuricemia (HUA) in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. However, there's a dearth of research on HUA's prevalence, subtypes, early detection, and treatment strategies of HUA in lupus nephritis (LN) patients. The aim of this study is to address these knowledge gaps. LN patients presenting to the Department of Nephrology at Shanghai Rui Jin Hospital from January 2011 to January 2016 were recruited. The effective sample size was derived using the power analysis. The demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of the LN patients with HUA were compared with those of patients without HUA...
July 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704404/pa21-a-novel-phosphate-binder-improves-renal-osteodystrophy-in-rats-with-chronic-renal-failure
#14
Atsushi Yaguchi, Satoshi Tatemichi, Hiroo Takeda, Mamoru Kobayashi
The effects of PA21, a novel iron-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binder, on hyperphosphatemia and its accompanying bone abnormality in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) were evaluated. Rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (CRF) were prepared by feeding them an adenine-containing diet for four weeks. They were also freely fed a diet that contained PA21 (0.5, 1.5, and 5%), sevelamer hydrochloride (0.6 and 2%) or lanthanum carbonate hydrate (0.6 and 2%) for four weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699886/interleukin-1-inhibition-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder-and-physical-function%C3%A2
#15
Kristen L Nowak, Adriana Hung, Talat Alp Ikizler, Heather Farmer-Bailey, Natjalie Salas-Cruz, Sudipa Sarkar, Andrew Hoofnagle, Zhiying You, Michel Chonchol
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiologic studies have suggested a link between chronic systemic inflammation and chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Additionally, declining renal function is associated with worsening physical and cognitive function, which may potentially be explained by systemic inflammation, CKD-MBD, or both. We hypothesized that inhibiting inflammation with an interleukin-1 (IL-1) trap would improve markers of CKD-MBD as well as physical/cognitive function in patients with moderate-to-severe CKD...
July 12, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680641/concurrent-intrathyroidal-thymus-and-parathyroid-in-a-patient-with-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-challenging-diagnosis
#16
Georgios Velimezis, Argyrios Ioannidis, Sotirios Apostolakis, Maria Chorti, Charalampos Avramidis, Evripidis Papachristou
During embryogenesis, the thymus and inferior parathyroid glands develop from the third pharyngeal pouch and migrate to their definite position. During this process, several anatomic variations may arise, with the thyroid being one of the most common sites of ectopic implantation for both organs. Here, we report the case of a young female patient, who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The patient's history was remarkable for disorders of the genitourinary system. Histologic examination revealed the presence of well-differentiated intrathyroidal thymic tissue, containing an inferior parathyroid gland...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674323/newly-developed-rat-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-bone-disorder
#17
Kentaro Watanabe, Hideki Fujii, Shunsuke Goto, Kentaro Nakai, Keiji Kono, Shuhei Watanabe, Masami Shinohara, Shinichi Nishi
AIM: Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. Thus, elucidating its pathophysiological mechanisms is essential for improving the prognosis. We evaluated characteristics of CKD-MBD in a newly developed CKD rat model. METHODS: We used male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rats, which are used as models for nonobese type 2 diabetes...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650133/imaging-in-primary-hyperparathyroidism-focus-on-the-evidence-based-diagnostic-performance-of-different-methods
#18
Giorgio Treglia, Pierpaolo Trimboli, Martin Huellner, Luca Giovanella
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder usually due to hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands (HP). Surgical removal of HP is the main treatment in PHPT, particularly in symptomatic patients. The correct detection and localization of HP is challenging and crucial as it may guide surgical treatment in patients with PHPT. To date, different imaging methods have been used to detect and localize HP in patients with PHPT including radiology, nuclear medicine and hybrid techniques...
June 23, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648505/hypothyroidism-associated-with-parathyroid-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Giovanna Mantovani, Francesca Marta Elli, Sabrina Corbetta
Hypothyroidism may occur in association with congenital parathyroid disorders determining parathyroid hormone insufficiency, which is characterized by hypocalcemia and concomitant inappropriately low secretion of parathormone (PTH). The association is often due to loss of function of genes common to thyroid and parathyroid glands embryonic development. Hypothyroidism associated with hypoparathyroidism is generally mild and not associated with goiter; moreover, it is usually part of a multisystemic involvement not restricted to endocrine function as occurs in patients with 22q11 microdeletion/DiGeorge syndrome, the most frequent disorders...
March 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648114/pseudohypoparathyroidism-type-1b-a-rare-cause-of-tetany-case-report
#20
Catarina Garcia, Cátia R Correia, Lurdes Lopes
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare group of disorders characterised by end-organ resistance to the parathyroid hormone (PTH). A 16-year-old boy presented with a 2-year history of involuntary dystonic movements involving mainly the left hand, initially after writing and later during physical exercise. Serum calcium was 1.37 mmol/L (2.20-2.69), phosphate 2.1 mmol/L (0.8-1.45) and PTH 302 ng/L (12-88). CT scan of the head demonstrated multiple subcortical and diffuse basal ganglia calcifications. Genetic analysis confirmed a methylation defect in the GNAS cluster on chromosome 20q13...
June 26, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
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