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Bile salts

Dominique Lombardo, Françoise Silvy, Isabelle Crenon, Emmanuelle Martinez, Aurélie Collignon, Evelyne Beraud, Eric Mas
Pancreatic adenocarcinomas and diabetes mellitus are responsible for the deaths of around two million people each year worldwide. Patients with chronic pancreatitis do not die directly of this disease, except where the pathology is hereditary. Much current literature supports the involvement of bile salt-dependent lipase (BSDL), also known as carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), in the pathophysiology of these pancreatic diseases. The purpose of this review is to shed light on connections between chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, and pancreatic adenocarcinomas by gaining an insight into BSDL and its variants...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Fahime Mohammadi, Morteza Eshaghi, Shabnam Razavi, Davood Darban Sarokhalil, Malihe Talebi, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie
The purpose of the present study was to isolate Lactobacillus bacteria from mother's milk and to assess their probiotic potential. Sixty breast milk samples were collected from the volunteered mothers aged from 19-35 and from rural areas of Lorestan and Markazi Provinces, Iran. At first, 970 bacill-shaped bacterial colonies were isolated from these samples and stored in proper condition. Two hundred isolates were randomly selected and investigated for their ability to tolerate acidic condition and to tolerate bile salt as well...
March 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Abdelfattah Z M Salem, German Buendía-Rodríguez, Raymundo Rene Rivas-Cáceres
The desideratum aim of the present context was to isolate a promising antagonist probiotic bacterium from fermented food item as biocontrol agent against uropathogens. Among diversified isolates evaluated for antagonistic trait, Staphylococcus succinus strain AAS2 was found to be an auspicious candidate against urinary tract infection (UTI) causing bacterial pathogens, being the most active against Staphylococcus aureus with substantial activity of 352.5 ± 5.4 AU/mL. Further, the in vitro probiotic attributes of strain AAS2 was assessed using systematic methodology...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Md Asaduzzaman Shishir, Md Al Mamun, Md Mahmuduzzaman Mian, Umme Tamanna Ferdous, Noor Jahan Akter, Rajia Sultana Suravi, Suvamoy Datta, Md Ehsanul Kabir
The scarcity of hygienic drinking water is a normal phenomenon in the coastal areas of Bangladesh due to the high salinity of ground water. The inhabitants of this locality, therefore, live on alternative supplies of water including rain-fed pond water, and rainwater with persistent complex microbial interactions therein, often contaminated with life-threatening pathogens. Hence, this study was aimed at analyzing the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae ( Vc ) in the alternative drinking waters of Mathbaria, a coastal subdistrict neighboring the Bay of Bengal, the efficacy of pond sand filter (PSF) and the co-association among Bacillus -like spore formers (Sf) and Vc ...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Wei Zhang, Abbe Haser, Hao Helen Hou, Karthik Nagapudi
The accuracy of amorphous solubility advantage calculation was evaluated by experimental solubility measurement. Ten structurally diverse compounds were studied to test the generality of the theoretical calculation. Three reported methods of calculating Gibbs free energy difference between amorphous and crystalline solids were evaluated. Experimental solubility advantage was measured by direct dissolution of amorphous solid in buffer. When necessary, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) was pre-dissolved in buffer to inhibit desupersaturation...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Marine Blanchet, Jean Michel Brunel
Bile acids or bile salts, belong to a large family of biological steroid derivatives found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates. These amphipathic molecules possess numerous functions, including eliminating cholesterol from the body, driving the flow of bile to eliminate catabolites, emulsifying fat-soluble vitamins to enable their absorption, aiding in motility and in reducing the bacteria flora found in the small intestine and biliary tract. In this review, we investigate progress towards synthetic bile acid derivatives, with special emphasis on how they might be used for various biological applications and the challenges that remain in developing these compounds as potent drugs of the future especially in the field of microbiology (antimicrobial activities) and cancer (anticancer agents)...
March 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Wayne I Doyle, Julian P Meeks
Steroids play vital roles in animal physiology across species, and the production of specific steroids is associated with particular internal biological functions. The internal functions of steroids are, in most cases, quite clear. However, an important feature of many steroids -- their chemical stability -- allows these molecules to play secondary, external roles as chemical messengers after their excretion via urine, feces, or other shed substances. The presence of steroids in animal excretions has long been appreciated, but their capacity to serve as chemosignals has not received as much attention...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Runjun Dowarah, Ashok Kumar Verma, Neeta Agarwal, Putan Singh, Bhoj Raj Singh
The present study was aimed to develop an effective probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from piglet feces and in vitro characterization of probiotic properties. To confirm host-species specificity of probiotics, the efficacy of isolated LAB on growth, nutrient utilization, health and antioxidant status was observed in early weaned piglets. A total of 30 LAB were isolated from feces of five healthy piglets (28d old). All isolates were Gram positive, cocco-bacilli and catalase negative. Out of thirty LAB isolates, twenty were shortlisted on the basis of their tolerance to pH (3...
2018: PloS One
Jason W Arnold, Joshua B Simpson, Jeffrey Roach, Jakub Kwintkiewicz, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril
Large-scale microbiome studies have established that most of the diversity contained in the gastrointestinal tract is represented at the strain level; however, exhaustive genomic and physiological characterization of human isolates is still lacking. With increased use of probiotics as interventions for gastrointestinal disorders, genomic and functional characterization of novel microorganisms becomes essential. In this study, we explored the impact of strain-level genomic variability on bacterial physiology of two novel human Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains (AMC143 and AMC010) of probiotic potential in relation to stress resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kumar Raja Puppala, V Ravi Kumar, Jayant Khire, Mahesh Dharne
Increase of undigested complexes of phytic acid in food is gaining serious attention to overcome nutritional challenges due to chelation effects. We investigated soil-borne yeast phytase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NCIM 3662) for dephytinization of foods, probiotic properties, and process development. The strain produced 45 IU/DCG by cell-bound phytase in an unoptimized medium was increased fourfold (164 IU/DCG) in 12 h using statistical media optimization. The process was scaled-up up to 10-L fermenter scale with increased phytase productivity of 6...
March 5, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Kazuo Imagawa, Hisamitsu Hayashi, Yusuke Sabu, Ken Tanikawa, Jun Fujishiro, Daigo Kajikawa, Hiroki Wada, Toyoichiro Kudo, Masayoshi Kage, Hiroyuki Kusuhara, Ryo Sumazaki
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) plays an important role in biliary secretion. Mutations in ABCB11, the gene encoding BSEP, induce progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2), which presents with severe jaundice and liver dysfunction. A less severe phenotype, called benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 2, is also known. About 200 missense mutations in ABCB11 have been reported. However, the phenotype-genotype correlation has not been clarified. Furthermore, the frequencies of ABCB11 mutations differ between Asian and European populations...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Takao Togawa, Tatsuki Mizuochi, Tokio Sugiura, Hironori Kusano, Ken Tanikawa, Takato Sasaki, Fumio Ichinose, Seiichi Kagimoto, Takahisa Tainaka, Hiroo Uchida, Shinji Saitoh
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the clinical, pathologic, and genetic features of neonatal Dubin-Johnson syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: Ten patients with neonatal Dubin-Johnson syndrome were recruited from 6 pediatric centers in Japan between September 2013 and October 2016. Clinical and laboratory course, macroscopic and microscopic liver findings, and molecular genetic findings concerning ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 2 (ABCC2) were retrospectively and prospectively examined...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Chirom Aarti, Ameer Khusro, Rakesh Varghese, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Paul Agastian, Naïf Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Soundharrajan Ilavenil, Ki Choon Choi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the probiotic characteristics, anti-Candida activity, and antibiofilm attributes of Hentak derived Lactobacillus pentosus strain LAP1. DESIGN: The probiotic properties of strain LAP1 was depicted by adapting standard protocols. The anti-Candida and antibiofilm properties of isolate were determined using agar well diffusion assay and ELISA reader test, respectively. The time-kill assay was performed using viable colony count assay. Further, the co-aggregation property of strain LAP1 was determined based on standard methodology...
February 23, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Asako Narai-Kanayama, Kosuke Saruwatari, Natsumi Mori, Tsutomu Nakayama
Black tea is a highly popular beverage, and its pigments, polymerized catechins such as theaflavins (TFs), are attracting attention due to their beneficial health effects. In this study, to test the inhibitory activities of TFs on the intestinal absorption of cholesterol, we investigated their effects on phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles in the absence or presence of a bile salt. (-)-Epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, and TFs formed insoluble complexes with PC vesicles. Galloylated TFs such as TF2A, TF2B, and TF3 precipitated far more than other polyphenols...
March 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Joana Corte-Real, Torsten Bohn
Several divalent minerals, including the macroelements calcium and magnesium, are essential nutrients for humans. However, their intake, especially via high-dose supplements, has been suspected to reduce the availability of lipophilic dietary constituents, including lipids, liposoluble vitamins, and several phytochemicals such as carotenoids. These constituents require emulsification in order to be bioavailable, and high divalent mineral concentrations may perturb this process, due to precipitations of free fatty acids or bile salt complexation, both pivotal for mixed micelle formation...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Arghajit Pyne, Sangita Kundu, Pavel Banerjee, Nilmoni Sarkar
In this article, we have unveiled the aggregation behavior of a potent chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox) in a well known imidazolium based surface active ionic liquid (SAIL), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C8mimCl). The aggregates formed by Dox in C8mimCl have been characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), analytical transmission electron microscopy (analytical TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements...
February 23, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Thibault Allain, Soraya Chaouch, Myriam Thomas, Marie-Agnès Travers, Isabelle Valle, Philippe Langella, Philippe Grellier, Bruno Polack, Isabelle Florent, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán
Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite responsible for giardiasis, a disease characterized by intestinal malabsorption, diarrhea and abdominal pain in a large number of mammal species. Giardiasis is one of the most common intestinal parasitic diseases in the world and thus a high veterinary, and public health concern. It is well-established that some probiotic bacteria may confer protection against this parasite in vitro and in vivo and we recently documented the implication of bile-salt hydrolase (BSH)-like activities from strain La1 of Lactobacillus johnsonii as mediators of these effects in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jennifer Ryan, Ryan E Morgan, Yuan Chen, Laurie Volak, Robert T Dunn, Kenneth W Dunn
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) is expressed at the canalicular domain of hepatocytes, where it mediates the elimination of monovalent bile salts into the bile. Inhibition of BSEP is considered a susceptibility factor for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) that often goes undetected during non-clinical testing. Although in vitro assays exist for screening BSEP inhibition, a reliable and specific method for confirming Bsep inhibition in vivo would be a valuable follow-up to a BSEP screening strategy, helping to put a translatable context around in vitro inhibition data, incorporating processes such as metabolism, protein binding, and other exposure properties that are lacking in most in vitro BSEP models...
February 21, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
E B Hunt, A Sullivan, J Galvin, J MacSharry, D M Murphy
Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) has been associated with chronic airway diseases while the passage of foreign matter into airways and lungs through aspiration has the potential to initiate a wide spectrum of pulmonary disorders. The clinical syndrome resulting from such aspiration will depend both on the quantity and nature of the aspirate as well as the individual host response. Aspiration of gastric fluids may cause damage to airway epithelium, not only because acidity is toxic to bronchial epithelial cells but also due to the effect of digestive enzymes such as pepsin and bile salts...
2018: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
Thomas Saunders, Jian Wu, Robert C Williams, Haibo Huang, Monica A Ponder
Propylene oxide (PPO), a chemical fumigant, has been validated to reduce Salmonella on bulk almonds but has not been evaluated for other tree nuts. There is a need to identify nonpathogenic surrogate microorganisms whose inactivation is comparable to that of Salmonella to assure effective PPO processing parameters in different packaging configurations without introducing Salmonella into the pasteurization facility. The objective of this research was to compare the reduction of Salmonella and three potential surrogate bacterial strains, Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459, Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042, or Staphylococcus carnosus ATCC 51365, on cashews and macadamia nuts processed by using PPO...
March 2018: Journal of Food Protection
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