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Bile salts

Leiming Liu, Lingling Zhang, Lin Zhang, Fan Yang, Xudong Zhu, Zhongjie Lu, Yeming Yang, Haiqi Lu, Lifeng Feng, Zhuo Wang, Hui Chen, Sheng Yan, Lin Wang, Zhenyu Ju, Hongchuan Jin, Xianjun Zhu
Mutations in ATP8B1 or ATP11C (members of P4-type ATPases) cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1) in human or intrahepatic cholestasis in mice. Transmembrane protein 30A (TMEM30A), as a β-subunit, is essential for the function of P4-type ATPases including ATP8B1 and ATP11C, however, its role in the etiology of cholestasis remains poorly understood. To investigate the function of TMEM30A in bile salt homeostasis, we developed Tmem30a liver-specific knockout (LKO) mice. Tmem30a LKO mice suffered from hyperbilirubinaemia, hypercholanaemia, inflammatory infiltration, ductular proliferation and liver fibrosis...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
Michael DiMarzio, Brigida Rusconi, Neela H Yennawar, Mark Eppinger, Andrew D Patterson, Edward G Dudley
Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity against the bile acid tauro-beta-muricholic acid (T-β-MCA) was recently reported to mediate host bile acid, glucose, and lipid homeostasis via the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling pathway. An earlier study correlated decreased Lactobacillus abundance in the cecum with increased concentrations of intestinal T-β-MCA, an FXR antagonist. While several studies have characterized BSHs in lactobacilli, deconjugation of T-β-MCA remains poorly characterized among members of this genus, and therefore it was unclear what strain(s) were responsible for this activity...
2017: PloS One
Vivek Sharma, Kusum Harjai, Geeta Shukla
Microorganisms develop biofilms on indwelling medical devices and are associated with biofilm-related infections, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Therefore, to prevent and control biofilm-associated infections, the present study was designed to assess the anti-biofilm potential of postbiotics derived from probiotic organisms against most prevalent biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Eighty lactic acid bacteria isolated from eight neonatal fecal samples possessed antibacterial activity against P...
September 14, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Sayantan Chatterjee, Uday Maitra
A one step, in situ, room temperature synthesis of yellow luminescent CdSe QDs was achieved in a metallohydrogel derived from a facially amphiphilic bile salt, resulting in a QD-gel hybrid. An ordered self-assembly and homogeneous distribution of the CdSe QDs in the hydrogel network was observed from optical and electron micrographs. The different excited state behavior of the CdSe QDs in the hybrid was revealed for the first time using time resolved spectroscopy. We also describe the successful isolation of the photoluminescent CdSe QDs from the gel followed by their re-dispersion in an organic solvent using suitable capping ligands...
September 11, 2017: Nanoscale
Stephanie J Shiffka, Maureen A Kane, Peter W Swaan
Bile acids are the amphipathic primary end-products of cholesterol metabolism that aid in digestion as well as participate in signal transduction in several hepatic and enteric pathways. Despite the reputation of bile acids as signaling molecules implicated in disease states such as cancer and diabetes, there remain numerous bile acid species that are weakly characterized in either physiological or pathological conditions. This review presents one such group: the flat or planar bile acids, a set of bile acids found in humans during infancy and occurring again during certain diseases...
September 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Gergő Horváth, László Biczók, Zsuzsa Majer, Mihály Kovács, András Micsonai, József Kardos, Orsolya Toke
Human ileal bile acid-binding protein (I-BABP) has a key role in the intracellular transport and metabolic targeting of bile salts. Similarly to other members of the family of intracellular lipid binding proteins (iLBPs), disorder-order transitions and local unfolding processes are thought to mediate ligand entry and release in human I-BABP. To gain insight into the stability of various protein regions, the temperature response of human I-BABP was investigated using NMR, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations...
September 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
Mosab Arafat, Cathrin Kirchhoefer, Momir Mikov, Muhammad Sarfraz, Raimar Löbenberg
PURPOSE: Liposomes have been studied as a colloidal carrier in drug delivery systems, especially for oral administration. However, their low structural integrity in the gut is still a major shortcoming. Membrane disruptive effects of physiological bile salts in the small intestine result in premature drug release prior to intestinal absorption. Thus, we analyzed the stabilizing effect of sodium deoxycholate when incorporated into nano-sized liposomes. METHOD: Cefotaxime-loaded liposomes were prepared with different sodium deoxycholate concentrations (3...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006443.].
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Thippeswamy H Sannasiddappa, Peter A Lund, Simon R Clarke
Bile salts are potent antimicrobial agents and are an important component of innate defenses in the intestine, giving protection against invasive organisms. They play an important role in determining microbial ecology of the intestine and alterations in their levels can lead to increased colonization by pathogens. We have previously demonstrated survival of the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus in the human colonic model. Thus investigating the interaction between S. aureus and bile salts is an important factor in understanding its ability to colonize in the host intestine...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yuzo Kevorkian, Aimee Shen
Clostridium difficile causes considerable healthcare-associated gastrointestinal disease that is transmitted by its metabolically dormant spore form. Upon entering the gut, C. difficile spores germinate and outgrow to produce vegetative cells that release disease-causing toxins. C. difficile spore germination depends on the Csp family of (pseudo)proteases and the cortex hydrolase, SleC. The CspC pseudoprotease functions as a bile salt germinant receptor that activates the protease CspB, which in turn proteolytically activates SleC zymogen...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
Joana Corte-Real, Charles Desmarchelier, Patrick Borel, Elke Richling, Lucien Hoffmann, Torsten Bohn
Magnesium may reduce carotenoid bioavailability by forming insoluble complexes with bile salts/fatty acids, inhibiting micelle formation. Here, we investigated whether altering bile/pancreatin concentration influenced potential negative effects of magnesium on carotenoid bioaccessibility. Spinach (4g) was digested in vitro with added magnesium (0, 200, 400mg/L) and canola oil/coffee creamer, at varying bile extract (1 or 8mM) and pancreatin (100 or 990mg/L) concentrations. Bioaccessibility was determined for β-carotene, lutein, and total carotenoids via HPLC...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Md Saifur Rahman, Yun Hee Choi, Yoon Seok Choi, Md Badrul Alam, Sang Han Lee, Jin Cheol Yoo
A novel antioxidant peptide YD1 (∼1.0kDa), purified from the strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CBSYD1, displayed activity in several in vitro assays and was also efficient against Gram-positive, Gram-negative as well as multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Strain growth was adapted to bile-salt conditions where a clear halos-zone was observed in a bile-salt plate assay and was viable in different digestive track conditions. YD1 treatment on RAW 264.7 cells increased the transcriptional and translational activities of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) through the enhanced levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Rongli Zhang, Jonathan W Ray, Mukesh K Jain, Shuxin Han
Intestinal resection is a common therapeutic approach for human diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and colon cancer that often results in severe short bowel syndrome-like adverse effects including bile acid diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, and nutrient malabsorption. Here we introduce a murine ileal resection model, termed ileectomy, to evaluate tissue communication and the maintenance of systemic homeostasis. After ileal resection, circulating blood is permanently devoid of the ileum-specific endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), which releases its endocrinal inhibition of bile acid synthesis in the liver...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mihalj Poša, Kosta Popović
It is known that β-muricholic acid anions prevent membrane toxicity of hydrophobic bile acids, which are being used in therapy for solubilization of the cholesterol type bile stone. Better knowledge of these derivative micelles is very important for understanding their physiological and pharmacological effects. β-Axial (a) oriented hydroxyl group from the steroid skeleton decreases the hydrophobic surface of the convex side of the steroid skeleton. Therefore, the critical micellization concentration (CMC) for steroid surfactants with β-a-OH group should increase, but in the case of OH groups of different orientations forming H-bonds in the hydrophobic phase of the micelle, it has the opposite effect; the CMC decreses, and aggregation is more favored...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Min-Koo Choi, Jihoon Lee, So Jeong Nam, Yun Ju Kang, Youjin Han, Kwangik Choi, Young A Choi, Mihwa Kwon, Dongjoo Lee, Im-Sook Song
We aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics and the underlying mechanisms of the intestinal absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of Jaspine B in rats. The oral bioavailability of Jaspine B was 6.2%, but it decreased to 1.6% in bile-depleted rats and increased to 41.2% (normal) and 23.5% (bile-depleted) with taurocholate supplementation (60 mg/kg). Consistent with the increased absorption in the presence of bile salts, rat intestinal permeability of Jaspine B also increased in the presence of 10 mM taurocholate or 20% bile...
September 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
Jason K Streit, Jeffrey A Fagan, Ming Zheng
DNA-wrapped carbon nanotubes are a class of bionano hybrid molecules that have enabled carbon nanotube sorting, controlled assembly, and biosensing and bioimaging applications. The current method of synthesizing these hybrids via direct sonication of DNA/nanotube mixtures is time-consuming and not suitable for high-throughput synthesis and combinatorial sequence screening. Additionally, the direct sonication method does not make use of nanotubes presorted by extensively developed surfactant-based methods, is not effective for large diameter (>1 nm) tubes, and cannot maintain secondary and tertiary structural and functional domains present in certain DNA sequences...
September 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Kristin Schubert, Steven W M Olde Damink, Martin von Bergen, Frank G Schaap
Bile salts are the water-soluble end products of hepatic cholesterol catabolism that are released into the duodenum and solubilize lipids due to their amphipathic structure. Bile salts also act as endogenous ligands for dedicated nuclear receptors that exert a plethora of biological processes, mostly related to metabolism. Bile salts are actively reclaimed in the distal part of the small intestine, released into the portal system, and subsequently extracted by the liver. This enterohepatic cycle is critically dependent on dedicated bile salt transporters...
September 2017: Immunological Reviews
Nabeel M Alikunhi, Zenon B Batang, Haitham A AlJahdali, Mohammed A M Aziz, Abdulaziz M Al-Suwailem
Fish contamination has been extensively investigated along the Saudi coasts, but studies pertaining to bacterial pathogens are scarce. We conducted qualitative assessment and molecular identification of culture-dependent bacteria in 13 fish species from three coastal sites and a local fish market in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Bacterial counts of gills, skin, gut and muscle were examined on agar plates of Macconkey's (Mac), Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) and Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salts (TCBS) culture media. Bacterial counts significantly differed between species, sources and feeding habits of examined fishes...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Qi Zhao, Rui Yang, Jing Wang, Dan-Dan Hu, Fei Li
Intrahepatic cholestasis induced by drug toxicity, bile salt export pump (BSEP) deficiency, or pregnancy frequently causes cholestatic liver damage, which ultimately may lead to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Here, the preventive and therapeutic effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) signaling activated by fenofibrate was evaluated on cholestatic liver damage. Metabolomic analysis revealed that alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced intrahepatic cholestasis resulted in the accumulation of serum long-chain acylcarnitines and triglyceride, and the reduced expression of four fatty acid β-oxidation (β-FAO) relevant genes (Cpt1b, Cpt2, Mcad and Hadha), indicating the disruption of β-FAO...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vikas Bhardwaj, Ravindran Caspa Gokulan, Andela Horvat, Liudmila Yermalitskaya, Olga Korolkova, Kay M Washington, Wael El-Rifai, Sergey I Dikalov, Alexander I Zaika
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the strongest known risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. In the center of tumorigenic events caused by GERD is repeated damage of esophageal tissues by the refluxate. In this study, we focused on a genotoxic aspect of exposure of esophageal cells to acidic bile reflux (BA/A). Analyzing cells generated from patients with Barrett's esophagus and human esophageal specimens, we found that BA/A cause significant DNA damage that is mediated by reactive-oxygen species...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
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