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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542593/lack-of-the-pga-exopolysaccharide-in-salmonella-as-an-adaptive-trait-for-survival-in-the-host
#1
Maite Echeverz, Begoña García, Amaia Sabalza, Jaione Valle, Toni Gabaldón, Cristina Solano, Iñigo Lasa
Many bacteria build biofilm matrices using a conserved exopolysaccharide named PGA or PNAG (poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine). Interestingly, while E. coli and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae encode the pgaABCD operon responsible for PGA synthesis, Salmonella lacks it. The evolutionary force driving this difference remains to be determined. Here, we report that Salmonella lost the pgaABCD operon after the divergence of Salmonella and Citrobacter clades, and previous to the diversification of the currently sequenced Salmonella strains...
May 24, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536672/response-to-bile-salts-in-clinical-strains-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-lacking-the-adeabc-efflux-pump-virulence-associated-with-quorum-sensing
#2
Maria López, Lucia Blasco, Eva Gato, Astrid Perez, Laura Fernández-Garcia, Luis Martínez-Martinez, Felipe Fernández-Cuenca, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Alvaro Pascual, German Bou, Maria Tomás
Introduction:Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen associated with multiple infections. This pathogen usually colonizes (first stage of microbial infection) host tissues that are in contact with the external environment. As one of the sites of entry in human hosts is the gastrointestinal tract, the pathogen must be capable of tolerating bile salts. However, studies analyzing the molecular characteristics involved in the response to bile salts in clinical strains of A. baumannii are scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527154/structure-based-classification-for-bile-salt-export-pump-bsep-inhibitors-using-comparative-structural-modeling-of-human-bsep
#3
Sankalp Jain, Melanie Grandits, Lars Richter, Gerhard F Ecker
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) actively transports conjugated monovalent bile acids from the hepatocytes into the bile. This facilitates the formation of micelles and promotes digestion and absorption of dietary fat. Inhibition of BSEP leads to decreased bile flow and accumulation of cytotoxic bile salts in the liver. A number of compounds have been identified to interact with BSEP, which results in drug-induced cholestasis or liver injury. Therefore, in silico approaches for flagging compounds as potential BSEP inhibitors would be of high value in the early stage of the drug discovery pipeline...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525966/gene-expression-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-growing-in-laboratory-isolation-conditions-compared-to-those-common-in-its-natural-ocean-environment
#4
Katherine García, Cristian Yáñez, Nicolás Plaza, Francisca Peña, Pedro Sepúlveda, Diliana Pérez-Reytor, Romilio T Espejo
BACKGROUND: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an autochthonous marine bacterial species comprising strains able to grow in broth containing bile salts at 37 °C, a condition seldom found in the ocean. However, this condition is used for isolation in the laboratory because it is considered a necessary property for pathogenesis. In this context, revealing how gene expression enables V. parahaemolyticus to adapt to this particular condition -common to almost all V. parahaemolyticus isolates- will improve our understanding of the biology of this important pathogen...
May 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524363/donor-transmitted-mutation-of-the-abcb11-gene-and-ensuing-intra-hepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy-in-a-liver-transplant-recipient
#5
Tiong Yeng Lim, Iona Coltart, Pierre Foskett, Richard Thompson, Sandra Strautnieks, Leonie Penna, Catherine Williamson, Rosa Miquel, Michael A Heneghan
In liver transplant (LT) recipients, the cause of graft dysfunction in pregnancy is often difficult to ascertain. Moreover, a liver biopsy in late pregnancy is often avoided as a consequence of patient and physician factors. Management of graft dysfunction can be difficult in this setting. We report a 30-year-old female LT recipient who developed acutely deranged liver biochemistry during the third trimester of her first pregnancy. At 29 weeks gestation, her liver function test (LFT) became abnormal; AST peaked at 978 IU/L (normal range 10-50), GGT 25 IU/L (normal range 1-55), bilirubin 1...
May 19, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516414/optimized-mucoadhesive-coated-niosomes-as-a-sustained-oral-delivery-system-of-famotidine
#6
Al-Zahraa M Khalifa, Bazigha K Abdul Rasool
The objective of this study is to develop an oral formulation of famotidine niosomes coated with a mucoadhesive polymer, chitosan. Famotidine (FMT) has low oral bioavailability of 40-45% and short half-life between 2.5 to 4 h. Famotidine is classified as class IV in BCS because of its low aqueous solubility (0.1% w/v) and low permeability. Thus, FMT was loaded to the bioadhesive coated niosomes to improve its solubility, enhance its oral bioavailability, and sustain FMT release pattern. Different formulations were prepared by thin-film hydration method and characterized in terms of entrapment efficiency, morphological features, vesicle size, and zeta potential...
May 17, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505368/farnesoid-x-receptor-protects-against-low-dose-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury-through-the-taurocholate-jnk-pathway
#7
Shogo Takahashi, Naoki Tanaka, Srujana Golla, Tatsuki Fukami, Kristopher W Krausz, Marianne A Polunas, Blair C Weig, Yusuke Masuo, Cen Xie, Changtao Jiang, Frank J Gonzalez
Hepatotoxicity is of major concern for humans exposed to industrial chemicals and drugs. Disruption of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a master regulator of bile acid (BA) metabolism, enhanced the sensitivity to liver injury in mice after toxicant exposure, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the interconnection between BA metabolism, FXR, and chemically-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated using metabolomics, Fxr-null mice and hepatocytes, and adenovirus. A single low-dose intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), an inducer of acute hepatitis in mice, resulted in more severe hepatocyte damage and higher induction of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), in Fxr-null mice...
May 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502496/minimal-food-effect-for-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-bioavailability-from-omega-3-acid-ethyl-esters-with-an-advanced-lipid-technologies-tm-alt-%C3%A2-based-formulation
#8
Miguel A Lopez-Toledano, Thorsteinn Thorsteinsson, Ahmed A Daak, Kevin C Maki, Colleen Johns, Adrian L Rabinowicz, Frederick D Sancilio
BACKGROUND: The absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) omega-3-acid ethyl esters (EEs) is influenced by food. There is a need for a formulation of EE that is less impacted by food effect. SC401 is a novel Advanced Lipid Technologies-based formulation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE. In the presence of an aqueous medium, Advanced Lipid Technologies forms stable micelles in situ independent of bile salt secretion. This effect is hypothesized to improve EPA-EE and DHA-EE bioavailability while it helps mitigate the food effect associated with their consumption...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493059/characterization-of-oatp1b3-and-oatp2b1-transporter-expression-in-the-islet-of-the-adult-human-pancreas
#9
Michelle Kim, Perri Deacon, Rommel G Tirona, Richard B Kim, Christopher L Pin, Henriette E Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Rennian Wang, Ute I Schwarz
Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are membrane proteins that mediate cellular uptake of structurally diverse endogenous and exogenous compounds, including bile salts, thyroid and sex hormones, pharmacological agents, and toxins. Roles of OATPs in human liver are well established. Our recent report suggested the presence of the hepatic transporter OATP1B3 in human β cells. The aim of this study was to better characterize cellular localization and interindividual variation in OATP1B3 expression in human adult islets as a function of age, sex, and pancreatic disease, and to assess the expression of other OATPs...
May 10, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486596/troglitazone-inhibits-bile-acid-amidation-a-possible-risk-factor-for-liver-injury
#10
Eiichiro Ogimura, Tetsuya Nakagawa, Jiro Deguchi, Shuichi Sekine, Kousei Ito, Kiyoko Bando
Troglitazone and pioglitazone were developed as thiazolidinedione-type anti-diabetes drugs, but only troglitazone was withdrawn from the markets due to severe liver injury. As both troglitazone and its sulfate metabolite are strong inhibitors of the bile salt export pump (BSEP), troglitazone-induced bile acid (BA) retention is thought to be one of the underlying mechanisms of liver injury. However, pioglitazone is also a strong BSEP inhibitor, indicating other mechanisms may also be involved in troglitazone-induced BA retention...
May 9, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484445/bile-sensing-the-activation-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-virulence
#11
Vengadesh Letchumanan, Kok-Gan Chan, Tahir M Khan, Sarah I Bukhari, Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib, Bey-Hing Goh, Learn-Han Lee
Bacteria must develop resistance to various inhospitable conditions in order to survive in the human gastrointestinal tract. Bile, which is secreted by the liver, and plays an important role in food digestion also has antimicrobial properties and is able to disrupt cellular homeostasis. Paradoxically, although bile is one of the guts defenses, many studies have reported that bacteria such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus can sense bile and use its presence as an environmental cue to upregulate virulence genes during infection...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480570/in-vitro-antifungal-probiotic-and-antioxidant-functional-properties-of-a-novel-lactobacillus-paraplantarum-isolated-from-fermented-dates-in-saudi-arabia
#12
Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi
BACKGROUND: Fermented foods produced using dates are used in Gulf countries as beneficial and healthful foods. The beneficial microbial flora in fermented dates contributes to maintaining the nutritional properties of dates by preventing the growth of spoilage fungi. Here, we examined the antifungal, probiotic, and antioxidant properties of the novel Lactobacillus strain D-3 isolated from fermented dates. RESULTS: Analyzing the morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of this strain demonstrated that it was similar to Lactobacillus species, and molecular level amplification of the 16S rRNA gene showed that it belonged to Lactobacillus paraplantarum...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476648/the-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-benzo-a-pyrene-and-phenanthrene-inhibit-intestinal-lipase-activity-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#13
Stefan de Gelder, Øystein Sæle, Bas T H de Veen, Joëlle Vos, Gert Flik, Marc H G Berntssen, Peter H M Klaren
Elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are detected in aquafeeds where fish oils are (partially) replaced by vegetable oils. The highly lipophilic PAHs solubilize readily in oil droplets and micelles in the intestinal lumen that can affect enzymatic lipid digestion by altering lipase activity. We therefore investigated the effect of two PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE), on bile salt-activated lipase (BAL) activity in desalted luminal extracts of the proximal intestine of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using the triacylglycerides rapeseed oil and fish oil as substrates...
May 3, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476598/the-smooth-hound-lipolytic-system-biochemical-characterization-of-a-purified-digestive-lipase-lipid-profile-and-in-vitro-oil-digestibility
#14
Neila Achouri, Nabil Smichi, Youssef Gargouri, Nabil Miled, Ahmed Fendri
In order to identify fish enzymes displaying novel biochemical properties, we choose the common smooth-hound (Mustelus mustelus) as a starting biological material to characterize the digestive lipid hydrolyzing enzyme. A smooth-hound digestive lipase (SmDL) was purified from a delipidated pancreatic powder. The SmDL molecular weight was around 50kDa. Specific activities of 2200 and 500U/mg were measured at pH 9 and 40°C using tributyrin and olive oil emulsion as substrates, respectively. Unlike known mammal pancreatic lipases, the SmDL was stable at 50°C and it retained 90% of its initial activity after 15min of incubation at 60°C...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475629/purification-and-characterization-of-recombinant-human-bile-salt-stimulated-lipase-expressed-in-milk-of-transgenic-cloned-cows
#15
Yuhang Wang, Fangrong Ding, Tao Wang, Wenjie Liu, Susanne Lindquist, Olle Hernell, Jianwu Wang, Jing Li, Ling Li, Yaofeng Zhao, Yunping Dai, Ning Li
Bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) is a lipolytic digestive enzyme with broad substrate specificity secreted from exocrine pancreas into the intestinal lumen in all species and from the lactating mammary gland into the milk of some species, notably humans but not cows. BSSL in breast milk facilitates digestion and absorption of milk fat and promotes growth of small for gestational age preterm infants. Thus, purified recombinant human BSSL (rhBSSL) can be used for treatment of patients with fat malabsorption and expressing rhBSSL in the milk of transgenic cloned cows would therefore be a mean to meet a medical need...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471355/structure-of-nadp-bound-7%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-reveals-two-cofactor-binding-modes
#16
Rui Wang, Jiaquan Wu, David Kin Jin, Yali Chen, Zhijia Lv, Qian Chen, Qiwei Miao, Xiaoyu Huo, Feng Wang
In mammals, bile acids/salts and their glycine and taurine conjugates are effectively recycled through enterohepatic circulation. 7β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (7β-HSDHs; EC 1.1.1.201), including that from the intestinal microbe Collinsella aerofaciens, catalyse the NADPH-dependent reversible oxidation of secondary bile-acid products to avoid potential toxicity. Here, the first structure of NADP(+) bound to dimeric 7β-HSDH is presented. In one active site, NADP(+) adopts a conventional binding mode similar to that displayed in related enzyme structures...
May 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469711/capsular-polysaccharide-inhibits-adhesion-of-bifidobacterium-longum-105-a-to-enterocyte-like-caco-2-cells-and-phagocytosis-by-macrophages
#17
Amin Tahoun, Hisayoshi Masutani, Hanem El-Sharkawy, Trudi Gillespie, Ryo P Honda, Kazuo Kuwata, Mizuho Inagaki, Tomio Yabe, Izumi Nomura, Tohru Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Bifidobacterium longum 105-A produces markedly high amounts of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) that should play distinct roles in bacterial-host interactions. To identify the biological function of B. longum 105-A CPS/EPS, we carried out an informatics survey of the genome and identified the EPS-encoding genetic locus of B. longum 105-A that is responsible for the production of CPS/EPS. The role of CPS/EPS in the adaptation to gut tract environment and bacteria-gut cell interactions was investigated using the ΔcpsD mutant...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464377/bile-salts-and-alkaline-ph-reciprocally-modulate-the-interaction-between-the-periplasmic-domains-of-vibrio-cholerae-toxr-and-toxs
#18
Charles R Midgett, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Maria Pellegrini, Ronald K Taylor, Karen Skorupski, F Jon Kull
ToxR is a transmembrane transcription factor that is essential for virulence gene expression and human colonization by Vibrio cholerae. ToxR requires its operon partner ToxS, a periplasmic integral membrane protein, for full activity. These two proteins are thought to interact through their respective periplasmic domains, ToxRp and ToxSp. In addition, ToxR is thought to be responsive to various environmental cues, such as bile salts and alkaline pH, but how these factors influence ToxR is not yet understood...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460931/bioaccessibility-and-antioxidant-activity-of-curcumin-after-encapsulated-by-nano-and-pickering-emulsion-based-on-chitosan-tripolyphosphate-nanoparticles
#19
Bakht Ramin Shah, Chunlan Zhang, Yan Li, Bin Li
In the current study the influence of different lipid-based formulations (Pickering and nanoemulsions) and their droplet size on curcumin encapsulation and bioaccessibility, as well as on its anti-oxidant activity was investigated. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabilized by chitosan-tripolyphosphate (CS-TPP) nanoparticles and nanoemulsions containing an organic phase (Span80:Tween80), were prepared with either medium chain triglyceride (MCT) or corn oil as long chain triglyceride (LCT). An in vitro gastrointestinal (GIT) model consisting of mouth, gastric and intestinal phases was used to characterize the rate and extent of lipid phase digestion of the ingested samples...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460165/development-of-a-rapidly-dissolvable-oral-pediatric-formulation-for-mefloquine-using-liposomes
#20
Wei-Lun Tang, Wei-Hsin Sophia Tang, Weihsu Claire Chen, Charles Diako, Carolyn F Ross, Shyh-Dar Li
Mefloquine (Mef), a poorly soluble and highly bitter drug, has been used for malaria prophylaxis and treatment. The dosage form for Mef is mostly available as adult tablets, and thus children under the age of 5 suffer from poor medication adherence. We have developed a stable, rapidly dissolvable, and palatable pediatric formulation for Mef using liposomes composed of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and cholesterol with a mean diameter of ~110 nm. Mef was actively loaded into the liposomes via an ammonium sulfate gradient using the solvent-assisted loading technology (SALT) developed in our lab...
May 1, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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