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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341748/drug-induced-liver-injury-recent-advances-in-diagnosis-and-risk-assessment
#1
REVIEW
Gerd A Kullak-Ublick, Raul J Andrade, Michael Merz, Peter End, Andreas Benesic, Alexander L Gerbes, Guruprasad P Aithal
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is a rare but potentially severe adverse drug reaction that should be considered in patients who develop laboratory criteria for liver injury secondary to the administration of a potentially hepatotoxic drug. Although currently used liver parameters are sensitive in detecting DILI, they are neither specific nor able to predict the patient's subsequent clinical course. Genetic risk assessment is useful mainly due to its high negative predictive value, with several human leucocyte antigen alleles being associated with DILI...
March 23, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331225/cholesterol-attenuates-cytoprotective-effects-of-phosphatidylcholine-against-bile-salts
#2
Yoshito Ikeda, Shin-Ya Morita, Tomohiro Terada
Bile salts have potent detergent properties and damaging effects on cell membranes, leading to liver injury. However, the molecular mechanisms for the protection of hepatocytes against bile salts are not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of nine human major bile salts to HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes was prevented by phosphatidylcholine (PC). In contrast, cholesterol had no direct cytotoxic effects but suppressed the cytoprotective effects of PC. PC reduced the cell-association of bile salt, which was reversed by cholesterol...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331163/in-vitro-evaluation-of-candidate-bacillus-spp-for-animal-feed
#3
Sirima Mingmongkolchai, Watanalai Panbangred
The aim of this study was to select aerobic spore-formers for animal feed based on their in vitro probiotic potential, including their enzyme-producing ability and safety assessment. Seven isolates out of 187 spore-forming bacteria were selected for their ability to produce cellulase (89.21-1668.32 U/ml), xylanase (1399.68-4351.10 U/ml), and phytase (2.72-28.70 U/ml). Among seven isolates, five had activities towards a broad range of p-nitrophenyl esters with acyl chain lengths from C2 to C12. The probiotic properties of all selected isolates varied with respect to their acid and bile salt tolerance under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions, and their adherence ability to human intestinal cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324838/influence-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-on-the-effects-of-roxithromycin-in-crucian-carp-carassius-auratus-in-the-presence-of-natural-organic-matter
#4
Zhenhua Yan, Guanghua Lu, Hongwei Sun, Binni Ma
Carbon nanotubes are increasingly entering the aquatic environment and may interact with other co-existing contaminants, such as antibiotics. However, whether these interactions may affect their bioavailability in aquatic organisms is the subject of considerable debate. The primary objective of this study was to assess the risks arising from the coexistence of roxithromycin (ROX) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in waters containing natural organic matter (NOM), focusing on the distribution and bioaccumulation of ROX in crucian carp (Carassius auratus), and the related biochemical status...
March 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316889/functional-and-health-promoting-inherent-attributes-of-enterococcus-hirae-f2-as-a-novel-probiotic-isolated-from-the-digestive-tract-of-the-freshwater-fish-catla-catla
#5
Mohd Adnan, Mitesh Patel, Sibte Hadi
BACKGROUND: Probiotic microorganisms are gaining global importance because of their use in the preparation of a nutraceutical or in the treatment of infections. As per the health industry demand, there is an urgent need for exploring new indigenous probiotic strains with its specific origin due to variation in gut microflora, different food habits and specific host-microbial interactions. The main objective of the present study was to isolate and identify a novel probiotic Enterococcus strain from the gut of Catla catla fish and evaluate its potentiality as a potent probiotic...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316592/influence-of-stress-factors-related-to-cheese-making-process-and-to-stec-detection-procedure-on-the-induction-of-stx-phages-from-stec-o26-h11
#6
Ludivine Bonanno, Benjamin Delubac, Valérie Michel, Frédéric Auvray
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for human infections, ranging from mild watery diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis (CH) that may be complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The main STEC virulence factor is Shiga toxin encoded by the stx gene, located in the genome of a bacteriophage integrated into the bacterial chromosome. The serotype O26:H11 is the second HUS-causing serotype worldwide (after O157:H7), and the first found in dairy products such as raw-milk cheeses. A small number of HUS cases identified each year in France are caused by serotype O26:H11...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315384/the-absorption-enhancer-sodium-deoxycholate-promotes-high-gene-transfer-in-skeletal-muscles
#7
Christian Leborgne, Debborah Alimi-Guez, Nelly El Shafey, Laetitia van Wittenberghe, Pascal Bigey, Daniel Scherman, Antoine Kichler
Gene delivery to skeletal muscle is a promising strategy for the treatment of muscle disorders and for the systemic secretion of therapeutic proteins. In addition, muscle is an attractive target tissue because it is easily accessible. However, very few synthetic vectors proved capable of surpassing naked DNA mediated muscle gene transfer. In fact, only neutral copolymers, in particular poloxamers, demonstrated capacities to increase transgene expression in skeletal muscles. Here, we studied in vitro and in vivo behaviour of different bile salts...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303230/a-novel-class-of-apical-sodium-dependent-bile-salt-transporter-inhibitors-1-2-4-bifluorophenyl-7-dialkylamino-1-8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamides
#8
Hongtao Liu, Guoxun Pang, Jinfeng Ren, Yue Zhao, Juxian Wang
The apical sodium--dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) is the main transporter to promote re-absorption of bile acids from the intestinal tract into the enterohepatic circulation. Inhibition of ASBT could increase the excretion of bile acids, thus increasing bile acid synthesis and consequently cholesterol consumption. Therefore, ASBT is an attractive target for developing new cholesterol-lowering drugs. In this report, a series of 1-(2,4-bifluorophenyl)-7-dialkylamino-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamides were designed as inhibitors of ASBT...
March 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302211/-sodium-taurocholate-cotransporting-polypeptide-deficiency-manifesting-as-cholestatic-jaundice-in-early-infancy-a-complicated-case-study
#9
Yuan-Zong Song, Mei Deng
Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) deficiency is caused by SLC10A1 mutations impairing the NTCP function to uptake plasma bile salts into the hepatocyte. Thus far, patients with NTCP deficiency were rarely reported. The patient in this paper was a 5-month-19-day male infant with the complaint of jaundiced skin and sclera for 5.5 months as well as abnormal liver function revealed over 4 months. His jaundice was noticed on the second day after birth, and remained visible till his age of 1 month and 13 days, when a liver function test unveiled markedly elevated total, direct and indirect bilirubin as well as total bile acids (TBA)...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293865/the-inhibition-effect-of-lactobacilli-against-growth-and-biofilm-formation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#10
Dariush Shokri, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani, Milad Mohkam, Seyed Masih Fatemi, Younes Ghasemi, Asghar Taheri-Kafrani
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant and food-spoilage microorganisms has renewed efforts to identify safe and natural alternative agents of antibiotics such as probiotics. The aim of this study was the isolation of lactobacilli as potential probiotics from local dairy products with broad antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities against antibiotic-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and determination of their inhibition mechanism. Antibiotic susceptibility and classification of acquired resistance profiles of 80 P...
March 14, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292932/crystal-structure-of-the-human-alkaline-sphingomyelinase-provides-insights-into-substrate-recognition
#11
Alexei Gorelik, Fangyu Liu, Katalin Illes, Bhushan Nagar
Absorption of dietary sphingomyelin (SM) requires its initial degradation into ceramide, a process catalyzed by the intestinal enzyme alkaline sphingomyelinase (alk-SMase, NPP7, ENPP7). Alk-SMase belongs to the nucleotide pyrophosphatase / phosphodiesterase family, the members of which hydrolyze nucleoside phosphates, phospholipids and other related molecules. NPP7 is the only paralog that can cleave SM, and its activity requires the presence of bile salts, a class of physiological anionic detergents. To elucidate the mechanism of substrate recognition, we determined the crystal structure of human alk-SMase in complex with phosphocholine, a reaction product...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292275/a-preliminary-investigation-on-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-rs2287622-of-bile-salt-export-pump-gene-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-hunan-china
#12
Jian-Hua Lei, Xu Yang, Xin-Qiang Xiao, Zi Chen, Feng Peng
BACKGROUND: European researchers have underscored associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2287622 of the hepatobiliary bile salt export pump (BSEP) gene and the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The distributions of SNP rs2287622 are racially specific. This study was aimed to preliminarily investigate the distribution of BSEP gene SNP rs2287622 in the Han patients with chronic HCV-infection (CHC) in Hunan, China. METHODS: BSEP gene SNP rs2287622 of 165 CHC patients, 99 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) and 99 healthy individuals were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and nucleotide sequencing...
March 14, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291252/influence-of-ad-libitum-feeding-of-piglets-with-bacillus-subtilis-fermented-liquid-feed-on-gut-flora-luminal-contents-and-health
#13
Yuyong He, Chunxia Mao, Hong Wen, Zhiyu Chen, Tao Lai, Lingyu Li, Wei Lu, Huadong Wu
Some scholars caution that long-term ad libitum feeding with probiotic fermented food poses potential health risks to baby animals. We conducted a feeding experiment to investigate the influence of ad libitum feeding of pre-and post-weaned piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented diet on the gut microbiome, gut metabolomic profiles, bile acid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokines and faecal consistency. Compared with piglets fed a Bacillus subtilis-supplemented pellet diet, piglets fed the Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet had lower intestinal bacterial diversity (P > 0...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288854/irinotecan-induced-bile-acid-malabsorption-is-associated-with-down-regulation-of-ileal-asbt-slc10a2-in-mice
#14
A-Xi Shi, Yan Zhou, Xiao-Yi Zhang, Yan-Shu Zhao, Hong-Yan Qin, Yan-Ping Wang, Xin-An Wu
Irinotecan, (CPT-11), an antitumor agent primarily used for the treatment of solid tumors, has often compromised clinical application due to the inducement of severe delay-onset diarrhea. Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is widely accepted as the common cause of diarrhea. However, whether CPT-11-induced diarrhea has correlation with BAM is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CPT-11 on the bile acid homeostasis in mice. The mice were administrated with CPT-11 intravenously for four consecutive days...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288186/diet-and-biliary-tract-cancer-risk-in-shanghai-china
#15
Shakira M Nelson, Yu-Tang Gao, Leticia M Nogueira, Ming-Chang Shen, Bingsheng Wang, Asif Rashid, Ann W Hsing, Jill Koshiol
Trends in biliary tract cancer incidence rates have increased in Shanghai, China. These trends have coincided with economic and developmental growth, as well as a shift in dietary patterns to a more Westernized diet. To examine the effect of dietary changes on incident disease, we evaluated associations between diet and biliary tract cancers amongst men and women from a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Biliary tract cancer cases were recruited from 42 collaborating hospitals in urban Shanghai, and population-based controls were randomly selected from the Shanghai Household Registry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286906/selection-of-cholesterol-lowering-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-its-effects-on-rats-fed-with-high-cholesterol-diet
#16
Yufang Liu, Fengchun Zhao, Jiye Liu, Huimin Wang, Xiao Han, Yongxin Zhang, Zhengyou Yang
High cholesterol level in serum is a major factor of influence for coronary heart disease. The cholesterol-lowering ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) without side effects makes them more and more attractive. Seventy-nine strains of LAB isolated from fermented food were screened in vitro for their ability to assimilate cholesterol. Then, ten strains which exhibited higher ability of cholesterol assimilation were investigated with the characteristics of acidic resistance, bile salt tolerance, and cell adhesion...
March 13, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285599/microbiome-and-metabolome-modifying-effects-of-several-cardiovascular-disease-interventions-in-apo-e-mice
#17
Paul M Ryan, Lis E E London, Trent C Bjorndahl, Rupasri Mandal, Kiera Murphy, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Fergus Shanahan, R Paul Ross, David S Wishart, Noel M Caplice, Catherine Stanton
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence indicating that gut microbiota have the potential to modify, or be modified by the drugs and nutritional interventions that we rely upon. This study aims to characterize the compositional and functional effects of several nutritional, neutraceutical, and pharmaceutical cardiovascular disease interventions on the gut microbiome, through metagenomic and metabolomic approaches. Apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice were fed for 24 weeks either high-fat/cholesterol diet alone (control, HFC) or high-fat/cholesterol in conjunction with one of three dietary interventions, as follows: plant sterol ester (PSE), oat β-glucan (OBG) and bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus reuteri APC 2587 (BSH), or the drug atorvastatin (STAT)...
March 13, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280721/tissue-biomarkers-in-hepatocellular-tumors-which-when-and-how
#18
REVIEW
Luca Di Tommaso, Massimo Roncalli
Few tissue markers are currently available to pathologists in the study of hepatocellular tumors. These markers should be used carefully taking into consideration not only morphology but also, and sometimes even more important, the clinical setting where the lesion to be diagnosed had developed. Glypican-3, heat shock protein 70, and glutamine synthetase (GS) are markers currently used, as a single panel, to discriminate the nature of a <2 cm hepatocellular lesion lacking radiological features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detected in a cirrhotic patient under surveillance...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276067/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-weissella-cibaria-and-lactobacillus-plantarum-for-their-protective-effect-against-cadmium-and-lead-toxicities
#19
Opeyemi Ojekunle, Kolawole Banwo, Abiodun I Sanni
Thirty-two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were obtained from fermenting cassava mash and wara (African soft cheese) and screened for their resistance to cadmium and lead toxicities at 550 to 1050 mg l(-1) and probiotic potentials. Four LAB strains that tolerated the heavy metals at 1050 mg l(-1) were selected for antioxidative capacities, tolerance to acid, bile salts and simulated gastric and intestinal tract and safety status. The results revealed that Weissella cibaria WD2 and Lactobacillus plantarum CaD1 exhibited comparatively higher antioxidative capacities, survived in simulated gastric and intestinal transit, tolerated acid and bile salt and possessed safety status...
March 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275692/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-regulates-hepatic-bile-acid-metabolism-in-mice
#20
Anne S Henkel, Brian LeCuyer, Shantel Olivares, Richard M Green
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cholestasis promotes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the liver, however, the effect of ER stress on hepatic bile acid metabolism is unknown. We aim to determine the effect of ER stress on hepatic bile acid synthesis and transport in mice. METHODS: ER stress was induced pharmacologically in C57BL/6J mice and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. The hepatic expression of genes controlling bile acid synthesis and transport was determined. To measure the activity of the primary bile acid synthetic pathway, the concentration of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-1 was measured in plasma...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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