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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645914/bile-salt-homeostasis-in-normal-and-bsep-gene-knock-out-rats-with-single-and-repeated-doses-of-troglitazone
#1
Yaofeng Cheng, Shenjue Chen, Chris Freeden, Weiqi Chen, Yueping Zhang, Pamela Abraham, David Nelson, William G Humphreys, Jinpin Gan, Yurong Lai
The interference of bile acid secretion through bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibition was one of the mechanisms for troglitazone (TGZ) induced hepatotoxicity. Here we investigated the impact of single or repeated oral doses of TGZ (200 mg/kg/day, 7 days) on bile acid homoeostasis in wild-type (WT) and Bsep KO rats. Following oral doses, plasma exposures of TGZ were not different between WT and KO rats, and were similar on Day-1 and Day-7. However, plasma exposures of the major metabolite, troglitazone sulfate (TS), in KO rats were 7...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645651/post-transplant-cholangiopathy-classification-pathogenesis-and-preventive-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Yvonne de Vries, Fien A von Meijenfeldt, Robert J Porte
Biliary complications are the most frequent cause of morbidity, re-transplantation, and even mortality after liver transplantation. In general, biliary leakage and anastomotic and non-anastomotic biliary strictures (NAS) can be recognized. There is no consensus on the exact definition of NAS and different names and criteria have been used in literature. We propose to use the term post-transplant cholangiopathy for the spectrum of abnormalities of large donor bile ducts, that includes NAS, but also intraductal casts and intrahepatic biloma formation, in the presence of a patent hepatic artery...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638882/possible-hypocholesterolemic-effect-of-ginger-and-rosemary-oils-in-rats
#3
Fatma A Eissa, Hani Choudhry, Wesam H Abdulaal, Othman A Baothman, Mustafa Zeyadi, Said S Moselhy, Mazin A Zamzami
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for development of atherosclerosis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential effect of ginger oil alone or combined with rosemary oil as hypocholesterolemic agent in rats fed high fat diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy female albino rats (n=80) weighting about (150-180 g) were included in this study divided into two equal groups; Group (I): were fed on the basal diet. Group (I) were divided into 4 subgroups each 10: Group (Ia): negative control...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634850/novel-vitamin-b12-producing-enterococcus-spp-and-preliminary-in-vitro-evaluation-of-probiotic-potentials
#4
Ping Li, Qing Gu, Yuejiao Wang, Yue Yu, Lanlan Yang, Jieyan V Chen
Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient required for crucial metabolic processes in humans. Vitamin B12-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been attracting increased attentions currently because of the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Most of recent studies focused on Lactobacillus, and little is known about B12-producing Enterococcus. In the present study, five Enterococcus strains isolated from infant feces were identified as vitamin B12 producers. Among them, Enterococcus faecium LZ86 had the highest B12 production (499...
June 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634812/semi-industrial-scale-production-of-a-new-yeast-with-probiotic-traits-cryptococcus-sp-ymhs-isolated-from-the-red-sea
#5
Ashraf F El-Baz, Hesham A El-Enshasy, Yousseria M Shetaia, Hoda Mahrous, Nor Zalina Othman, Ahmed E Yousef
A new yeast strain with promising probiotic traits was isolated from the Red Sea water samples. The isolate (YMHS) was subjected to genetic characterization and identified as Cryptococcus sp. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer regions showed 95% sequence similarity between the isolate and Cryptococcus albidus. Cryptococcus sp. YMHS exhibited desirable characteristics of probiotic microorganisms; it has tolerance to low pH in simulated gastric juice, resistance to bile salts, hydrophobic characteristics, broad antimicrobial activity, and in vitro ability to degrade cholesterol...
June 20, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625727/incomplete-loading-of-sls-and-fassif-micelles-within-the-diffusion-layers-of-dispersed-drug-particles-during-dissolution
#6
Kendra Galipeau, Michael Socki, Adam Socia, Paul A Harmon
Poorly water soluble drug candidates have been common in developmental pipelines over the last several decades. This has fueled considerable research around understanding how bile salt and model micelles can improve drug particle dissolution rates and human drug exposure levels. However, in the pharmaceutical context only a single mechanism of how micelles load solute has been assumed, that being the direct loading mechanism put forth by Cussler(1) 40 years ago. In this model micelles load at the particle surface and will be loaded to their equilibrium loading values...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623473/increasing-the-bile-acid-sequestration-performance-of-cationic-hydrogels-by-using-an-advanced-controlled-polymerization-technique
#7
Patrícia V Mendonça, André Matos, Andreia F Sousa, Arménio C Serra, Sérgio Simões, Jorge F J Coelho
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of the polymerization technique and the content of hydroxyl groups on the performance of new bile acid sequestrants based on PAMPMTA-co-PHEA (PAMPTMA: poly((3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride); PHEA: poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate)) hydrogels. METHODS: PAMPMTA-co-PHEA hydrogels were prepared using either free radical polymerization or supplemental activator and reducing agent atom transfer radical polymerization. The chemical structure and composition of the hydrogels was confirmed by both FTIR and ssNMR...
June 16, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621711/indigenous-probiotic-lactobacillus-isolates-presenting-antibiotic-like-activity-against-human-pathogenic-bacteria
#8
Debashis Halder, Manisha Mandal, Shiv Sekhar Chatterjee, Nishith Kumar Pal, Shyamapada Mandal
BACKGROUND: Indigenous lactic acid bacteria are well known probiotics having antibacterial activity against potentially pathogenic bacteria. This study aims to characterize the curd lactobacilli for their probiotic potentiality and antagonistic activity against clinical bacteria. METHODS: Four curd samples were processed microbiologically for the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB strains obtained were identified by conventional methods: cultural aspect, gram-staining, biochemical and sugar fermentation tests...
June 16, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620369/characterization-of-bile-salt-hydrolase-from-lactobacillus-gasseri-fr4-and-demonstration-of-its-substrate-specificity-and-inhibitory-mechanism-using-molecular-docking-analysis
#9
Rizwana Parveen Rani, Marimuthu Anandharaj, Abraham David Ravindran
Probiotic bacteria are beneficial to the health of poultry animals, thus are used as alternative candidates for antibiotics used as growth promoters (AGPs). However, they also reduce the body weight gain due to innate bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. Hence, the addition of a suitable BSH inhibitor along with the probiotic feed can decrease the BSH activity. In this study, a BSH gene (981 bp) encoding 326-amino acids was identified from the genome of Lactobacillus gasseri FR4 (LgBSH). The LgBSH-encoding gene was cloned and purified using an Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) expression system, and its molecular weight (37 kDa) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and a Western blot analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602676/interactions-between-gut-bacteria-and-bile-in-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Sarah L Long, Cormac G M Gahan, Susan A Joyce
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and released into the intestine to aid the digestion of dietary lipids. The host enzymes that contribute to bile acid synthesis in the liver and the regulatory pathways that influence the composition of the total bile acid pool in the host have been well established. In addition, the gut microbiota provides unique contributions to the diversity of bile acids in the bile acid pool. Gut microbial enzymes contribute significantly to bile acid metabolism through deconjugation and dehydroxylation reactions to generate unconjugated bile acids and secondary bile acids...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602300/development-of-on-line-spectrofluorimetric-methodology-for-selenium-monitoring-in-foods-and-biological-fluids-using-chrome-azurol-s-quenching
#11
Débora G Santarossa, Liliana P Fernández
A novel, simple and accurate on-line green methodology for Se(IV) monitoring by molecular fluorescence has been developed. Because the analyte does not exhibit fluorescence, the organic dye Chrome azurol S (CAS) has been chosen to allow detection. The effect of metal-quenching on CAS excitation and emission conditions (λex=300nm; λem=407nm) was used as criterion for analyte quantification in presence of sodium cholate bile salt (NaC). The quenching mechanism was explored, and it can be classified as a collisional type with a Stern-Volmer constant value of 3...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591618/exploring-drug-solubility-in-fasted-human-intestinal-fluid-aspirates-impact-of-inter-individual-variability-sampling-site-and-dilution
#12
Mariangeles Pérez de la Cruz-Moreno, Consuelo Montejo, Antonio Aguilar-Ros, Walthère Dewe, Benoît Beck, Jef Stappaerts, Jan Tack, Patrick Augustijns
One of the main factors defining intestinal drug absorption is the solubility of the compound in the gastrointestinal environment. This study reports the solubility of a series of 27 commonly used acidic, neutral and basic drugs in human intestinal fluid samples collected from the duodenum or jejunum of healthy volunteers under fasted state conditions. The interindividual variability as well as the impact of factors such as pH, sampling site and bile salts on the solubility in human intestinal fluids was investigated...
June 4, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591516/impact-of-drug-rich-colloids-of-itraconazole-and-hpmcas-on-membrane-flux-in-vitro-and-oral-bioavailability-in-rats
#13
Aaron M Stewart, Michael E Grass, Timothy J Brodeur, Aaron K Goodwin, Michael M Morgen, Dwayne T Friesen, David T Vodak
Improving the oral absorption of compounds with low aqueous solubility is a common challenge that often requires an enabling technology. Frequently, oral absorption can be improved by formulating the compound as an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD). Upon dissolution, an ASD can reach a higher concentration of unbound drug than the crystalline form, and often generates a large number of sub-micron, rapidly-dissolving drug-rich colloids. These drug-rich colloids have the potential to decrease the diffusional resistance across the unstirred water layer of the intestinal tract (UWL) by acting as rapidly-diffusing shuttles for unbound drug...
June 7, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588193/the-anti-cholesterolaemic-effect-of-a-consortium-of-probiotics-an-acute-study-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#14
D R Michael, T S Davies, J W E Moss, D Lama Calvente, D P Ramji, J R Marchesi, A Pechlivanis, S F Plummer, T R Hughes
Hypercholesterolaemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and it has been found that some probiotic bacteria possess cholesterol-lowering capabilities. In this study, the ability of the Lab4 probiotic consortium to hydrolyse bile salts, assimilate cholesterol and regulate cholesterol transport by polarised Caco-2 enterocytes was demonstrated. Furthermore, in wild-type C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet, 2-weeks supplementation with Lab4 probiotic consortium plus Lactobacillus plantarum CUL66 resulted in significant reductions in plasma total cholesterol levels and suppression of diet-induced weight gain...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586308/an-extract-from-the-atlantic-brown-algae-sacchorhiza-polyschides-counteracts-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-via-a-gut-related-multi-factorial-mechanisms
#15
Patricia Huebbe, Sibylle Nikolai, Anke Schloesser, Diran Herebian, Graeme Campbell, Claus-Christian Glüer, Annette Zeyner, Tobias Demetrowitsch, Karin Schwarz, Cornelia C Metges, Thomas Roeder, Gerhard Schultheiss, Ignacio R Ipharraguerre, Gerald Rimbach
In this study we addressed the questions whether an Atlantic brown algae extract (BAE) affects diet induced obesity in mice and which would be the primary targets and underlying key mechanisms.Male C57 BL/6 mice were fed a hypercaloric diet, referred to as high fat diet (HFD), supplemented with a freeze-dried aqueous BAE from Sacchorizia polyschides (5 %) for 8 months. Compared to the control group, dietary BAE supplementation significantly attenuated increase in body weight and fat mass. We observed apparent metabolic improvement including normalization of blood glucose, reduced plasma leptin, reduced fecal bile salt hydrolase activity with lower microbial production of toxic bile acid metabolites in the gut and increased systemic bile acid circulation in BAE-fed mice counteracting adverse effects of long term HFD feeding...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578289/differential-interaction-behaviors-of-an-alkaloid-drug-berberine-with-various-bile-salts
#16
Swagata Sen, Bijan K Paul, Nikhil Guchhait
The present study reports a meticulous characterization of the interaction of a potent anti-cancer drug, berberine chloride (BR) with a series of bile salt aggregates having varying hydrophobicity (sodium deoxycholate (NaDC), sodium cholate (NaC), and sodium taurocholate (NaTC)). The absorption spectrum of BR reveals a complex profile comprised of four distinct peaks. Analysis of the modulations of the absorption spectral properties of BR following interaction with the bile salts raising deeper questions unveils a critical insight into the mode of interaction of the cationic drug (BR) with the bile salts; a greater degree of perturbation of the microenvironment of the isoquinolinic part of BR compared to the benzenoid part...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576369/effects-of-heat-cold-acid-and-bile-salt-adaptations-on-the-stress-tolerance-and-protein-expression-of-kefir-isolated-probiotic-lactobacillus-kefiranofaciens-m1
#17
Ming-Ju Chen, Hsin-Yu Tang, Ming-Lun Chiang
Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a probiotic strain isolated from Taiwanese kefir grains. The present study evaluated the effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance of L. kefiranofaciens M1. The regulation of protein expression of L. kefiranofaciens M1 under these adaptation conditions was also investigated. The results showed that adaptation of L. kefiranofaciens M1 to heat, cold, acid and bile salts induced homologous tolerance and cross-protection against heterologous challenge...
September 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572941/effect-of-psyllium-and-gum-arabic-biopolymers-on-the-survival-rate-and-storage-stability-in-yogurt-of-enterococcus%C3%A2-duransiw3-encapsulated-in-alginate
#18
Yousef Nami, Babak Haghshenas, Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi
Different herbal biopolymers were used to encapsulate Enterococcus durans IW3 to enhance its storage stability in yogurt and subsequently its endurance in gastrointestinal condition. Nine formulations of encapsulation were performed using alginate (ALG), ALG-psyllium (PSY), and ALG-gum Arabic (GA) blends. The encapsulation efficiency of all formulations, tolerance of encapsulated E. durans IW3 against low pH/high bile salt concentration, storage lifetime, and release profile of cells in natural condition of yogurt were evaluated...
May 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559733/three-new-lactobacillus-plantarum-strains-in-the-probiotic-toolbox-against-gut-pathogen-salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhimurium
#19
Mia Potočnjak, Petra Pušić, Jadranka Frece, Maja Abram, Tamara Janković, Ivana Gobin
The benefits of probiotic bacteria have been widely explored. However, fermented foods and digestive system of humans and animals are an inexhaustible source of new potentially probiotic microorganisms. In this study we present three new Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from different dairy products: cow's cheese, sheep's cheese and whey. In order to determine the antibacterial activity of yet unexplored L. plantarum strains against Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, in vitro competition and co-culture tests were done...
March 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552691/identification-of-bile-acids-responsible-for-inhibiting-the-bile-salt-export-pump-leading-to-bile-acid-accumulation-and-cell-toxicity-in-rat-hepatocytes
#20
Kumiko Oizumi, Shuichi Sekine, Meiko Fukagai, Takeshi Susukida, Kousei Ito
Inhibition of bile salt export pump (BSEP) causes hepatic accumulation of toxic bile acid (BA), leading to hepatocyte death. We reported a sandwich-cultured hepatocyte (SCH)-based model that can estimate potential cholestatic-compounds by assessing their ability to induce hepatotoxicity in combination with a titrated amount of human 12 BA-species. However, there is little information about the specific BA(s) responsible for hepatotoxicity, when BSEP is inhibited. This study measured the accumulation of each BA in rat SCHs in the presence of 10μM cyclosporine A (CsA), which only inhibits BSEP, and 50μM CsA, which further inhibits basolateral BA efflux transporters...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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