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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471078/limitations-to-the-dutch-cannabis-toleration-policy-assumptions-underlying-the-reclassification-of-cannabis-above-15-thc
#1
Margriet Van Laar, Peggy Van Der Pol, Raymond Niesink
The Netherlands has seen an increase in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from approximately 8% in the 1990s up to 20% in 2004. Increased cannabis potency may lead to higher THC-exposure and cannabis related harm. The Dutch government officially condones the sale of cannabis from so called 'coffee shops', and the Opium Act distinguishes cannabis as a Schedule II drug with 'acceptable risk' from other drugs with 'unacceptable risk' (Schedule I). Even in 1976, however, cannabis potency was taken into account by distinguishing hemp oil as a Schedule I drug...
August 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299295/cannabinoid-poisoning-by-hemp-seed-oil-in-a-child
#2
Matteo Chinello, Salvatore Scommegna, Alison Shardlow, Francesca Mazzoli, Nadia De Giovanni, Nadia Fucci, Paola Borgiani, Cinzia Ciccacci, Anna Locasciulli, Mauro Calvani
We report a case of mild cannabinoid poisoning in a preschool child, after 3-week ingestion of hemp seed oil prescribed by his pediatrician to strengthen his immune system. The patient presented neurological symptoms that disappeared after intravenous hydration. A possible mild withdrawal syndrome was reported after discharge. The main metabolite of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in urine, and very low concentration of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in the ingested product. This is, as far as we know, the first report of cannabinoid poisoning after medical prescription of hemp seed oil in a preschool child...
June 14, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242881/variability-in-seed-traits-in-a-collection-of-cannabis-sativa-l-genotypes
#3
Incoronata Galasso, Roberto Russo, Sergio Mapelli, Elena Ponzoni, Ida M Brambilla, Giovanna Battelli, Remo Reggiani
The seed of Cannabis sativa L. is an expanding source of proteins and oil for both humans and animals. In this study, the proximate composition of a collection of hemp cultivars and accessions of different geographical origins grown under the same conditions for 1 year was analyzed in order to identify potential accessions to improve hemp cultivars. Fatty acids, tocopherols, and antinutritional components, as well as concentrations of crude protein and oil were quantified. The seed oil concentrations varied between 285 and 360 g kg(-1) dry seed (DS), while crude protein ranged between 316 and 356 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27076277/polyphenolic-compounds-and-antioxidant-activity-of-cold-pressed-seed-oil-from-finola-cultivar-of-cannabis-sativa-l
#4
Antonella Smeriglio, Enza M Galati, Maria T Monforte, Francesco Lanuzza, Valeria D'Angelo, Clara Circosta
The aim of this study was to characterize the polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cold-pressed seed oil from Finola cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Several methodologies have been employed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Finola hempseed oil (FHSO) and both lipophilic (LF) and hydrophilic fractions (HF). The qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic fraction of FHSO was performed by HPLC analyses. From the results is evident that FHSO has high antioxidative activity, as measured by DPPH radical (146...
August 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26439817/variability-toxicity-and-antioxidant-activity-of-eupatorium-cannabinum-hemp-agrimony-essential-oils
#5
Asta Judzentiene, Rasa Garjonyte, Jurga Budiene
CONTENT: Eupatorium cannabinum L. (Asteraceae) is as a potential source of biologically active compounds. The plant is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea and livers diseases. OBJECTIVE: The present study provides investigation on pharmacological properties (antioxidant and toxic activities) of essential oils of E. cannabinum, collected from 11 wild populations in Lithuania. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two hemp agrimony essential oil samples were prepared by hydrodistillation according to the European Pharmacopoeia, and their chemical composition was determined by GC-FID and GC-MS...
2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26365444/alteration-of-delta-6-desaturase-fads2-secretory-phospholipase-a2-spla2-enzymes-by-hot-nature-diet-with-co-supplemented-hemp-seed-evening-primrose-oils-intervention-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Soheila Rezapour-Firouzi, Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini, Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mamaghani, Behzad Baradaran, Elyar Sadeghihokmabad, Somaiyeh Mostafaei, Mohammadali Torbati, Mahtaj Chehreh
BACKGROUND: The effect of nutrition and dietary supplements as environmental factors has been suggested as possible factors affecting both disease risk and progression in on the course of multiple sclerosis with complex genetic-risk profiles. This study was aimed to assess regulation of surface-membrane enzymes such as Delta-6-desaturase (FADS2), secretory Phospholipase A2(sPLA2) by hemp seed and evening primrose oils as well as Hot-natured dietary intervention in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients...
October 2015: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26057750/fatty-acids-composition-of-vegetable-oils-and-its-contribution-to-dietary-energy-intake-and-dependence-of-cardiovascular-mortality-on-dietary-intake-of-fatty-acids
#7
Jana Orsavova, Ladislava Misurcova, Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova, Robert Vicha, Jiri Mlcek
Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils--safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil--were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%-20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%-71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%-79%), respectively, were found predominant...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25977051/effect-directed-analysis-of-cold-pressed-hemp-flax-and-canola-seed-oils-by-planar-chromatography-linked-with-bio-assays-and-mass-spectrometry
#8
Sue-Siang Teh, Gertrud E Morlock
Cold-pressed hemp, flax and canola seed oils are healthy oils for human consumption as these are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and bioactive phytochemicals. However, bioactive information on the food intake side is mainly focused on target analysis. For more comprehensive information with regard to effects, single bioactive compounds present in the seed oil extracts were detected by effect-directed assays, like bioassays or an enzymatic assay, directly linked with chromatography and further characterized by mass spectrometry...
November 15, 2015: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25745251/effect-of-ultrasound-pre-treatment-of-hemp-cannabis-sativa-l-seed-on-supercritical-co2-extraction-of-oil
#9
C Da Porto, A Natolino, D Decorti
Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography...
March 2015: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25704610/stability-of-cosmetic-emulsion-containing-different-amount-of-hemp-oil
#10
M Kowalska, M Ziomek, A Żbikowska
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the optimal conditions, that is the content of hemp oil and time of homogenization to obtain stable dispersion systems. METHODS: For this purpose, six emulsions were prepared, their stability was examined empirically and the most correctly formulated emulsion composition was determined using a computer simulation. Variable parameters (oil content and homogenization time) were indicated by the optimization software based on Kleeman's method...
August 2015: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25453518/activity-of-liver-enzymes-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-hot-nature-diet-and-co-supplemented-hemp-seed-evening-primrose-oils-intervention
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Soheila Rezapour-Firouzi, Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini, Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mamaghani, Behzad Baradaran, Elyar Sadeghihokmabad, Mohammadali Torbati, Somaiyeh Mostafaei, Mahtaj Chehreh, Fatemeh Zamani
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether diets with a high dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) can modify oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, or liver dysfunction, all of which are risk factors for multiple sclerosis disease. This study assesses alanine amino-transferase (ALT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities in MS patients treated with co-supplemented hemp seed and evening primrose oils as well as Hot-nature diet and the therapeutic potential this intervention...
December 2014: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25426777/characterization-of-byproducts-originating-from-hemp-oil-processing
#12
Milica Pojić, Aleksandra Mišan, Marijana Sakač, Tamara Dapčević Hadnađev, Bojana Šarić, Ivan Milovanović, Miroslav Hadnađev
Valorization of hemp seed meal, a byproduct of hemp oil processing, was performed by measuring the distribution of nutritional and antinutritional compounds in different hemp seed meal fractions. According to chemical composition, two cotyledon-containing fractions (>180 and <180 μm) were significantly richer in protein (p < 0.05) (41.2% ± 0.04% and 44.4% ± 0.02%, respectively), lipid (15.1% ± 0.02% and 18.6% ± 0.04%, respectively), and sugar content (4.96% ± 0.11% and 3.46% ± 0.08%, respectively) in comparison to the hull-containing fractions (>350 and >250 μm), which were significantly richer in crude fiber content (29...
December 24, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25306338/relationship-between-cannabinoids-content-and-composition-of-fatty-acids-in-hempseed-oils
#13
Marinko Petrović, Željko Debeljak, Nataša Kezić, Petra Džidara
Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained...
March 1, 2015: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25239534/performance-egg-quality-and-blood-plasma-chemistry-of-laying-hens-fed-hempseed-and-hempseed-oil
#14
M Neijat, N Gakhar, J Neufeld, J D House
The aim of this study was to compare the performance of hens (feed intake, rate of lay, egg weight, and BW gain), egg quality and blood biochemistry (enzymes, electrolytes, proteins, and other plasma constituents) of laying hens fed diets containing hemp products. Forty-eight Lohmann LSL-Classic (white-egg layers; 19 wk of age) were individually caged and fed 1 of 6 wheat-barley-soybean-based diets for a period of 12 wk. The diets consisted of hempseed (HS; 10, 20, or 30%), hempseed oil (HO; 4.5 or 9.0%), or a control diet (corn oil-based)...
November 2014: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25048774/structural-and-functional-properties-of-hemp-seed-protein-products
#15
Sunday A Malomo, Rong He, Rotimi E Aluko
The effects of pH and protein concentration on some structural and functional properties of hemp seed protein isolate (HPI, 84.15% protein content) and defatted hemp seed protein meal (HPM, 44.32% protein content) were determined. The HPI had minimum protein solubility (PS) at pH 4.0, which increased as pH was decreased or increased. In contrast, the HPM had minimum PS at pH 3.0, which increased at higher pH values. Gel electrophoresis showed that some of the high molecular weight proteins (>45 kDa) present in HPM were not well extracted by the alkali and were absent or present in low ratio in the HPI polypeptide profile...
August 2014: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25004746/gamma-linolenic-acid-egg-production-enriched-with-hemp-seed-oil-and-evening-primrose-oil-in-diet-of-laying-hens
#16
Sang-Oh Park, Jong Hwangbo, In-Suh Yuh, Byung-Sung Park
This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks...
July 2014: Journal of Environmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24934168/cannabinoid-free-cannabis-sativa-l-grown-in-the-po-valley-evaluation-of-fatty-acid-profile-antioxidant-capacity-and-metabolic-content
#17
G Lesma, R Consonni, V Gambaro, C Remuzzi, G Roda, A Silvani, V Vece, G L Visconti
Within a project aimed to reintroduce non-drug hemp cultivars in the Italian Po valley, for fibre but also high added-value nutraceutical production, investigation on locally grown plants has been performed, in order to assess their oil and metabolic content. This study provides useful information regarding three different hemp cultivars, from two sites, in view of their potential industrial application. The oil was characterised by a high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and by an almost perfect balance of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, as requested for healthy foods...
2014: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24746767/boosting-accumulation-of-neutral-lipids-in-rhodosporidium-kratochvilovae-himpa1-grown-on-hemp-cannabis-sativa-linn-seed-aqueous-extract-as-feedstock-for-biodiesel-production
#18
Alok Patel, Mohammad Pravez, Farha Deeba, Vikas Pruthi, Rajesh P Singh, Parul A Pruthi
Hemp seeds aqueous extract (HSAE) was used as cheap renewable feedstocks to grow novel oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 isolated from Himalayan permafrost soil. The yeast showed boosted triglyceride (TAG) accumulation in the lipid droplets (LDs) which were transesterified to biodiesel. The sonicated HSAE prepared lacked toxic inhibitors and showed enhanced total lipid content and lipid yield 55.56%, 8.39±0.57g/l in comparison to 41.92%, 6.2±0.8g/l from industrially used glucose synthetic medium, respectively...
August 2014: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24552275/potential-oil-yield-fatty-acid-composition-and-oxidation-stability-of-the-hempseed-oil-from-four-cannabis-sativa-l-cultivars
#19
Carla Da Porto, Deborah Decorti, Andrea Natolino
The cultivation of four industrial hemp cultivars (Felina 32, Chamaeleon, Uso31, and Finola) was investigated for oil production in the north-east of Italy along two years. The oils of all cultivars resulted in rich amount of linoleic acid (ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (ω-3). Felina 32 and Chamaeleon oils exhibited the highest amount of linoleic acid (59%) and α-linolenic acid (18%). Finola and Uso31 oils resulted in the richest of γ-linolenic acid (5-6%). All hempseed oils presented high oxidation stability and an acceptable initial quality...
March 2015: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24527987/effects-of-hemp-cannabis-sativa-l-seed-oil-press-cake-and-decaffeinated-green-tea-leaves-camellia-sinensis-on-functional-characteristics-of-gluten-free-crackers
#20
Olga Radočaj, Etelka Dimić, Rong Tsao
UNLABELLED: A mixture, simplex centroid, 2 components experimental design was used to evaluate the addition of hemp seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves, as functional ingredients to assess nutritional characteristics and antioxidant properties of gluten-free crackers. All samples with added hemp flour had much better nutritional qualities than the brown rice flour crackers in terms of higher protein, crude fibers, minerals, and essential fatty acids content. Likewise, all samples with added decaffeinated green tea leaves had much better antioxidant properties than crackers with no added green tea leaves...
March 2014: Journal of Food Science
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