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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445530/update-non-invasive-ventilation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
REVIEW
Neeraj Mukesh Shah, Rebecca Francesca D'Cruz, Patrick B Murphy
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Patients with COPD and respiratory failure, whether acute or chronic have a poorer prognosis than patients without respiratory failure. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to be a useful tool in both the acute hospital and chronic home care setting. NIV has been well established as the gold standard therapy for acute decompensated respiratory failure complicating an acute exacerbation of COPD with reduced mortality and intubation rates compared to standard therapy...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445272/ct-densitometry-in-emphysema-a-systematic-review-of-its-clinical-utility
#2
Diana Crossley, Mary Renton, Muhammad Khan, Emma V Low, Alice M Turner
Background: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between computed tomography (CT) densitometry and routine clinical markers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency (AATD). Methods: Multiple databases were searched using a combination of pertinent terms and those articles relating quantitatively measured CT densitometry to clinical outcomes. Studies that used visual scoring only were excluded, as were those measured in expiration only...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442471/use-of-combined-inhalers-for-stable-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
Amanda Wilson
The mission of the Cochrane Nursing Care Field (CNCF) is to improve health outcomes through increasing the use of the Cochrane Library and supporting Cochrane's role by providing an evidence base for nurses and healthcare professionals who deliver, lead or research nursing care. The CNCF produces Cochrane Corner columns, summaries of recent nursing-care-relevant Cochrane Reviews that are regularly published in collaborating nursing-related journals. Information on the processes CNCF has developed can be accessed at: cncf...
February 14, 2018: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438811/is-cough-important-in-acute-exacerbations-of-copd
#4
REVIEW
Michael G Crooks, Timothy Brown, Alyn H Morice
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is predicted to become the 4th leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. The natural history of the disease includes progressive symptoms punctuated by acute exacerbations during which symptoms rapidly deteriorate. The resulting disability places significant burden on health and social care systems. Cough is the second most common symptom reported by COPD patients, is a source of significant distress and is associated with adverse outcomes. We discuss the importance of cough in COPD, its mechanism and the relationship between cough and COPD exacerbations...
February 10, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437007/blood-eosinophils-as-biomarkers-to-drive-treatment-choices-in-asthma-and-copd
#5
Francesco Patalano, Konstantinos Kostikas, Caterina Brindicci
Both asthma and COPD are complex, heterogeneous conditions comprising a wide range of phenotypes, some of which are refractory to currently available treatments. Elucidation of these phenotypes and identification of biomarkers with which to recognize them and guide appropriate treatment remains a priority. This review describes the utility of blood eosinophils as a surrogate biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, a common feature of specific asthma and COPD phenotypes. The role of blood eosinophils in airway disease is described, as is their relevance in reflecting airway eosinophilia...
February 12, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436405/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-clinical-outcomes-in-copd-recent-evidence-and-future-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Alessandro G Fois, Salvatore Sotgia, Arduino A Mangoni, Elisabetta Zinellu, Pietro Pirina, Silvia Negri, Ciriaco Carru, Angelo Zinellu
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disabling condition that is characterised by poorly reversible airflow limitation and inflammation. Acute exacerbations of COPD are a common cause of hospitalisation and death among COPD patients. Several biochemical markers have been studied as outcome predictors in COPD; however, their measurement often requires significant time and resources. Relatively simple biomarkers of inflammation calculated from routine complete blood count tests, such as the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), might also predict COPD progression and outcomes...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433833/macrophage-phagocytosis-cracking-the-defect-code-in-copd
#7
REVIEW
Jamil Jubrail, Nisha Kurian, Florence Niedergang
In the normal non-diseased lung, various macrophage populations maintain homeostasis and sterility by ingesting and clearing inhaled particulates, pathogens and apoptotic cells from the local environment. This process of phagocytosis leads to the degradation of the internalized material, coordinated induction of gene expression, antigen presentation and cytokine production, implicating phagocytosis as a central regulator of innate immunity. Phagocytosis is extremely efficient and any perturbation of this function is deleterious...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432712/expiratory-flow-limitation-during-mechanical-ventilation
#8
REVIEW
Detajin Junhasavasdikul, Irene Telias, Domenico Luca Grieco, Lu Chen, Cinta Millan Gutierrez, Thomas Piraino, Laurent Brochard
Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) is present when the flow cannot rise despite an increase of the expiratory driving pressure. The mechanisms of EFL are debated but are thought to be related to the collapsibility of small airways. In mechanically ventilated patients, EFL can exist during tidal ventilation, representing an extreme situation where lung volume cannot decrease whatever the expiratory driving forces. It is a key factor for the generation of auto- or intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP or PEEPi) and requires specific management such as positioning and adjustment of external PEEP...
February 9, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430448/extracorporeal-carbon-dioxide-removal-in-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
REVIEW
Tommaso Pettenuzzo, Eddy Fan, Lorenzo Del Sorbo
Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO 2 R) has been proposed as an adjunctive intervention to avoid worsening respiratory acidosis, thereby preventing or shortening the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This review will present a comprehensive summary of the pathophysiological rationale and clinical evidence of ECCO 2 R in patients suffering from severe COPD exacerbations.
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430175/the-ykl-40-protein-is-a-potential-biomarker-for-copd-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#10
Xiang Tong, Dongguang Wang, Sitong Liu, Yao Ma, Zhenzhen Li, Panwen Tian, Hong Fan
Background: Many studies have found that YKL-40 may play an important pathogenic role in COPD. However, the results of these studies were inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the role of YKL-40 in COPD. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search in many database and commercial internet search engines to identify studies involving the role of YKL-40 in patients with COPD. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and Fisher's Z-value with its 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to investigate the effect sizes...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426584/non-invasive-ventilation-in-children-and-adults-in-low-and-low-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Keren Mandelzweig, Aleksandra Leligdowicz, Srinivas Murthy, Rejani Lalitha, Robert A Fowler, Neill K J Adhikari
PURPOSE: We systematically reviewed the effects of NIV for acute respiratory failure (ARF) in low- and low-middle income countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE (to January 2016) for observational studies and trials of NIV for ARF or in the peri-extubation period in adults and post-neonatal children. We abstracted outcomes data and assessed quality. Meta-analyses used random-effect models. RESULTS: Fifty-four studies (ten pediatric/n=1099; 44 adult/n=2904), mostly South Asian, were included...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422903/autoantibodies-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
REVIEW
Lifang Wen, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Frank Petersen, Xinhua Yu
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, is characterized by irreversible airflow limitation based on obstructive bronchiolitis, emphysema, and chronic pulmonary inflammation. Inhaled toxic gases and particles, e.g., cigarette smoke, are major etiologic factors for COPD, while the pathogenesis of the disease is only partially understood. Over the past decade, an increasing body of evidence has been accumulated for a link between COPD and autoimmunity. Studies with clinical samples have demonstrated that autoantibodies are present in sera of COPD patients and some of these antibodies correlate with specific disease phenotypes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415723/characterizing-undiagnosed-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Kate M Johnson, Stirling Bryan, Shahzad Ghanbarian, Don D Sin, Mohsen Sadatsafavi
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain undiagnosed. Characterizing these patients can increase our understanding of the 'hidden' burden of COPD and the effectiveness of case detection interventions. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare patient and disease factors between patients with undiagnosed persistent airflow limitation and those with diagnosed COPD. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for observational studies of adult patients meeting accepted spirometric definitions of COPD...
February 7, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412485/advancing-the-management-of-obstructive-airways-diseases-through-translational-research
#14
Celeste Porsbjerg, Asger Sverrild, Katherine J Baines, Andrew Searles, Steven Maltby, Paul S Foster, Chris Brightling, Peter G Gibson
Obstructive airways diseases (OAD) represent a huge burden of illness worldwide, and in spite of the development of effective therapies, significant morbidity and mortality related to asthma and COPD still remains. Over the past decade, our understanding of OAD has improved vastly, and novel treatments have evolved. This evolution is the result of successful translational research, which has connected clinical presentations of OAD and underlying disease mechanisms, thereby enabling the development of targeted treatments...
February 7, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411860/self-management-for-bronchiectasis
#15
REVIEW
Carol Kelly, Seamus Grundy, Dave Lynes, David Jw Evans, Sharada Gudur, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a long term respiratory condition with an increasing rate of diagnosis. It is associated with persistent symptoms, repeated infective exacerbations, and reduced quality of life, imposing a burden on individuals and healthcare systems. The main aims of therapeutic management are to reduce exacerbations and improve quality of life. Self-management interventions are potentially important for empowering people with bronchiectasis to manage their condition more effectively and to seek care in a timely manner...
February 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406779/at-the-root-defining-and-halting-progression-of-early-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
Fernando J Martinez, MeiLan K Han, James P Allinson, R Graham Barr, Richard C Boucher, Peter Calverley, Bartolome R Celli, Stephanie A Christenson, Ronald G Crystal, Malin Fagerås, Christine M Freeman, Lars Groenke, Eric A Hoffman, Mehmet Kesimer, Konstantinos Kostikas, Robert Paine Iii, Shahin Rafii, Stephen I Rennard, Leopoldo N Segal, Renat Shaykhiev, Christopher Stevenson, Ruth Tal-Singer, Jørgen Vestbo, Prescott G Woodruff, Jeffrey L Curtis, Jadwiga A Wedzicha
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disorder with varying presentations and progression, but limited disease-modifying therapies. Trajectories of lung function decline in COPD differ significantly between individuals, with differences detectable in young adulthood. "Early disease" (initial manifestations in young individuals) should be distinguished from "late mild disease" (disease of mild severity in older individuals potentially present for decades). For research purposes, we propose an operational definition of early COPD: ever-smokers (≥10 pack-years) younger than 50 years with any of these abnormalities: (1) FEV1/FVC< lower limit of normal; (2) compatible CT abnormalities (airway abnormality and/or emphysema); or (3) FEV1 decline (≥60 mL/year)...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403271/role-of-eosinophils-in-airway-inflammation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
REVIEW
Donald P Tashkin, Michael E Wechsler
COPD is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In some patients with COPD, eosinophils contribute to inflammation that promotes airway obstruction; approximately a third of stable COPD patients have evidence of eosinophilic inflammation. Although the eosinophil threshold associated with clinical relevance in patients with COPD is currently subject to debate, eosinophil counts hold potential as biomarkers to guide therapy. In particular, eosinophil counts may be useful in assessing which patients may benefit from inhaled corticosteroid therapy, particularly regarding exacerbation prevention...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402693/left-atrial-appendage-exclusion-using-the-atriclip-device-a-case-series
#18
Sarah Page, Jane Hallam, Neelprada Pradhan, Brian Cowie, Tuong Phan, Desmond McGlade, Alex Rosalion, Andrew Newcomb, Michael Yii
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects 1.5-2% of the population and is associated with a five-fold increased lifetime risk of stroke [1]. The left atrial appendage (LAA) is the source of embolic strokes in up to 90% of patients with non-valvular AF with clots in the left atrium [2]. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical notes and echocardiographic findings of 20 patients who underwent open cardiac surgery in which concurrent AtriClip (Atricure Inc, Westchester, Ohio, USA) device insertion was attempted at our institution from July 2013 to February 2015...
December 22, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402286/a-review-of-the-experimental-evidence-on-the-toxicokinetics-of-carbon-monoxide-the-potential-role-of-pathophysiology-among-susceptible-groups
#19
REVIEW
Prabjit Barn, Luisa Giles, Marie-Eve Héroux, Tom Kosatsky
BACKGROUND: Acute high level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure can cause immediate cardio-respiratory arrest in anyone, but the effects of lower level exposures in susceptible persons are less well known. The percentage of CO-bound hemoglobin in blood (carboxyhemoglobin; COHb) is a marker of exposure and potential health outcomes. Indoor air quality guidelines developed by the World Health Organization and Health Canada, among others, are set so that CO exposure does not lead to COHb levels above 2...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397527/effect-of-roflumilast-on-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Lu-Fei Shen, Xiao-Dong Lv, Wen-Yu Chen, Qi Yang, Zhi-Xian Fang, Wei-Fen Lu
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of roflumilast effect on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been reported in the last decade. The current meta-analysis was designed to systematically review and perform meta-analysis of the RCTs of roflumilast treatment in COPD. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane clinical trials database were searched to identify RCTs of roflumilast treatment on COPD...
February 3, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
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