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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644712/comparative-analysis-of-behavioral-and-transcriptional-variation-underlying-co2-sensory-neuron-function-and-development-in-drosophila
#1
Jia Wern Pan, Joi McLaughlin, Haining Yang, Charles Leo, Paula Rambarat, Sumie Okuwa, Anaïs Monroy-Eklund, Sabrina Clark, Corbin D Jones, Pelin Cayirlioglu Volkan
Carbon dioxide is an important environmental cue for many insects, regulating many behaviors including some that have direct human impacts. To further improve our understanding of how this system varies among closely related insect species, we examined both the behavioral response to CO2 as well as the transcriptional profile of key developmental regulators of CO2 sensory neurons in the olfactory system across the Drosophila genus. We found that CO2 generally evokes repulsive behavior across most of the Drosophilids we examined, but this behavior has been lost or reduced in several lineages...
June 23, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642244/investigation-of-protein-synthesis-in-drosophila-larvae-using-puromycin-labelling
#2
Lisa P Deliu, Abhishek Ghosh, Savraj S Grewal
Translational control of gene expression is an important regulator of growth, homeostasis and aging in Drosophila The ability to measure changes in protein synthesis in response to genetic and environmental cues is therefore important in studying these processes. Here we describe a simple and cost effective approach to assay protein synthesis in Drosophila larval cells and tissues. The method is based on the incorporation of puromycin into nascent peptide chains. Using an ex vivo approach, we label newly synthesized peptides in larvae with puromycin and then measure levels of new protein synthesis using an anti-puromycin antibody...
June 22, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642242/specific-expression-and-function-of-the-six3-optix-in-drosophila-serially-homologous-organs
#3
Amer Al Khatib, Natalia Siomava, Antonella Iannini, Nico Posnien, Fernando Casares
Organ size and pattern results from the integration of two positional information systems. One global, encoded by the Hox genes, links organ type with position along the main body axis. Within specific organs, local information is conveyed by signaling molecules that regulate organ growth and pattern. The mesothoracic (T2) wing and the metathoracic (T3) haltere of Drosophila represent a paradigmatic example of this coordination. The Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), expressed in the developing T3, selects haltere identity by, among other processes, modulating the production and signaling efficiency of Dpp, a BMP2-like molecule that acts as a major regulator of size and pattern...
June 22, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642050/the-drosophila-thioester-containing-protein-4-participates-in-the-induction-of-the-cellular-immune-response-to-the-pathogen-photorhabdus
#4
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The function of thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) in the immune defense of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is yet mostly unexplored. Recently, we showed the involvement of TEP4 in the activation of humoral and phenoloxidase immune responses of Drosophila against the pathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens and Photorhabdus asymbiotica. Here, we investigated the participation of Tep4 in the cellular defense of Drosophila against the two pathogens. We report significantly lower numbers of live and dead plasmatocytes in the tep4 mutants compared to control flies in response to Photorhabdus infection...
June 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640815/an-autonomous-metabolic-role-for-spen
#5
Kelsey E Hazegh, Travis Nemkov, Angelo D'Alessandro, John D Diller, Jenifer Monks, James L McManaman, Kenneth L Jones, Kirk C Hansen, Tânia Reis
Preventing obesity requires a precise balance between deposition into and mobilization from fat stores, but regulatory mechanisms are incompletely understood. Drosophila Split ends (Spen) is the founding member of a conserved family of RNA-binding proteins involved in transcriptional regulation and frequently mutated in human cancers. We find that manipulating Spen expression alters larval fat levels in a cell-autonomous manner. Spen-depleted larvae had defects in energy liberation from stores, including starvation sensitivity and major changes in the levels of metabolic enzymes and metabolites, particularly those involved in β-oxidation...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640802/peroxisomal-biogenesis-is-genetically-and-biochemically-linked-to-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-drosophila-and-mouse
#6
Michael F Wangler, Yu-Hsin Chao, Vafa Bayat, Nikolaos Giagtzoglou, Abhijit Babaji Shinde, Nagireddy Putluri, Cristian Coarfa, Taraka Donti, Brett H Graham, Joseph E Faust, James A McNew, Ann Moser, Marco Sardiello, Myriam Baes, Hugo J Bellen
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a group of multi-system human diseases due to mutations in the PEX genes that are responsible for peroxisome assembly and function. These disorders lead to global defects in peroxisomal function and result in severe brain, liver, bone and kidney disease. In order to study their pathogenesis we undertook a systematic genetic and biochemical study of Drosophila pex16 and pex2 mutants. These mutants are short-lived with defects in locomotion and activity. Moreover these mutants exhibit severe morphologic and functional peroxisomal defects...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640668/absence-of-the-fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-results-in-defects-of-rna-editing-of-neuronal-mrnas-in-mouse
#7
Alice Filippini, Daniela Bonini, Caroline Lacoux, Laura Pacini, Maria Zingariello, Laura Sancillo, Daniela Bosisio, Valentina Salvi, Jessica Mingardi, Luca La Via, Francesca Zalfa, Claudia Bagni, Alessandro Barbon
The fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, is due to the absence of FMRP, a protein regulating RNA metabolism. Recently, an unexpected function of FMRP in modulating the activity of Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes has been reported both in Drosophila and Zebrafish. ADARs are RNA-binding proteins that increase transcriptional complexity through a post-transcriptional mechanism called RNA editing. In order to evaluate the ADAR2-FMRP interaction in mammals we analysed several RNA editing re-coding sites in the fmr1 knockout (KO) mice...
June 22, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638443/dosage-compensation-and-sex-specific-epigenetic-landscape-of-the-x-chromosome-in-the-pea-aphid
#8
Gautier Richard, Fabrice Legeai, Nathalie Prunier-Leterme, Anthony Bretaudeau, Denis Tagu, Julie Jaquiéry, Gaël Le Trionnaire
BACKGROUND: Heterogametic species display a differential number of sex chromosomes resulting in imbalanced transcription levels for these chromosomes between males and females. To correct this disequilibrium, dosage compensation mechanisms involving gene expression and chromatin accessibility regulations have emerged throughout evolution. In insects, these mechanisms have been extensively characterized only in Drosophila but not in insects of agronomical importance. Aphids are indeed major pests of a wide range of crops...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637711/the-exon-junction-complex-and-srp54-contribute-to-drosophila-hedgehog-signaling-via-ci-rna-splicing
#9
Elisa Garcia Garcia, Jamie C Little, Daniel Kalderon
Hedgehog (Hh) regulates the Cubitus interruptus (Ci) transcription factor in Drosophila melanogaster by activating full-length Ci-155 and blocking processing to Ci-75 repressor. However, the interplay between regulation of Ci-155 levels and activity, as well as processing-independent mechanisms that affect Ci-155 levels have not been explored extensively. Here we identified Mago Nashi (Mago) and Y14 core Exon Junction Complex (EJC) proteins, as well as the Srp54 splicing factor as modifiers of Hh pathway activity under sensitized conditions...
June 21, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634244/simple-expression-domains-are-regulated-by-discrete-crms-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#10
Nicole T Revaitis, Robert A Marmion, Maira Farhat, Vesile Ekiz, Wei Wang, Nir Yakoby
Eggshell patterning has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster However, the cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), which control spatiotemporal expression of these patterns, are vastly unexplored. The FlyLight collection contains over 7,000 intergenic and intronic DNA fragments that, if containing CRMs, can drive the transcription factor GAL4. We cross-listed the 84 genes known to be expressed during D. melanogaster oogenesis with the ~1200 listed genes of the FlyLight collection, and found 22 common genes that are represented by 281 FlyLight fly lines...
June 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630141/temperature-responsive-mirnas-in-drosophila-orchestrate-adaptation-to-different-ambient-temperatures
#11
Isabel Fast, Charlotte Hewel, Laura Wester, Julia Schumacher, Daniel Gebert, Hans Zischler, Christian Berger, David Rosenkranz
The majority of Drosophila genes are expressed in a temperature-dependent manner, but the way in which small RNAs may contribute to this effect is completely unknown as we currently lack an idea of how small RNA transcriptomes change as a function of temperature. Applying high throughput sequencing techniques complemented by quantitative real-time PCR experiments, we demonstrate that altered ambient temperature induces drastic, but reversible changes in sequence composition and total abundance of both, miRNA- and piRNA populations...
June 19, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628606/splicing-stimulates-sirna-formation-at-drosophila-dna-double-strand-breaks
#12
Karin Merk, Marco Breinig, Romy Böttcher, Stefan Krebs, Helmut Blum, Michael Boutros, Klaus Förstemann
DNA double-strand breaks trigger the production of locus-derived siRNAs in fruit flies, human cells and plants. At least in flies, their biogenesis depends on active transcription running towards the break. Since siRNAs derive from a double-stranded RNA precursor, a major question is how broken DNA ends can generate matching sense and antisense transcripts. We performed a genome-wide RNAi-screen in cultured Drosophila cells, which revealed that in addition to DNA repair factors, many spliceosome components are required for efficient siRNA generation...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626955/expression-profile-of-urothelial-transcription-factors-in-bladder-biopsies-with-interstitial-cystitis
#13
Kanya Kaga, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Mayuko Kaga, Tomohiko Ichikawa, Tomonori Yamanishi
OBJECTIVES: To characterize interstitial cystitis pathology based on the expression profile of urothelial tissue-specific master transcription factors. METHODS: Bladder carcinoma cell lines derived from the urothelial stem cells (epithelial or mesenchymal) were used to identify candidate urothelial master transcription factors. Gene expression was measured with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. From the initial screening of 170 transcription factors (human homologs of Drosophila segmentation genes and known master transcription factors from a database), 28 transcription factors were selected...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623304/identification-of-transcripts-with-short-stuorfs-as-targets-for-denr%C3%A2-mcts1-dependent-translation-in-human-cells
#14
Sibylle Schleich, Julieta M Acevedo, Katharina Clemm von Hohenberg, Aurelio A Teleman
The non-canonical initiation factors DENR and MCTS1 have been linked to cancer and autism. We recently showed in Drosophila that DENR and MCTS1 regulate translation re-initiation on transcripts containing upstream Open Reading Frames (uORFs) with strong Kozak sequences (stuORFs). Due to the medical relevance of DENR and MCTS1, it is worthwhile identifying the transcripts in human cells that depend on DENR and MCTS1 for their translation. We show here that in humans, as in Drosophila, transcripts with short stuORFs require DENR and MCTS1 for their optimal expression...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623239/-ccug-n-rna-toxicity-in-a-drosophila-model-for-myotonic-dystrophy-type-2-dm2-activates-apoptosis
#15
Vildan Betul Yenigun, Mario Sirito, Alla Amcheslavky, Tomek Czernuszewicz, Jordi Colonques-Bellmunt, Irma García-Alcover, Marzena Wojciechowska, Clare Bolduc, Zhihong Chen, Arturo López Castel, Ralf Krahe, Andreas Bergmann
The myotonic dystrophies are prototypic toxic RNA gain-of-function diseases. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) are caused by different unstable, noncoding microsatellite repeat expansions -- (CTG)DM1 in DMPK and (CCTG)DM2 in CNBP Although transcription of mutant repeats into (CUG)DM1 or (CCUG)DM2 appears to be necessary and sufficient to cause disease, their pathomechanisms remain incompletely understood. To study the mechanisms of (CCUG)DM2 toxicity and develop a convenient model for drug screening, we generated a transgenic DM2 model in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with (CCUG)n repeats of variable length (n=16 and 106)...
June 16, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621431/adhesion-molecule-kirrel3-neph2-is-required-for-the-elongated-shape-of-myocytes-during-skeletal-muscle-differentiation
#16
Yael Tamir-Livne, Raeda Mubariki, Eyal Bengal
Kirrel/Neph proteins are evolutionarily conserved members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion proteins. Kirrel3 is the mouse orthologue of Dumbfounded (Duf), a family member that regulates myoblast pre-fusion events in Drosophila. Yet, the role of Kirrel3 in mammalian myogenesis has not been demonstrated. Experiments performed here indicate that the mouse Kirrel3 protein regulates morphological changes of myoblasts that are required for their subsequent fusion into multinucleated myotubes. We show that Kirrel3 is transiently expressed at the tips of myocytes during early myoblast differentiation and that its expression is dependent on the myogenic transcription factor, MyoD...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621429/the-sumo-targeted-ubiquitin-ligase-dgrn-is-essential-for-drosophila-innate-immunity
#17
Bella Koltun, Eliza Shackelford, François Bonnay, Nicolas Matt, Jean Marc Reichhart, Amir Orian
The ability of metazoans to combat pathogenic infection involves both systemic and local responses to the invading pathogens. Ubiquitin and SUMO pathways molecularly regulate the response to infection, immune signaling and gene expression. Here, we report that Degringolade (Dgrn, CG10981), a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase connecting the two pathways, is essential for the innate immunity response in Drosophila. dgrn(DK) null and heterozygous mutant adult flies are severely immune-compromised and succumb rapidly to both pathogenic bacteria and fungi infections...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621415/building-functional-units-of-movement-generation-and-movement-sensation-in-the-embryo
#18
Peleg Hasson, Talila Volk, Adi Salzberg
The musculoskeletal and proprioceptive sensory systems exhibit intricate crosstalk between force generation, force sensation and force transmission, all of which are critical for coordinated animal locomotion. Recent developmental studies of the musculoskeletal and proprioceptive units of the invertebrate Drosophila embryo, have revealed several common molecular and structural principles mediating the formation of each of these systems. These common principles, as well as the differences between the developmental programs of the two systems, are discussed...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619822/cop9-signalosome-subunits-protect-capicua-from-map-kinase-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms-of-degradation
#19
Annabelle Suisse, DanQing He, Kevin Legent, Jessica E Treisman
The COP9 signalosome removes Nedd8 modifications from the Cullin subunits of ubiquitin ligase complexes, reducing their activity. Here we show that mutations in the Drosophila COP9 signalosome subunit 1b (CSN1b) gene increase the activity of ubiquitin ligases that contain Cullin 1. Analysis of CSN1b mutant phenotypes revealed a requirement for the COP9 signalosome to prevent ectopic expression of Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) target genes. It does so by protecting Capicua, a transcriptional repressor of EGFR target genes, from EGFR pathway-dependent ubiquitination by a Cullin 1/SKP1-related A/Archipelago E3 ligase and subsequent proteasomal degradation...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619818/antagonistic-regulation-of-the-second-mitotic-wave-by-eyes-absent-sine-oculis-and-combgap-coordinates-proliferation-and-specification-in-the-drosophila-retina
#20
Trevor L Davis, Ilaria Rebay
The transition from proliferation to specification is fundamental to the development of appropriately patterned tissues. In the developing Drosophila eye, Eyes absent (Eya) and Sine oculis (So) orchestrate the progression of progenitor cells from asynchronous cell division to G1 arrest and neuronal specification at the morphogenetic furrow. Here, we uncover a novel role for Eya and So in promoting cell cycle exit in the Second Mitotic Wave (SMW), a synchronized, terminal cell division that occurs several hours after passage of the furrow...
June 15, 2017: Development
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