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Pituitary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212592/novel-insights-into-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-action-in-the-pituitary-gonadotrope
#1
Jessica L Brown, Mark Roberson
The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls reproduction via a series of hormones regulating gonadal function through interconnected feedback loops. Secretion of hypothalamic-derived gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) integrates inputs from higher brain centers to coordinate the activity of the pituitary gonadotrope and the biosynthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins which ultimately regulate gonadal function. Failure of GnRH to serve as the central integrator of this system has been associated with hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism and clinical infertility, while pharmacological application of GnRH analogs and gonadotropins have important implications of the treatment of such infertility...
February 17, 2017: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212519/early-calibration-of-the-hpa-axis-by-maternal-psychopathology
#2
Heidemarie Laurent
Given the central role of stress-responsive neurophysiology in mental and physical health, it is important to understand how particular patterns of stress responsivity may become entrained by the early caregiving environment. In this study we investigated links between maternal depression and anxiety symptom profiles and within-infant development of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses from 6 to 18 months of life. Associations with infant cognitive and social-emotional development were also tested to gauge the adjustment implications of HPA response trajectories...
February 1, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212313/chemoprevention-of-rat-mammary-carcinogenesis-by-apiaceae-spices
#3
Farrukh Aqil, Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan, Radha Munagala, Srivani Ravoori, Manicka V Vadhanam, David J Schultz, Ramesh C Gupta
Scientific evidence suggests that many herbs and spices have medicinal properties that alleviate symptoms or prevent disease. In this study, we examined the chemopreventive effects of the Apiaceae spices, anise, caraway, and celery seeds against 17β-estrogen (E2)-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in an ACI (August-Copenhagen Irish) rat model. Female ACI rats were given either control diet (AIN 93M) or diet supplemented with 7.5% (w/w) of anise, caraway, or celery seed powder. Two weeks later, one half of the animals in each group received subcutaneous silastic implants of E2...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211122/prolactin-regulation-of-oxytocin-neurone-activity-in-pregnancy-and-lactation
#4
Rachael A Augustine, Sharon R Ladyman, Gregory T Bouwer, Yousif Alyousif, Tony J Sapsford, Victoria Scott, Ilona C Kokay, David R Grattan, Colin H Brown
Secretion of prolactin for milk synthesis and oxytocin for milk secretion is required for successful lactation. In virgin rats, prolactin inhibits oxytocin neurones but this effect would be counterproductive during lactation when secretion of both hormones is required for synthesis and delivery of milk to the new-born. Hence, we determined the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) prolactin on oxytocin neurones in urethane-anaesthetised virgin, pregnant and lactating rats. Prolactin (2 μg) consistently inhibited oxytocin neurones in virgin and pregnant rats (by 1...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210908/updates-in-outcomes-of-stereotactic-radiation-therapy-in-acromegaly
#5
REVIEW
Monica Livia Gheorghiu
Purpose Treatment of acromegaly has undergone important progress in the last 20 years mainly due to the development of new medical options and advances in surgical techniques. Pituitary surgery is usually first-line therapy, and medical treatment is indicated for persistent disease, while radiation (RT) is often used as third-line therapy. The benefits of RT (tumor volume control and decreased hormonal secretion) are hampered by the long latency of the effect and the high risk of adverse effects. Stereotactic RT methods have been developed with the aim to provide more precise targeting of the tumor with better control of the radiation dose received by the adjacent brain structures...
February 16, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210900/false-responses-of-renilla-luciferase-reporter-control-to-nuclear-receptor-tr4
#6
Dongyun Zhang, Sam S Atlasi, Krishna K Patel, Zihao Zhuang, Anthony P Heaney
Renilla luciferase reporter is a widely used internal control in dual luciferase reporter assay system, where its transcription is driven by a constitutively active promoter. However, the authenticity of the Renilla luciferase response in some experimental settings has recently been questioned. Testicular receptor 4 (TR4, also known as NR2C2) belongs to the subfamily 2 of nuclear receptors. TR4 binds to a direct repeat regulatory element in the promoter of a variety of target genes and plays a key role in tumorigenesis, lipoprotein regulation, and central nervous system development...
February 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210018/psychological-stress-and-changes-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-patients-with-de-novo-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Omer C Ibrahimagic, Amra Cickusic Jakubovic, Dzevdet Smajlovic, Zikrija Dostovic, Suljo Kunic, Amra Iljazovic
INTRODUCTION: Psychological stress and changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in period after diagnosis of "de novo" Parkinson disease (PD) could be a big problem for patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured psychological stress and changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) in thirty patients (15:15) with "de novo" Parkinson's disease, average age 64.17 ± 13.19 (28-82) years (Department of Neurology, University Clinical Center Tuzla)...
December 2016: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209309/cluster-headache-and-macroprolactinoma-case-report-of-a-rare-but-potential-important-causality
#8
Lukas Andereggen, Marie-Luise Mono, Frauke Kellner-Weldon, Emanuel Christ
While headache is not an uncommon symptom in patients suffering from pituitary adenomas, cluster headache (CH) has rarely been reported in such cases. Headache associated with hyperprolactinemia has been reported to be responsive to dopamine agonists (DA agonists) in many patients. We report on a patient with refractory CH secondary to a macroprolactinoma who showed immediate and permanent clinical and radiologic recovery following medical treatment with DA agonists. Measurement of prolactin levels in addition to cranial magnetic resonance imaging might be considered in patients with refractory CH, until the significance of this potential causality becomes clearer...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209183/variants-in-congenital-hypogonadotrophic-hypogonadism-genes-identified-in-an-indonesian-cohort-of-46-xy-under-virilised-boys
#9
Katie L Ayers, Aurore Bouty, Gorjana Robevska, Jocelyn A van den Bergen, Achmad Zulfa Juniarto, Nurin Aisyiyah Listyasari, Andrew H Sinclair, Sultana M H Faradz
BACKGROUND: Congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (CHH) and Kallmann syndrome (KS) are caused by disruption to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (H-P-G) axis. In particular, reduced production, secretion or action of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is often responsible. Various genes, many of which play a role in the development and function of the GnRH neurons, have been implicated in these disorders. Clinically, CHH and KS are heterogeneous; however, in 46,XY patients, they can be characterised by under-virilisation phenotypes such as cryptorchidism and micropenis or delayed puberty...
February 16, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208728/parabens-accelerate-ovarian-dysfunction-in-a-4-vinylcyclohexene-diepoxide-induced-ovarian-failure-model
#10
Jae-Hwan Lee, Myeongho Lee, Changhwan Ahn, Hee Young Kang, Dinh Nam Tran, Eui-Bae Jeung
Parabens are widely used preservatives in basic necessities such as cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In previous studies, xenoestrogenic actions of parabens were reported in an immature rat model and a rat pituitary cell line (GH3 cells). The relationship between parabens and ovarian failure has not been described. In the present study, the influence of parabens on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis was investigated. A disruptor of ovarian small pre-antral follicles, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD, 40 mg/kg), was used to induce premature ovarian failure (POF)...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204898/surgical-treatment-and-outcome-of-tsh-producing-pituitary-adenomas
#11
Roman Rotermund, Nina Riedel, Till Burkhardt, Jakob Matschke, Nils-Ole Schmidt, Jens Aberle, Jörg Flitsch
BACKGROUND: Thyrotropin-producing adenomas (TSHomas) account for approximately 1-2% of all pituitary tumors. Recently, there has been debate on primary treatment as some studies suggest a high rate of hypopituitarism after transsphenoidal surgery and therefore suggest primary use of somatostatin analogs (SSA) instead. We would like to challenge this assumption by presenting our single-center experience with transsphenoidal surgery for TSHoma. METHODS: Fifteen patients treated consecutively between May 2010 and December 2016 were analyzed for long-term postoperative remission and pituitary function...
February 15, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203372/diagnostic-challenges-and-management-of-a-patient-with-acromegaly-due-to-ectopic-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-secretion-from-a-bronchial-carcinoid-tumour
#12
Nikolaos Kyriakakis, Jacqueline Trouillas, Mary N Dang, Julie Lynch, Paul Belchetz, Márta Korbonits, Robert D Murray
: A male patient presented at the age of 30 with classic clinical features of acromegaly and was found to have elevated growth hormone levels, not suppressing during an oral glucose tolerance test. His acromegaly was originally considered to be of pituitary origin, based on a CT scan, which was interpreted as showing a pituitary macroadenoma. Despite two trans-sphenoidal surgeries, cranial radiotherapy and periods of treatment with bromocriptine and octreotide, his acromegaly remained active clinically and biochemically...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203025/-trigemino-cardiac-reflex-in-skull-base-surgery
#13
H Z Duan, Y Zhang, L Li, J Y Zhang, Z Q Yi, S D Bao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism, clinical features, and prognosis of Trigemino-cardiac reflex (TCR) during skull base operations. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 291 patients with skull base disease from Jan. 2009 to Oct. 2015 in Peking University First Hospital. By reviewing the patients' operative data and anaesthetic electrical record, and we picked out all the patients who suffered from TCR during the operation and analyzed their surgical procedures, clinical features, influence factors, and prognosis...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202853/structures-showing-negative-correlations-of-signal-intensity-with-postnatal-age-on-t1-weighted-imaging-of-the-brain-of-newborns-and-infants
#14
Saeka Hori, Toshiaki Taoka, Tomoko Ochi, Toshiteru Miyasaka, Masahiko Sakamoto, Katsutoshi Takayama, Takeshi Wada, Kaoru Myochin, Yukihiro Takahashi, Kimihiko Kichikawa
PURPOSE: Although the neonatal and infantile brain typically shows sequential T1 shortening according to gestational age as a result of myelination, several structures do not follow this rule. We evaluated the relationship between the signal intensity of various structures in the neonatal and infantile brain on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and either postnatal or gestational age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined magnetic resonance images from 120 newborns and infants without any abnormalities in the central nervous system...
February 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202834/-a-case-of-lymphocytic-adenohypophysitis-presenting-visual-disturbance-in-the-third-trimester-of-pregnancy
#15
Ryo Yaoita, Miiko Ito, Kenichiro Matsuda, Yasuaki Kokubo, Shinya Sato, Yukihiko Sonoda
Lymphocytic hypophysitis(LH)has first been described as an autoimmune endocrinopathy by Goudie in 1962. In particular, lymphocytic adenohypophysitis(LAH)is usually associated with pregnancy and hypopituitarism due to insufficient endocrine of ACTH. However, several cases of LAH in pregnant patients showing only visual disturbances have recently been documented. We treated a patient with LAH presenting only the chiasma syndrome in the third trimester without hypopituitarism. A 27-year-old woman unexpectedly experienced visual disturbance starting in the 28th week of pregnancy...
February 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202423/hypothalamic-pituitary-germinoma-presenting-as-generalized-hypohidrosis
#16
Atsushi Fukunaga, Shoko Tajima, Takashi Sasayama, Kazuhiro Tanaka, Yutaka Takahashi, Chikako Nishigori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202381/sphenoid-sinus-carcinoid-tumour-causing-ectopic-acth-syndrome
#17
Sanjaya Perera, Ahmad Taha
A thirty-eight year old patient presented with a gradual increase in weight and Cushingoid facies of two years duration. He also had orbital congestion, with puffy eyelids and corkscrew conjunctival vessels, associated with painful eye movements. An endocrine evaluation revealed raised cortisol and ACTH. Head imaging was performed which showed an enhancing tumour arising from the sphenoid sinus, with osseous erosion of the sphenoid sinus, extending to the nasopharynx, sellar and a small amount extending intracranially...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202252/what-worries-parents-of-a-child-with-autism-evidence-from-a-biomarker-for-chronic-stress
#18
Vicki Bitsika, Christopher F Sharpley, Nicholas M Andronicos, Linda L Agnew
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported correlations between various aspects of the behaviour and symptomatology of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their parents' self-reports of stress via standardised scales. AIMS: To extend that literature, a physiological index of parental chronic stress was used instead of their self-reports-dysregulation of the Diurnal Rhythm (DR) of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. METHODS: A sample of 149 parents of a child with ASD provided salivary cortisol at the predicted time of daily maximum cortisol concentration and at a time of daily lower concentration...
February 12, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201827/hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-in-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas-impact-of-intervention
#19
Diana Margarida Monteiro, Paula Freitas, Romana Vieira, Davide Carvalho
To determine the prevalence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) among patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) and the post-surgery outcome on pituitary gonadotropins secretion (PGS); to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) on male patients with NFPA, to evaluate the impact of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in those with HH. Retrospective evaluation of gonadal function in 109 NFPA patients (45 males), with a mean age of 51.8 years, diagnosed on the last 10 years. ED questionnaire applied to 34 male patients...
February 15, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199185/age-and-sex-related-differences-in-normal-pituitary-gland-and-fossa-volumes
#20
Hrvoje Ivan Pecina, Tatjana Cicvara Pecina, Vlasta Vyroubal, Ivan Kruljac, Mario Slaus
This study investigates the influence of age and sex on the volumes of the pituitary fossa and gland in 91 males and 108 females from Croatia who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the endocranium for complaints not related to the pituitary gland. Isometric 3DT1 MPRAGE and 3DT1 MPR sequences were obtained on 1.5. Tesla and analysed on ISSA software. The volumes were obtained from the sum of all the areas multiplied by the thickness of the section. The mean volume of the pituitary fossa for males was 1111...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
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