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Tao Huang, Shengqi Cheng, Yanping Feng, Zheya Sheng, Yanzhang Gong
In recent years, a mass of duplicated and deleted DNA sequences have been found in human and animal genomes following the prevalence of employing high-throughput sequencing and SNP array. However, few copy number variation (CNV) studies have been performed on egg performance traits of chicken. In this study, 17 loci reported in previous studies were selected for CNV detection in the Xinhua E-strain by using the CNVplex kit, and the detection results showed that locus14 exhibited CNV. Further association analysis indicated the copies of locus14 could be significantly associated with age at first egg (AFE; P < 0...
July 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Sean McKee, Anthony Yang, Sarah Kidwai, Satish Govindaraj, Raj Shrivastava, Alfred Iloreta
BACKGROUND: Prolonged length of stay (pLOS), disease-related complications, and 30-day readmissions are important quality metrics under the Affordable Care Act. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of patient-level and hospital-level factors on these outcomes for patients admitted for transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. METHODS: The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database was queried to investigate 30-day readmissions and pLOS for transsphenoidal pituitary surgery in New York from 1995 to 2015...
July 14, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Chao Miao, Lei Zhang, Ming Sun, Chao Ma
A 3 years old boy was hospitalized with a month's history of polydipsia, polyuria and low fever. There was no relevant family history. This is a rare case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with both bone and pituitary infiltration shown on the technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (99m Tc-MDP) scan and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sagittal and coronal T1-weighted images on MRI showed the typical lack of high signal intensity of the posterior pituitary which corresponded to the central signs of diabetes insipidus (DI)...
July 12, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
María C Maldifassi, Carolina Martín-Sánchez, Gema Atienza, José L Cedillo, Francisco Arnalich, Anna Bordas, Francisco Zafra, Cecilio Giménez, María Extremera, Jaime Renart, Carmen Montiel
The α7 nicotinic receptor subunit and its partially duplicated human-specific dupα7 isoform are co-expressed in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. In these cells, α7 subunits form homopentameric α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) implicated in numerous pathologies. In immune cells, α7-nAChRs are essential for vagal control of inflammatory response in sepsis. Recent studies show that the dupα7 subunit is a dominant-negative regulator of α7-nAChR activity in Xenopus oocytes. However, its biological significance in mammalian cells, particularly immune cells, remains unexplored, as the duplicated form is indistinguishable from the original subunit in standard tests...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Karen J Oliveira, Maria Izabel Chiamolera, Gisele Giannocco, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho
The modern concept of thyroid disruptors includes man-made chemicals and bioactive compounds from food that interfere with any aspect of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, thyroid hormone biosynthesis and secretion, blood and transmembrane transport, metabolism and local action of thyroid hormones. This review highlights relevant disruptors that effect populations through their diet: directly from food itself (fish oil and polyunsaturated fatty acids, pepper, coffee, cinnamon and resveratrol/grapes), through vegetable cultivation (pesticides) and from containers for food storage and cooking (bisphenol A, phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Merna A Armanious, Homan Mohammadi, Sara Khodor, Daniel E Oliver, Peter A Johnstone, Michael G Fradley
Radiation therapy (RT) plays a prominent role in the treatment of many cancers. With increasing use of RT and high overall survival rates, the risks associated with RT must be carefully considered. Of these risks, the cardiovascular and autonomic toxicities have been of significant concern. In fact, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of nonmalignancy-related death in cancer survivors. The manifestations of radiation induced cardiac injury include the acute toxicities of myopericarditis and late toxicities including constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, heart failure, and conduction abnormalities...
June 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Maureen L Petrunich-Rutherford, Francisca Garcia, George Battaglia
Increasing evidence suggests that multiple factors can produce effects on the immature brain that are distinct and more long-lasting than those produced in adults. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a region integral to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is affected by anxiety, depression, and drugs used to treat these disorders, yet receptor signaling mechanisms operative in hypothalamus prior to maturation remain to be elucidated. In peripubertal male rats, systemic injection of the selective serotonin 1A (5-HT1A ) receptor agonist (+)8-OH-DPAT (0...
July 10, 2018: Neuropharmacology
E W Zöllner
BACKGROUND: Six hypocortisolaemic asthmatic children on steroids given at physiological doses were identified during a previous study. OBJECTIVES: To establish whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression (HPAS) could be reversed in hypocortisolaemic asthmatic children treated with steroids without sacrificing asthma control. METHODS: In this case series, treatment of six hypocortisolaemic patients was modified by introducing steroid-sparing asthma medications...
May 25, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Shubhangi Vinayak Agale, Rachana Binayke, Geeta Kumari, Grace F D'Costa
Hypophysitis of the pituitary gland is a rare inflammatory disorder and broadly classified as primary and secondary hypophysitis. Primary hypophysitis is mainly of lymphocytic, granulomatous, and xanthomatous types. Among the various primary hypophysitis, granulomatous hypophysitis is rare type with an incidence of 1 in 10 million. The various forms of hypophysitis are misdiagnosed as pituitary adenoma in 40% cases. Idiopathic granulomatous hypophysitis is even rarer inflammatory disorder accounting for <1% of cases involving panhypopituitarism with headache and visual disturbances...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
B Umayal, S N Jayakody, N V Chandrasekharan, W S S Wijesundera, C N Wijeyaratne
Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder affecting young women. Kisspeptins are a family of closely related peptides encoded by Kiss1 gene that controls the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by binding to its receptor (GPR54) expressed in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and releases GnRH. Since GnRH secretion is deregulated in PCOS, we hypothesized that dysregulated gonadotropin secretion in PCOS is reflected by kisspeptin levels. Aim: We aimed to measure serum kisspeptin levels of subjects with well-characterized PCOS versus controls and explore any correlation between kisspeptin and PCOS-related reproductive and metabolic disturbances...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Cai Zhang, Yong-Ping Zhang, Yu-Yu Li, Bai-Ping Liu, Hao-Yin Wang, Kang-Wei Li, Cai Song
Activated microglia-induced neuroinflammation can stimulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to release glucocorticoids and suppress astrocyte function, such as reducing neurotrophin production, which occur in depression. However, the balance between M1 (pro-inflammation) and M2 (anti-inflammation) of microglial phenotypes and the interaction between two glial cells in the depression are unclear. Hence, the chronic unpredictable mile stress (CUMS)-induced depression model was chose to study depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, the concentration of corticosterone and relevant hippocampal cytokines, mRNA and protein expression of microglial and astrocyte markers...
July 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Anne de Bray, Zaki K Hassan-Smith, Jamal Dirie, Edward Littleton, Swarupsinh Chavda, John Ayuk, Paul Sanghera, Niki Karavitaki
A 48-year-old man was diagnosed with a large macroprolactinoma in 1982 treated with surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy and bromocriptine. Normal prolactin was achieved in 2005 but in 2009 it started rising. Pituitary MRIs in 2009, 2012, 2014 and 2015 were reported as showing empty pituitary fossa. Prolactin continued to increase (despite increasing bromocriptine dose). Trialling cabergoline had no effect (prolactin 191,380 mU/L). In January 2016, he presented with right facial weakness and CT head was reported as showing no acute intracranial abnormality...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Jamshid Faraji, Mitra Karimi, Nabiollah Soltanpour, Zahra Rouhzadeh, Shabnam Roudaki, S Abedin Hosseini, S Yaghoob Jafari, Ali-Akbar Abdollahi, Nasrin Soltanpour, Reza Moeeini, Gerlinde A S Metz
The social environment is a major determinant of individual stress response and lifetime health. The present study shows that (1) social enrichment has a significant impact on neuroplasticity and behaviour particularly in females; and (2) social enrichment in females can be transmitted to their unexposed female descendants. Two generations (F0 and F1) of male and female rats raised in standard and social housing conditions were examined for neurohormonal and molecular alterations along with changes in four behavioural modalities...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hou-Shi Ma, Elaine Lu Wang, Wen-Fei Xu, Shozo Yamada, Katsuhiko Yoshimoto, Zhi Rong Qian, Long Shi, Li-Li Liu, Xu-Hui Li
BACKGROUND Alteration of DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) is one of the most consistent epigenetic changes in human cancers. DNMTs play several important roles in DNA methylation and development of cancers. Regarding DNMTs protein expressions, little is known about the clinical significance and correlation with promoter methylation status of TSGs in human pituitary adenomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the protein expression of 3 DNMTs using immunohistochemistry and assessed DNA hypermethylation of RASSF1A, CDH13, CDH1, and CDKN2A (p16) in 63 pituitary adenomas...
July 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Claudia Matta-Coelho, Rui Ramos, Rui Almeida, Olinda Marques
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Samantha L Lewis, Heather M Holl, Maureen T Long, Martha F Mallicote, Samantha A Brooks
Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), like human metabolic syndrome, comprises a collection of clinical signs related to obesity, insulin dysregulation and susceptibility to secondary inflammatory disease. Although the secondary conditions resulting from EMS can be life-threatening, diagnosis is not straightforward and often complicated by the presence of other concurrent conditions like pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). In order to better characterize EMS, we sought to describe the variation within, and correlations between, typical physical and endocrine parameters for EMS...
2018: PloS One
Justin Seltzer, Michelle A Wedemeyer, Phillip A Bonney, John D Carmichael, Martin Weiss, Gabriel Zada
OBJECTIVE Incidental pituitary adenomas (IPAs) are commonly discovered during cranial imaging evaluations obtained for unrelated indications. The optimal management of IPA remains controversial. The authors investigated the outcomes and safety of the surgical treatment of IPAs at their institution. METHODS Clinical outcome data for 1692 patients surgically treated for pituitary adenomas at the Keck Medical Center of USC/USC Pituitary Center over a 17-year period (1999-2016) were reviewed to identify all cases with surgically managed IPAs...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Matthew S Agam, Michelle A Wedemeyer, Bozena Wrobel, Martin H Weiss, John D Carmichael, Gabriel Zada
OBJECTIVE Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are benign neoplasms that are frequently encountered during workup for endocrinopathy, headache, or visual loss. Transsphenoidal surgery remains the first-line approach for PA resection. The authors retrospectively assessed complication rates associated with transsphenoidal PA resection from an institutional database. METHODS A retrospective analysis of 1153 consecutive transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma resections performed at the Keck Hospital of USC between November 1992 and March 2017 was conducted...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Yuki Kobayashi, Jun Shigemura, Aihide Yoshino
Some individuals who experience psychologically traumatic events cannot process their experiences as regular memories, and these experiences develop into traumatic memories. In individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), fear conditioning occurs-these individuals subsequently respond to their direct traumatic experiences and to neutral stimuli. This conditioned response eventually leads to repeated re-experiencing. In this review, we discuss biological mechanisms associated with the development of traumatic memories...
July 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Jungeun Lee, Sujin Kim, Young Joo Park, Hyo-Bang Moon, Kyungho Choi
Benzophenones (BPs) have been widely used in personal care products (PCPs) such as UV protectants. Sex endocrine-disrupting effects have been documented for some BPs, but, significant knowledge gaps are present for their thyroid-disrupting effects. To investigate the thyroid-disrupting potential of BPs, a rat pituitary (GH3) and thyroid follicle (FRTL-5) cell line were employed on six BPs, i.e., benzophenone (BP), benzophenone-1 (BP-1), benzophenone-2 (BP-2), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4), and benzophenone-8 (BP-8)...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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