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Jeffery S Babischkin, Graham W Aberdeen, Gerald J Pepe, Eugene D Albrecht
We have shown that fetal adrenal fetal zone (FZ) volume and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHAS) levels were increased, whereas definitive and transitional zone (DZ/TZ) volume was unaltered, in baboons in which estrogen levels were suppressed by administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. The interaction of the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) with its accessory protein (MRAP) is essential for trafficking MC2R to the adrenal cell surface for binding to ACTH. The present study determined whether the estrogen-dependent regulation of fetal adrenocortical development is mediated by ACTH and/or expression/interaction of MC2R and MRAP...
October 25, 2016: Endocrinology
A Sen, C Das, M Mukhopadhyay, S Mukhopadhyay, S Deb, B Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Tumors of the pituitary gland and sellar region represent approximately 10-15% of all brain tumors. Pituitary adenoma (PA), the most common pathology of the pituitary gland, can be effectively subclassified only with the help of immunohistochemistry (IHC). This is important and needed for individual patient management. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to analyze the importance of intraoperative imprint smear cytology and correlating with final histopathological diagnosis...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Angelos Kyriacou, Kanna Gnanalingham, Tara Kearney
PURPOSE: We set out to describe the modern day management of Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH) with respect to its diagnosis, treatment and long-term endocrine and visual outcomes. We deliberately included patients with a clinical diagnosis of LH and compared them with those with a histological diagnosis following surgery. METHODS: A multi-centre observational study was performed. Twenty-two patients were included and studied over a mean follow-up period of 8.6 years (range 4-26 years)...
October 24, 2016: Pituitary
O Nemes, N Kovacs, Sz Szujo, B Bodis, L Bajnok, A Buki, T Doczi, E Czeiter, E Mezosi
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic hypopituitarism is a major complication after severe head trauma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible role of early clinical parameters in the development of endocrine deficits. METHODS: Data on endocrine function, on-admission clinical-, laboratory-, and ICU-monitored parameters were available in 63 patients of the surviving 86 severe head injury patients (post-resuscitation GCS under 8) treated at one neurosurgical center during a 10-year period...
October 25, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Leonid E Fridlyand, Natalia A Tamarina, Andrew V Schally, Louis H Philipson
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR) has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types, including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Hiroshi Yokota, Yuki Ida, Daisuke Wajima, Fumihiko Nishimura, Hiroyuki Nakase
BACKGROUND: A Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) with non-hemorrhagic rupture mimicking pituitary apoplexy has been rarely reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 52-year-old woman, previously diagnosed with asymptomatic RCC, came to us with a severe headache, along with visual dysfunction and symptoms of pituitary insufficiency. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse hyper-intensity in the cerebral cisterns, while watery clear cerebrospinal fluid was obtained by lumbar puncture...
October 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Kathleen E Morrison, C Neill Epperson, Mary D Sammel, Grace Ewing, Jessica S Podcasy, Liisa Hantsoo, Deborah R Kim, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are one of the greatest predictors of affective disorders for women. Periods of dynamic hormonal flux, including pregnancy, exacerbate the risk for affective disturbance and promote hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, a key feature of affective disorders. Little is understood as to how stress experienced in late childhood, defined as preadolescence, alters the programming unique to this period of brain maturation and its interaction with the hormonal changes of pregnancy and postpartum...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Shingo Kitamura, Yasuko Katayose, Kyoko Nakazaki, Yuki Motomura, Kentaro Oba, Ruri Katsunuma, Yuri Terasawa, Minori Enomoto, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Akiko Hida, Kazuo Mishima
In this study, we hypothesized that dynamics of sleep time obtained over consecutive days of extended sleep in a laboratory reflect an individual's optimal sleep duration (OSD) and that the difference between OSD and habitual sleep duration (HSD) at home represents potential sleep debt (PSD). We found that OSD varies among individuals and PSD showed stronger correlation with subjective/objective sleepiness than actual sleep time, interacting with individual's vulnerability of sleep loss. Furthermore, only 1 h of PSD takes four days to recover to their optimal level...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Pruessner, L Bechard-Evans, S Pira, R Joober, D L Collins, J C Pruessner, A K Malla
BACKGROUND: Altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and reduced hippocampal volume (HV) are established correlates of stress vulnerability. We have previously shown an attenuated cortisol awakening response (CAR) and associations with HV specifically in male first-episode psychosis patients. Findings in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis regarding these neurobiological markers are inconsistent, and assessment of their interplay, accounting for sex differences, could explain incongruent results...
October 24, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Hiroto Nishihara, Saishu Yoshida, Naoko Kanno, Naoto Nishimura, Hiroki Ueharu, Jun Ohgane, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
PROP1 is a pituitary specific transcription factor that plays a crucial role in pituitary organogenesis. The Prop1 shows varied expression patterns that promptly emerge and then fade during the early embryonic period. However, the regulatory mechanisms governing Prop1 expression remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether Prop1 was under epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation. Bisulfite sequencing was performed on DNA obtained from the pituitary glands and livers of rats on embryonic days (E) 13.5 and E14...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Xueting Wang, Jie Ding, Zou Xiang, Peipei Jiang, Jing Du, Xiaodong Han
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), which generates strong reproductive toxicity, reduces serum testosterone level without directly damaging Leydig cells. The purpose of this study was to identify the target cells of MC-LR in the rat hypothalamic-pituitary axis and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. We found that the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons were the direct target of MC-LR. In vivo results showed that upon exposure to rats, cells around the third ventricle of hypothalamus underwent apoptosis...
October 20, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Peng-Fei Yan, Ling Yan, Zhen Zhang, Adnan Salim, Lei Wang, Ting-Ting Hu, Hong-Yang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered a valuable tool for preoperative diagnosis of intracranial tumors. We assessed its accuracy in the diagnosis of intracranial tumors in usual clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI reports of 762 patients who had undergone conventional brain MRI prior to surgery were retrospectively reviewed. A 4-grade scoring system was devised to establish diagnostic agreement. Each tumor type was compared with the corresponding pathological diagnoses by dichotomization...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Ming Tu, Qin Lu, Penglei Zhu, Weiming Zheng
BACKGROUND: Pituitary apoplexy is a rare disease caused by a sudden hemorrhage into or infarction of the pituitary gland. Its optimal management remains controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of surgical and non-surgical treatments for pituitary apoplexy. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed of MedLine, EmBase, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science for articles published between January 1992 and September 2014. Studies of the outcomes in consecutive patients that compared surgical intervention with non-surgical treatment for pituitary apoplexy were included...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Timothy J Marquis, Masumi Nozaki, Wayne Fagerberg, Stacia A Sower
In the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) of all gnathostomes, there are six tropic cell types: corticotropes, melanotropes, somatotropes, lactotropes, gonadotropes and thyrotropes; each cell type produces specific tropic hormones. In contrast, we report in this study that there are only four tropic cell types in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) adenohypophysis. We specifically focused on the cell types that produce the glycoprotein hormones (GpHs). The gnathostome adenohypophyseal GpHs are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyrostimulin...
October 22, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Elysia Poggi Davis, Kevin Head, Claudia Buss, Curt A Sandman
Glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans) are the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and are proposed as a key mechanism for programming fetal brain development. The present prospective longitudinal study evaluates the association between prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations and child neurodevelopment. Participants included a low risk sample of 91 mother-child pairs. Prenatal maternal plasma cortisol concentrations were measured at 19 and 31 gestational weeks. Brain development and cognitive functioning were assessed when children were 6-9 years of age...
October 15, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Yakun Wang, Xiaoqiong Hao, Jing Yang, Jia Li, Meijia Zhang
A surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland induces the expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors, which triggers oocyte maturation, cumulus expansion, and ovulation. How LH induces EGF-like factor expression is unclear. In the present study, a rapid increase of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) was observed after the activation of LH receptor by human chorionic gonadotropin. Large antral follicles from equine chorionic gonadotropin-primed mice were cultured in medium with LH to stimulate the expression of EGF-like factors...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Danielle E Jenkins, Dharshini Sreenivasan, Fiona Carman, Samal Babru, Lee E Eiden, Stephen J Bunn
The pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β/α modulate catecholamine secretion, and long-term gene regulation, in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Since interleukin-6 (IL6) also plays a key integrative role during inflammation, we have examined its ability to affect both tyrosine hydroxylase activity and adrenomedullary gene transcription in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. IL6 caused acute tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and serine/tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
K Wolinski, A Stangierski, K Dyrda, K Nowicka, M Pelka, A Iqbal, A Car, M Lazizi, N Bednarek, A Czarnywojtek, E Gurgul, M Ruchala
PURPOSE: Acromegaly is a chronic disease resulting from pathological oversecretion of growth hormone and subsequently insulin growth factor-1. Several complications of the disease have been reported, including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders but also increased risk of benign and malignant neoplasms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of malignant neoplasms in the patients with acromegaly in comparison with the control group. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical documentation of acromegalic patients treated in one medical center between 2005 and 2016 has been analyzed...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Daniel S Olsson, Penelope Trimpou, Tobias Hallén, Ing-Liss Bryngelsson, Eva Andersson, Thomas Skoglund, Bengt-Åke Bengtsson, Gudmundur Johannsson, Anna G Nilsson
Hypopituitarism has been associated with an increased mortality, which may be due to untreated growth hormone (GH) deficiency but also to the various underlying disorders. We therefore analysed mortality in patients with only one underlying disorder, non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), with and without GH replacement therapy (GHRT). Patients with NFPA in the western region of Sweden, 1997-2011, were identified through the National Patient Registry and cross-referenced with several National Health Registries...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Charlotte L George, Matthew T Birnie, Benjamin Flynn, Yvonne Kershaw, Stafford L Lightman, Becky L Conway-Campbell
In this paper we report differential decoding of the ultradian corticosterone signal by glucocorticoid target tissues. Pulsatile corticosterone replacement in adrenalectomised rats resulted in different dynamics of Sgk1 mRNA production, with a distinct pulsatile mRNA induction profile observed in the pituitary in contrast to a non-pulsatile induction in the prefrontal cortex. We further report the first evidence for pulsatile transcriptional repression of a glucocorticoid-target gene in vivo, with pulsatile regulation of Pomc transcription in pituitary...
October 18, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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