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Pituitary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936470/ocular-delivery-of-pacap1-27-protects-the-retina-from-ischemic-damage-in-rodents
#1
Dora Werling, Dora Reglodi, William A Banks, Therese S Salameh, Krisztina Kovacs, Timea Kvarik, Alexandra Vaczy, Laszlo Kovacs, Flora Mayer, Bese Danyadi, Emese Lokos, Andrea Tamas, Gabor Toth, Zsolt Biro, Tamas Atlasz
Purpose: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is neuroprotective in neuronal injuries. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) causes chronic hypoperfusion-induced degeneration in the rat retina, where we proved the retinoprotective effect of intravitreal PACAP. Although this route of administration is a common clinical practice in several diseases, easier routes are clinically important. Our aim was to investigate the potential retinoprotective effects of PACAP eye drops in BCCAO-induced ischemic retinopathy...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936218/a-key-role-for-inhibins-in-dendritic-cell-maturation-and-function
#2
Roxana Olguín-Alor, Marisol de la Fuente-Granada, Laura C Bonifaz, Laura Antonio-Herrera, Eduardo A García-Zepeda, Gloria Soldevila
Inhibins are members of the TGFβ superfamily, which regulate many cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Although initially described as hormones regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, based on their ability to antagonize Activins, our group has recently reported that they play a role in thymocyte differentiation and survival, as well as in thymic stromal cell maturation and nTreg generation. Here, we used Inhibin knock out mice (Inhα-/-) to investigate the role of Inhibins in peripheral dendritic cell maturation and function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936175/effects-of-neonatal-dexamethasone-exposure-on-adult-neuropsychiatric-traits-in-rats
#3
Nathanael J Yates, Donald Robertson, Jennifer Rodger, Mathew T Martin-Iverson
The effects of early life stress in utero or in neonates has long-term consequences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis function and neurodevelopment. These effects extend into adulthood and may underpin a variety of mental illnesses and be related to various developmental and cognitive changes. We examined the potential role of neonatal HPA axis activation on adult psychopathology and dopamine sensitivity in the mature rat using neonatal exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist and stress hormone, dexamethasone...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935818/prenatal-ethanol-exposure-phenocopies-cdon-mutation-by-impeding-shh-function-in-the-etiology-of-optic-nerve-hypoplasia
#4
Benjamin M Kahn, Tanya S Corman, Korah Lovelace, Mingi Hong, Robert S Krauss, Douglas J Epstein
Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a congenital disorder characterized by optic nerve, pituitary and midline brain malformations. The clinical presentation of SOD is highly variable with a poorly understood etiology. The majority of SOD cases are sporadic, but in rare instances inherited mutations have been identified in a small number of transcription factors, some of which regulate the expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) during mouse forebrain development. SOD is also associated with young maternal age suggesting that environmental factors, including alcohol consumption at early stages of pregnancy, may increase the risk of developing this condition...
November 24, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935817/society-for-endocrinology-endocrine-emergency-guidance-emergency-management-of-pituitary-apoplexy-in-adult-patients
#5
Stephanie E Baldeweg, Mark Vanderpump, Will Drake, Narendra Reddy, Andrew Markey, Gordon T Plant, Michael Powell, Saurabh Sinha, John Wass
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935805/e2f1-mediated-human-pomc-expression-in-ectopic-cushing-s-syndrome
#6
Takako Araki, Ning-Ai Liu, Yukiko Tone, Daniel Cuevas-Ramos, Roy Heltsley, Masahide Tone, Shlomo Melmed
Cushing's syndrome is caused by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion derived from pituitary corticotroph tumors (Cushing disease) or from non-pituitary tumors (ectopic Cushing's syndrome). Hypercortisolemic features of ectopic Cushing's syndrome are severe, and no definitive treatment for paraneoplastic ACTH excess is available. We aimed to identify subcellular therapeutic targets by elucidating transcriptional regulation of the human ACTH precursor POMC (proopiomelanocortin) and ACTH production in non-pituitary tumor cells and in cell lines derived from patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome...
November 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934864/an-updated-view-of-hypothalamic-vascular-pituitary-unit-function-and-plasticity
#7
REVIEW
Paul Le Tissier, Pauline Campos, Chrystel Lafont, Nicola Romanò, David J Hodson, Patrice Mollard
The discoveries of novel functional adaptations of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland for physiological regulation have transformed our understanding of their interaction. The activity of a small proportion of hypothalamic neurons can control complex hormonal signalling, which is disconnected from a simple stimulus and the subsequent hormone secretion relationship and is dependent on physiological status. The interrelationship of the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and pituitary cells with the vasculature has an important role in determining the pattern of neurohormone exposure...
December 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933171/active-postoperative-acromegaly-sustained-remission-after-discontinuation-of-somatostatin-analogues
#8
Cristina Alvarez-Escola, Jersy Cardenas-Salas
: In patients with active acromegaly after pituitary surgery, somatostatin analogues are effective in controlling the disease and can even be curative in some cases. After treatment discontinuation, the likelihood of disease recurrence is high. However, a small subset of patients remains symptom-free after discontinuation, with normalized growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) levels. The characteristics of patients most likely to achieve sustained remission after treatment discontinuation are not well understood, although limited evidence suggests that sustained remission is more likely in patients with lower GH and IGF1 levels before treatment withdrawal, in those who respond well to low-dose treatment, in those without evidence of adenoma on an MRI scan and/or in patients who receive long-term treatment...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932681/acute-intermittent-hypoxia-in-rats-activates-muscle-proteolytic-pathways-through-a-glucocorticoid-dependent-mechanism
#9
Franciele Przygodda, Leandro Henrique Manfredi, Juliano Machado, Dawit A P Gonçalves, Neusa Maria Zanon, Leni G H Bonagamba, Benedito H Machado, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut, Luiz C C Navegantes
Although it is well known that chronic hypoxia induces muscle wasting, the effects of intermit-tent hypoxia on skeletal muscle protein metabolism remains unclear. We hypothesized that acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH), a challenge that activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, would alter muscle protein homeostasis through a glucocorticoid-dependent mechanism. Three-week-old rats were submitted to adrenalectomy (ADX) and exposed to 8 h of AIH (6% O2 for 40s at 9 min intervals). Animals were sacrificed and the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were harvested and incubated in vitro for measurements of protein turn-over...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932596/infantile-lhermitte-duclos-disease-treated-successfully-with-rapamycin
#10
Megan Zak, Mark Ledbetter, Paul Maertens
Lhermitte-Duclos disease is a rare hamartomatous tumor of the cerebellum resulting from a mutation in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene: it has been reported in fewer than 10 infants. Rapamycin treatment has not yet been described in Lhermitte-Duclos disease. The infant underwent shunt placement shortly after birth for aqueductal stenosis. Her clinical progression included failure to thrive, seizures, episodes of decerebrate posturing, loss of respiratory drive, and pituitary insufficiency from mass effect...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932530/affective-alterations-in-patients-with-cushing-s-syndrome-in-remission-are-associated-with-decreased-bdnf-and-cortisone-levels
#11
E Valassi, I Crespo, B G Keevil, A Aulinas, E Urgell, A Santos, P J Trainer, S M Webb
OBJECTIVE: Affective alterations and poorer quality of life often persist in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) in remission. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and is highly expressed in brain areas controlling mood and response to stress. Our aims were to assess affective alterations after long-term remission of CS and evaluate whether they are associated with serum BDNF, salivary cortisol (SalF) and/or cortisone (SalE) concentrations...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932528/comorbidities-treatment-patterns-and-cost-of-illness-of-acromegaly-in-sweden-a-register-linkage-population-based-study
#12
Eva Lesén, Daniel Granfeldt, Aude Houchard, Jérôme Dinet, Anthony Berthon, Daniel S Olsson, Ingela Björholt, Gudmundur Johannsson
OBJECTIVE: Acromegaly is a complex endocrine disease with multiple comorbidities. Treatment to obtain biochemical remission includes surgery, medical therapy and radiation. We aimed to describe comorbidities, treatment patterns and cost-of-illness in patients with acromegaly in Sweden. DESIGN: A nationwide population-based study. METHODS: Patients with acromegaly were identified and followed in national registers in Sweden. Longitudinal treatment patterns were assessed in patients diagnosed between July 2005 and December 2013...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932410/anthropometric-factors-have-significant-influence-on-the-outcome-of-the-ghrh-arginine-test-establishment-of-normative-data-for-an-automated-immunoassay-specifically-measuring-22kd-human-growth-hormone
#13
Timo Deutschbein, Martin Bidlingmaier, Jochen Schopohl, Christian J Strasburger, Stephan Petersenn
CONTEXT: Adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) is diagnosed by provocative testing of GH secretion. OBJECTIVE: To improve diagnostic accuracy of GH releasing hormone (GHRH) plus arginine (GARG) testing, we evaluated the influence of age, BMI, and sex, and established normative data for an automatic immunoassay specifically measuring 22kD human GH. DESIGN/SETTING: Prospective multicenter study. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-seven patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disease and 200 healthy controls...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931036/clinical-exome-sequencing-reveals-mkrn3-pathogenic-variants-in-familial-and-nonfamilial-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty
#14
Nelmar Valentina Ortiz-Cabrera, Rosa Riveiro-Álvarez, Miguel Ángel López-Martínez, Pilar Pérez-Segura, Isabel Aragón-Gómez, María José Trujillo-Tiebas, Leandro Soriano-Guillén
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) is the premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the absence of organic disease. Up to now, just gain-of-function mutations of KISS1/KISS1R and loss-of-function mutations of the maternally imprinted gene MKRN3 are the known genetic causes of ICPP. Our intention is to evaluate variants present in genes related to the pubertal onset pathway that could act as disease-causing or predisposing variants. METHODS: We studied the clinical exome of 20 patients diagnosed with ICPP using the Illumina platform...
December 9, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930953/adolescent-binge-alcohol-exposure-increases-risk-assessment-behaviors-in-male-wistar-rats-after-exposure-to-an-acute-psychological-stressor-in-adulthood
#15
Audrey Torcaso, AnnaDorothea Asimes, Margaret Meagher, Toni R Pak
Teenage binge drinking is a common practice that has been shown to increase the risk for developing mood disorders in adulthood. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often dysfunctional in mood disorder patients, and animal models of adolescent binge alcohol exposure similarly show disordered HPA axis function, even after long periods of alcohol abstinence. Here, we sought to investigate the anxiety-like behavioral consequences of binge alcohol exposure in a Wistar rat model. Male rats were administered alcohol in a binge pattern during peri-puberty, and one month later, anxiety-like behaviors were measured using the elevated plus maze...
November 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930715/apparent-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-suppression-via-reduction-of-interleukin-6-by-glucocorticoid-therapy-in-systemic-autoimmune-diseases
#16
Natsuki Fujio, Shotaro Masuoka, Kotaro Shikano, Natsuko Kusunoki, Toshihiro Nanki, Shinichi Kawai
CONTEXT: Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a serious complication of systemic glucocorticoid therapy. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the influence of proinflammatory cytokines on the HPA axis after onset of glucocorticoid therapy in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-eight glucocorticoid-naïve patients with systemic autoimmune diseases (28 women) who were starting prednisolone therapy according to our standard regimens were prospectively observed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929385/the-metabolic-implications-of-glucocorticoids-in-a-high-fat-diet-setting-and-the-counter-effects-of-exercise
#17
REVIEW
Emily C Dunford, Michael C Riddell
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones, naturally produced by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, that mediate the immune and metabolic systems. Synthetic GCs are used to treat a number of inflammatory conditions and diseases including lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Generally, chronic or high dose GC administration is associated with side effects such as steroid-induced skeletal muscle loss, visceral adiposity, and diabetes development. Patients who are taking exogenous GCs could also be more susceptible to poor food choices, but the effect that increasing fat consumption in combination with elevated exogenous GCs has only recently been investigated...
December 5, 2016: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928434/adrenalectomy-for-cushing-s-syndrome-do-s-and-don-ts
#18
REVIEW
Paduraru Dn, Nica A, Carsote M, Valea A
Aim. To present specific aspects of adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS) by introducing well established aspects ("do's") and less known aspects ("don'ts"). Material and Method. This is a narrative review. Results. The "do's" for laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) are the following: it represents the "gold standard" for secretor and non-secretor adrenal tumors and the first line therapy for CS with an improvement of cardio-metabolic co-morbidities; the success rate depending on the adequate patients' selection and the surgeon's skills...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926659/macroprolactinomas-and-nonfunctioning-pituitary-adenomas-and-pregnancy-outcomes
#19
Kimberley Lambert, Kate Rees, Paul T Seed, Mandish K Dhanjal, Marian Knight, David R McCance, Catherine Williamson
OBJECTIVE: To examine the monitoring, management, and outcomes of pituitary tumors in pregnancy. METHODS: A national, prospective, observational, population-based case series study was conducted in all U.K. consultant-led obstetric units over 3 years using the U.K. Obstetric Surveillance System. To evaluate rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes, women with a macroprolactinoma (10 mm or greater) or nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma, diagnosed before or during pregnancy, were compared with two comparison groups: 1) a U...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925794/endocrine-and-emotional-response-to-exclusion-among-women-and-men-cortisol-salivary-alpha-amylase-and-mood
#20
Liat Helpman, Julia Penso, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman, Eva Gilboa-Schechtman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Social exclusion is ubiquitous and painful. Evolutionary models indicate sex differences in coping with social stress. Recent empirical data suggests different sex patterns in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) reactivity. The present study sought to test this hypothesis. DESIGN: We examined differences in endocrine and emotional response to exclusion by using a virtual ball tossing paradigm (Cyberball)...
December 7, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
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