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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919343/characterizing-pathology-in-erythrocytes-using-morphological-and-biophysical-membrane-properties-relation-to-impaired-hemorheology-and-cardiovascular-function-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
Oore-Ofe O Olumuyiwa-Akeredolu, Prashilla Soma, Antoinette V Buys, Legesse Kassa Debusho, Etheresia Pretorius
The inflammatory burden of the complex Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) disease affects several organ-systems, including rheological properties of blood and its formed elements. Red blood cells (RBCs) are constantly exposed to circulating dysregulated inflammatory molecules that are co-transported within the vasculature; and their membranes may be particularly vulnerable to the accompanying oxidative stress. In the current study, we investigate biophysical and ultrastructural characteristics of RBCs obtained from a cohort of patients using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy (CM)...
September 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911812/relationships-between-residue-voronoi-volume-and-sequence-conservation-in-proteins
#2
Jen-Wei Liu, Chih-Wen Cheng, Yu-Feng Lin, Shao-Yu Chen, Jenn-Kang Hwang, Shih-Chung Yen
BACKGROUND: Functional and biophysical constraints can cause different levels of sequence conservation in proteins. Previously, structural properties, e.g., relative solvent accessibility (RSA) and packing density of the weighted contact number (WCN), have been found to be related to protein sequence conservation (CS). The Voronoi volume has recently been recognized as a new structural property of the local protein structural environment reflecting CS. However, for surface residues, it is sensitive to water molecules surrounding the protein structure...
September 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900152/a-3d-magnetic-tissue-stretcher-for-remote-mechanical-control-of-embryonic-stem-cell-differentiation
#3
Vicard Du, Nathalie Luciani, Sophie Richard, Gaëtan Mary, Cyprien Gay, François Mazuel, Myriam Reffay, Philippe Menasché, Onnik Agbulut, Claire Wilhelm
The ability to create a 3D tissue structure from individual cells and then to stimulate it at will is a major goal for both the biophysics and regenerative medicine communities. Here we show an integrated set of magnetic techniques that meet this challenge using embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We assessed the impact of magnetic nanoparticles internalization on ESCs viability, proliferation, pluripotency and differentiation profiles. We developed magnetic attractors capable of aggregating the cells remotely into a 3D embryoid body...
September 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893684/gelatin-based-bio-films-prepared-from-grey-triggerfish-skin-influenced-by-enzymatic-pretreatment
#4
Nabil Souissi, Ola Abdelhedi, Aïcha Mbarek, Wassim Kammoun, Hela Kechaou, Moncef Nasri
Gelatins from grey triggerfish skin were extracted with different methods The supplementation by pepsin (PG) improved the yield of extraction when compared with untreated gelatin (UG) and acidic gelatin (AG). The outputs of gelatins AG, UG and PG, obtained respectively, with acitic acid, glycine buffer and glycine buffer added with 5U of pepsin/g of the skin beforehand treated by alkali, were 6.9%, 7.9% and 9.7%, respectively. The enzymatic treatment of the alkali-pretreated skin of grey triggerfish altered the electrophoresis profile, biophysical, gellification, rheological and thermal properties of the prepared gelatins extracted under acidic condition...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892583/fluorescent-probe-dcvj-shows-high-sensitivity-for-characterization-of-amyloid-beta-peptide-early-in-the-lag-phase
#5
Sureshbabu Nagarajan, Lisa Jill Lapidus
The aggregation of intrinsically disordered and misfolded proteins in the form of oligomers and fibrils plays a crucial role in a number of neuro and non-neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, most probes and biophysical techniques that detect and characterize fibrils to high resolution fail to show sensitivity and binding for oligomers. Here we show 9-(dicyano-vinyl) julolidine (DCVJ), a class of molecular rotor, binds Aβ early aggregates and reports on the kinetics as well as packing of oligomer formation...
September 11, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883655/label-free-characterization-of-ultra-violet-radiation-induced-changes-in-skin-fibroblasts-with-raman-spectroscopy-and-quantitative-phase-microscopy
#6
S P Singh, Sungsam Kang, Jeon Woong Kang, Peter T C So, Ramanchandra Rao Dasari, Zahid Yaqoob, Ishan Barman
Minimizing morbidities and mortalities associated with skin cancers requires sustained research with the goal of obtaining fresh insights into disease onset and progression under specific stimuli, particularly the influence of ultraviolet rays. In the present study, label-free profiling of skin fibroblasts exposed to time-bound ultra-violet radiation has been performed using quantitative phase imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Statistically significant differences in quantifiable biophysical parameters, such as matter density and cell dry mass, were observed with phase imaging...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862328/an-allosteric-gating-model-recapitulates-the-biophysical-properties-of-ik-l-expressed-in-mouse-vestibular-type-i-hair-cells
#7
Paolo Spaiardi, Elisa Tavazzani, Marco Manca, Veronica Milesi, Giancarlo Russo, Ivo Prigioni, Walter Marcotti, Jacopo Magistretti, Sergio Masetto
Type I and Type II hair cells are the sensory receptors of the mammalian vestibular epithelia. Type I hair cells are characterized by their basolateral membrane being enveloped in a single large afferent nerve terminal, named calyx, and by the expression of a low-voltage-activated outward rectifying K(+) current, IK,L . The biophysical properties and molecular profile of IK,L are still largely unknown. By using the patch-clamp whole-cell technique, we examined the voltage- and time-dependent properties of IK,L in Type I hair cells of the mouse semicircular canal...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854376/effect-of-ambient-light-on-the-time-needed-to-complete-a-fetal-biophysical-profile-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Heather M Said, Shweta Gupta, Laura K Vricella, Katy Wand, Thinh Nguyen, Gilad Gross
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine whether ambient light serves as a fetal stimulus to decrease the amount of time needed to complete a biophysical profile. STUDY DESIGN: This is a randomized controlled trial of singleton gestations undergoing a biophysical profile. Patients were randomized to either ambient light or a darkened room. The primary outcome was the time needed to complete the biophysical profile. Secondary outcomes included total and individual component biophysical profile scores and scores less than 8...
August 23, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839286/sensing-coral-reef-connectivity-pathways-from-space
#9
Dionysios E Raitsos, Robert J W Brewin, Peng Zhan, Denis Dreano, Yaswant Pradhan, Gerrit B Nanninga, Ibrahim Hoteit
Coral reefs rely on inter-habitat connectivity to maintain gene flow, biodiversity and ecosystem resilience. Coral reef communities of the Red Sea exhibit remarkable genetic homogeneity across most of the Arabian Peninsula coastline, with a genetic break towards the southern part of the basin. While previous studies have attributed these patterns to environmental heterogeneity, we hypothesize that they may also emerge as a result of dynamic circulation flow; yet, such linkages remain undemonstrated. Here, we integrate satellite-derived biophysical observations, particle dispersion model simulations, genetic population data and ship-borne in situ profiles to assess reef connectivity in the Red Sea...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819244/light-scattering-by-optically-trapped-vesicles-affords-unprecedented-temporal-resolution-of-lipid-raft-dynamics
#10
Liam Collard, David Perez-Guaita, Bayan H A Faraj, Bayden R Wood, Russell Wallis, Peter W Andrew, Andrew J Hudson
A spectroscopic technique is presented that is able to identify rapid changes in the bending modulus and fluidity of vesicle lipid bilayers on the micrometer scale, and distinguish between the presence and absence of heterogeneities in lipid-packing order. Individual unilamellar vesicles have been isolated using laser tweezers and, by measuring the intensity modulation of elastic back-scattered light, changes in the biophysical properties of lipid bilayers were revealed. Our approach offers unprecedented temporal resolution and, uniquely, physical transformations of lipid bilayers can be monitored on a length scale of micrometers...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815923/biophysical-screening-of-a-focused-library-for-the-discovery-of-cyp121-inhibitors-as-novel-antimycobacterials
#11
Christian Brengel, Andreas Thomann, Alexander Schifrin, Giuseppe Allegretta, Ahmed A M Kamal, Joerg Haupenthal, Isabell Schnorr, Sang Hyun Cho, Scott Gary Franzblau, Martin Empting, Jens Eberhard, Rolf W Hartmann
The development of novel antimycobacterial agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is urgently required due to the appearance of multi-drug resistance (MDR) combined with a complicated long-term treatment. CYP121 was shown to be a promising novel target for inhibition of mycobacterial growth. In this study, we describe the rational discovery of new CYP121 inhibitors by a systematic screening based on biophysical and microbiological methods. Best hits originating from only one structural class gave first information about molecular motifs required for binding and activity...
August 16, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807238/unravelling-the-complexity-of-signalling-networks-in-cancer-a-review-of-the-increasing-role-for-computational-modelling
#12
REVIEW
John Garland
Cancer induction is a highly complex process involving hundreds of different inducers but whose eventual outcome is the same. Clearly, it is essential to understand how signalling pathways and networks generated by these inducers interact to regulate cell behaviour and create the cancer phenotype. While enormous strides have been made in identifying key networking profiles, the amount of data generated far exceeds our ability to understand how it all "fits together". The number of potential interactions is astronomically large and requires novel approaches and extreme computation methods to dissect them out...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806050/linking-high-throughput-screens-to-identify-moas-and-novel-inhibitors-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dihydrofolate-reductase
#13
John P Santa Maria, Yumi Park, Lihu Yang, Nicholas Murgolo, Michael D Altman, Paul Zuck, Greg Adam, Chad Chamberlin, Peter Saradjian, Peter Dandliker, Helena I M Boshoff, Clifton E Barry, Charles Garlisi, David B Olsen, Katherine Young, Meir Glick, Elliott Nickbarg, Peter S Kutchukian
Though phenotypic and target-based high-throughput screening approaches have been employed to discover new antibiotics, the identification of promising therapeutic candidates remains challenging. Each approach provides different information, and understanding their results can provide hypotheses for a mechanism of action (MoA) and reveal actionable chemical matter. Here, we describe a framework for identifying efficacy targets of bioactive compounds. High throughput biophysical profiling against a broad range of targets coupled with machine learning was employed to identify chemical features with predicted efficacy targets for a given phenotypic screen...
August 29, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801508/intricate-and-cell-type-specific-populations-of-endogenous-circular-dna-eccdna-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-homo-sapiens
#14
Massa J Shoura, Idan Gabdank, Loren Hansen, Jason Merker, Jason Gotlib, Stephen D Levene, Andrew Z Fire
Investigations aimed at defining the 3-D configuration of eukaryotic chromosomes have consistently encountered an endogenous population of chromosome-derived circular genomic DNA, referred to as extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA). While the production, distribution, and activities of eccDNAs remain understudied, eccDNA formation from specific regions of the linear genome has profound consequences on the regulatory and coding capabilities for these regions. Here, we define eccDNA distributions in C. elegans and in three human cell types, utilizing a set of DNA-topology dependent approaches for enrichment and characterization...
August 11, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798065/self-organization-process-in-newborn-skin-organoid-formation-inspires-strategy-to-restore-hair-regeneration-of-adult-cells
#15
Mingxing Lei, Linus J Schumacher, Yung-Chih Lai, Wen-Tau Juan, Chao-Yuan Yeh, Ping Wu, Ting-Xin Jiang, Ruth E Baker, Randall Bruce Widelitz, Li Yang, Cheng-Ming Chuong
Organoids made from dissociated progenitor cells undergo tissue-like organization. This in vitro self-organization process is not identical to embryonic organ formation, but it achieves a similar phenotype in vivo. This implies genetic codes do not specify morphology directly; instead, complex tissue architectures may be achieved through several intermediate layers of cross talk between genetic information and biophysical processes. Here we use newborn and adult skin organoids for analyses. Dissociated cells from newborn mouse skin form hair primordia-bearing organoids that grow hairs robustly in vivo after transplantation to nude mice...
August 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780391/structural-characterization-and-physicochemical-stability-profile-of-a-double-mutant-heat-labile-toxin-protein-based-adjuvant
#16
Vishal M Toprani, John M Hickey, Neha Sahni, Ronald T Toth, George A Robertson, C Russell Middaugh, Sangeeta B Joshi, David B Volkin
A novel protein adjuvant double-mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, LT (R192G/L211A) or dmLT, is in preclinical and early clinical development with various vaccine candidates. Structural characterization and formulation development of dmLT will play a key role in its successful process development, scale-up/transfer, and commercial manufacturing. This work describes extensive analytical characterization of structural integrity and physicochemical stability profile of dmLT from a lyophilized clinical formulation...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769790/phenotypic-screening-identifies-synergistically-acting-natural-product-enhancing-the-performance-of-biomaterial-based-wound-healing
#17
Srinivasan Sivasubramanian, Gayathri Chandrasekar, Sara Svensson Akusjärvi, Ramar Thangam, Malairaj Sathuvan, R B S Kumar, Hawraa Hussein, Savariar Vincent, Balaraman Madhan, Palani Gunasekaran, Satish S Kitambi
The potential of multifunctional wound heal biomaterial relies on the optimal content of therapeutic constituents as well as the desirable physical, chemical, and biological properties to accelerate the healing process. Formulating biomaterials such as amnion or collagen based scaffolds with natural products offer an affordable strategy to develop dressing material with high efficiency in healing wounds. Using image based phenotyping and quantification, we screened natural product derived bioactive compounds for modulators of types I and III collagen production from human foreskin derived fibroblast cells...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756153/hybrid-pharmacophore-approach-for-bio-relevant-di-imines-based-homobimetallic-complexes-incorporating-functionalized-dicarboxylates-as-co-ligands-synthesis-spectral-and-structural-activity-dependent-biological-insights-in-vitro-dna-and-hsa-binding-antioxidant
#18
Mohammad Shakir, Summaiya Hanif, Md Fazle Alam, Mohd Farhan, Hina Younus
Synthesis of bio-efficient homobimetallic complexes, [Cu2(L(1))2(dipic)](NO3)2.3H2O (1), [Zn2(L(1))2(dipic)](NO3)2.4H2O (2), [Cu2(L(2))2(oxa)](NO3)2.4H2O (3) and [Zn2(L(2))2(oxa)] (NO3)2.5H2O (4) was carried out using Schiff bases [(N(1)E,N(2)E)-N(1),N(2)-bis(5-chlorothiophen-2-ylmethylene)-4-chlorobenzene-1,2-diamine; L(1)] and [(N(1)E,N(2)E)-N(1),N(2)-bis(5-chlorofuran-2-ylmethylene)-4-chlorobenzene-1,2-diamine; L(2)] as main ligands and dicarboxylate moieties of 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (H2-dipic) and oxalic acid (H2-oxa) as co-ligands, respectively in order to apprehend their structure activity relationships on the basis of pharmacophore hybrid approach...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743969/human-amniotic-membrane-as-newly-identified-source-of-amniotic-fluid-pulmonary-surfactant
#19
Angela Lemke, José Carlos Castillo-Sánchez, Florian Prodinger, Asja Ceranic, Simone Hennerbichler-Lugscheider, Jesús Pérez-Gil, Heinz Redl, Susanne Wolbank
Pulmonary surfactant (PS) reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface in the alveolar epithelium of the lung, which is required for breathing and for the pulmonary maturity of the developing foetus. However, the origin of PS had never been thoroughly investigated, although it was assumed to be secreted from the foetal developing lung. Human amniotic membrane (hAM), particularly its epithelial cell layer, composes the amniotic sac enclosing the amniotic fluid. In this study, we therefore aimed to investigate a potential contribution of the cellular components of the hAM to pulmonary surfactant found in amniotic fluid...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735215/estimation-of-individual-axon-bundle-properties-by-a-multi-resolution-discrete-search-method
#20
Ricardo Coronado-Leija, Alonso Ramirez-Manzanares, Jose Luis Marroquin
A stable, accurate and robust-to-noise method for the estimation of the intra-voxel bundle-wise diffusion properties for diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is presented. The proposed method overcomes some of the limitations of most of the multi-fiber algorithms in the literature and extends them to estimate the diffusion profiles, improving the estimation of the intra-voxel geometry at challenging microstructure configurations, that is to say: relatively small crossing angles, different voxel-wise anisotropic diffusion profiles and low SNR...
June 29, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
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