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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304430/-force-from-lipids-gating-of-mechanosensitive-channels-modulated-by-pufas
#1
Pietro Ridone, Stephan L Grage, Amrutha Patkunarajah, Andrew R Battle, Anne S Ulrich, Boris Martinac
The level of fatty acid saturation in phospholipids is a crucial determinant of the biophysical properties of the lipid bilayer. Integral membrane proteins are sensitive to changes of their bilayer environment such that their activities and localization can be profoundly affected. When incorporated into phospholipids of mammalian cells, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) determine the mechanical properties of the bilayer thereby affecting several membrane-associated functions such as endo- and exo-cytosis and ion channel/membrane receptor signalling cascades...
December 28, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289281/mesoporous-carbon-nanomaterials-induced-pulmonary-surfactant-inhibition-cytotoxicity-inflammation-and-lung-fibrosis
#2
Yunan Chen, Yi Yang, Bolong Xu, Shunhao Wang, Bin Li, Juan Ma, Jie Gao, Yi Y Zuo, Sijin Liu
Environmental exposure and health risk upon engineered nanomaterials are increasingly concerned. The family of mesoporous carbon nanomaterials (MCNs) is a rising star in nanotechnology for multidisciplinary research with versatile applications in electronics, energy and gas storage, and biomedicine. Meanwhile, there is mounting concern on their environmental health risks due to the growing production and usage of MCNs. The lung is the primary site for particle invasion under environmental exposure to nanomaterials...
December 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276160/management-and-outcome-of-reduced-fetal-movements-is-ultrasound-necessary
#3
Nasser Abu Awad, Thomas Jordan, Robert Mundle, Dan Farine
OBJECTIVE: To review the management and outcome of pregnancies of women presenting to obstetrical triage with decreased fetal movements (DFM). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of women presenting with DFMs to two large Canadian obstetrical centres with a combined 9490 deliveries per year. The charts were reviewed for compliance with the Canadian guidelines for demographics (age, parity, GA, comorbidities, etc.), pregnancy management (admission vs. discharge, need to deliver), and pregnancy outcomes (mortality, morbidity, GA at delivery, Apgar scores, etc...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273721/topographical-diversity-of-common-skin-microflora-and-its-association-with-skin-environment-type-an-observational-study-in-chinese-women
#4
Xi Li, Chao Yuan, Licong Xing, Philippe Humbert
This study evaluated cutaneous microbial distribution, and microbial co-occurrence at different body sites and skin environments in Chinese women (39.6 ± 11.9 years, N = 100) during the winter season. Microbial distribution (Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonadaceae, and Malassezia furfur), association with biomarkers (antimicrobial peptides: LL-37, β-defensins [HBD-2, HBD-3]), and claudin-1) and skin biophysical parameters (transepidermal water loss, pH, skin scaliness and roughness, sebum and hydration levels) were also determined...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239603/thermodynamics-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-fibril-elongation-atomistic-details-of-the-transition-state
#5
Roberto A Rodriguez, Liao Y Chen, Germán Plascencia-Villa, George Perry
Amyloid-β (Aβ) fibrils and plaques are one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. While the kinetics of fibrillar growth of Aβ have been extensively studied, several vital questions remain. In particular, the atomistic origins of the Arrhenius barrier observed in experiments have not been elucidated. Employing the familiar thermodynamic integration method, we have directly simulated the dissociation of an Aβ(15-40) (D23N mutant) peptide from the surface of a filament along its most probable path (MPP) using all-atom molecular dynamics...
December 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210510/glycosaminoglycan-and-proteoglycan-based-biomaterials-current-trends-and-future-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Jelena Rnjak-Kovacina, Fengying Tang, John M Whitelock, Megan S Lord
Proteoglycans and their glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are essential for life as they are responsible for orchestrating many essential functions in development and tissue homeostasis, including biophysical properties and roles in cell signaling and extracellular matrix assembly. In an attempt to capture these biological functions, a range of biomaterials are designed to incorporate off-the-shelf GAGs, typically isolated from animal sources, for tissue engineering, drug delivery, and regenerative medicine applications...
December 6, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182873/mechanical-unfolding-of-macromolecules-coupled-to-bond-dissociation
#7
Ariane Nunes-Alves, Guilherme Menegon Arantes
Single molecule force spectroscopy has become a powerful tool to investigate molecular mechanisms in biophysics and materials science. In particular, the new field of polymer mechanochemistry has emerged to study how tension may induce chemical reactions in a macromolecule. A rich example is the mechanical unfolding of the metalloprotein rubredoxin coupled to dissociation of iron-sulfur bonds that has recently been studied in detail by atomic force microscopy. Here, we present a simple molecular model composed of a classical all-atom force field description, implicit solvation and steered molecular dynamics simulation to describe the mechanical properties and mechanism of forced unfolding coupled to covalent bond dissociation of macromolecules...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170011/dna-melting-and-energetics-of-the-double-helix
#8
REVIEW
Alexander Vologodskii, Maxim D Frank-Kamenetskii
Studying melting and energetics of the DNA double helix has been one of the major topics of molecular biophysics over the past six decades. The main objective of this article is to overview the current state of the field and to emphasize that there are still serious gaps in our understanding of the issue. We start with a concise description of the commonly accepted theoretical model of the DNA melting. We then concentrate on studies devoted to the comparison with experiment of theoretically predicted melting profiles of DNAs with known sequences...
November 14, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145393/estimating-the-probabilities-of-rare-arrhythmic-events-in-multiscale-computational-models-of-cardiac-cells-and-tissue
#9
Mark A Walker, Viatcheslav Gurev, John J Rice, Joseph L Greenstein, Raimond L Winslow
Ectopic heartbeats can trigger reentrant arrhythmias, leading to ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Such events have been attributed to perturbed Ca2+ handling in cardiac myocytes leading to spontaneous Ca2+ release and delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs). However, the ways in which perturbation of specific molecular mechanisms alters the probability of ectopic beats is not understood. We present a multiscale model of cardiac tissue incorporating a biophysically detailed three-dimensional model of the ventricular myocyte...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129207/fusion-pore-in-exocytosis-more-than-an-exit-gate-a-%C3%AE-cell-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Benoit Hastoy, Anne Clark, Patrik Rorsman, Jochen Lang
Secretory vesicle exocytosis is a fundamental biological event and the process by which hormones (like insulin) are released into the blood. Considerable progress has been made in understanding this precisely orchestrated sequence of events from secretory vesicle docked at the cell membrane, hemifusion, to the opening of a membrane fusion pore. The exact biophysical and physiological regulation of these events implies a close interaction between membrane proteins and lipids in a confined space and constrained geometry to ensure appropriate delivery of cargo...
December 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124054/a-method-for-the-analysis-of-ap-foot-convexity-insights-into-smooth-muscle-biophysics
#11
Shailesh Appukuttan, Mithun Padmakumar, Keith L Brain, Rohit Manchanda
Action potential (AP) profiles vary based on the cell type, with cells of the same type typically producing APs with similar shapes. But in certain syncytial tissues, such as the smooth muscle of the urinary bladder wall, even a single cell is known to exhibit APs with diverse profiles. The origin of this diversity is not currently understood, but is often attributed to factors such as syncytial interactions and the spatial distribution of parasympathetic nerve terminals. Thus, the profile of an action potential is determined by the inherent properties of the cell and influenced by its biophysical environment...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122925/genetic-circuit-characterization-and-debugging-using-rna-seq
#12
Thomas E Gorochowski, Amin Espah Borujeni, Yongjin Park, Alec Ak Nielsen, Jing Zhang, Bryan S Der, D Benjamin Gordon, Christopher A Voigt
Genetic circuits implement computational operations within a cell. Debugging them is difficult because their function is defined by multiple states (e.g., combinations of inputs) that vary in time. Here, we develop RNA-seq methods that enable the simultaneous measurement of: (i) the states of internal gates, (ii) part performance (promoters, insulators, terminators), and (iii) impact on host gene expression. This is applied to a three-input one-output circuit consisting of three sensors, five NOR/NOT gates, and 46 genetic parts...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121574/in-vitro-interaction-of-cefotaxime-with-calf-thymus-dna-insights-from-spectroscopic-calorimetric-and-molecular-modelling-studies
#13
Faizan Abul Qais, Iqbal Ahmad
Cefotaxime is third generation antibiotic with known therapeutic efficacy against bacterial infections including cerebral abscesses and bacterial meningitis. The β-lactam group of drugs are considered safest antibiotics. Many antibiotics directly interact with DNA and alter their expression profile. Thus, it is necessary to understand the binding mode and its relevance to drug activity and toxicity. There is considerably a remarkable focus on deciphering the binding mechanism of these therapeutic agents as DNA is one of the major target for wide range of drugs...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113034/directed-evolution-of-recombinant-c-terminal-truncated-staphylococcus-epidermidis-lipase-at2-for-the-enhancement-of-thermostability
#14
Jiivittha Veno, Nor Hafizah Ahmad Kamarudin, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad Ali, Malihe Masomian, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd Rahman
In the industrial processes, lipases are expected to operate at temperatures above 45 °C and could retain activity in organic solvents. Hence, a C-terminal truncated lipase from Staphylococcus epidermis AT2 (rT-M386) was engineered by directed evolution. A mutant with glycine-to-cysteine substitution (G210C) demonstrated a remarkable improvement of thermostability, whereby the mutation enhanced the activity five-fold when compared to the rT-M386 at 50 °C. The rT-M386 and G210C lipases were purified concurrently using GST-affinity chromatography...
November 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069587/biophysical-variation-within-the-m1-type-of-ganglion-cell-photoreceptor
#15
Alan J Emanuel, Kush Kapur, Michael Tri H Do
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells of the M1 type encode environmental irradiance for functions that include circadian and pupillary regulation. Their distinct role, morphology, and molecular markers indicate that they are stereotyped circuit elements, but their physiological uniformity has not been investigated in a systematic fashion. We have profiled the biophysical parameters of mouse M1s and found that extreme variation is their hallmark. Most parameters span 1-3 log units, and the full range is evident in M1s that innervate brain regions serving divergent functions...
October 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064795/the-impact-of-emergent-infections-on-the-fetal-state
#16
Liudmyla A Vygivska, Iryna O Tuchkina, Violetta B Kalnytska
THE AIM: To study the impact of emergent infections (human herpesvirus type 6) on the fetal state. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved examination of 90 pregnant women in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of gestation (Group 1 (25 pregnant) consisted of patients with a viral infection, CMV carriers, Group 2 (25 pregnant) included women with a viral infection, herpes simplex virus types 1/2, Group 3 amounted for 20 patients with a viral infection, herpes simplex virus type 6, Group 4 comprised 20 patients with normal pregnancy and no signs of infection...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061904/chlorophyll-can-be-reduced-in-crop-canopies-with-little-penalty-to-photosynthesis
#17
Berkley J Walker, Darren T Drewry, Rebecca A Slattery, Andy VanLoocke, Young B Cho, Donald R Ort
The hypothesis that reducing chlorophyll content (Chl) can increase canopy photosynthesis in soybeans was tested using an advanced model of canopy photosynthesis. The relationship between leaf Chl, leaf optical properties, and photosynthetic biochemical capacity were measured in 67 soybean accessions showing large variation in leaf Chl. These relationships were integrated into a biophysical model of canopy-scale photosynthesis to simulate the inter-canopy light environment and carbon assimilation capacity of canopies with WT, a Chl-deficient mutant (Y11y11), and 67 other mutants spanning the extremes of Chl to quantify the impact of variation in leaf-level Chl on canopy-scale photosynthetic assimilation and identify possible opportunities for improving canopy photosynthesis through Chl reduction...
October 23, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040270/analysis-of-the-interaction-of-plexin-b1-and-plexin-b2-with-rnd-family-proteins
#18
Thomas Wylie, Ritu Garg, Anne J Ridley, Maria R Conte
The Rnd family of proteins, Rnd1, Rnd2 and Rnd3, are atypical Rho family GTPases, which bind to but do not hydrolyse GTP. They interact with plexins, which are receptors for semaphorins, and are hypothesised to regulate plexin signalling. We recently showed that each Rnd protein has a distinct profile of interaction with three plexins, Plexin-B1, Plexin-B2 and Plexin-B3, in mammalian cells, although it is unclear which region(s) of these plexins contribute to this specificity. Here we characterise the binary interactions of the Rnd proteins with the Rho-binding domain (RBD) of Plexin-B1 and Plexin-B2 using biophysical approaches...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028292/dynamics-of-soil-biogeochemical-gas-emissions-shaped-by-remolded-aggregate-sizes-and-carbon-configurations-under-hydration-cycles
#19
Ali Ebrahimi, Dani Or
Changes in soil hydration status affect microbial community dynamics and shape key biogeochemical processes. Evidence suggests that local anoxic conditions may persist and support anaerobic microbial activity in soil aggregates (or in similar hot spots) long after the bulk soil becomes aerated. To facilitate systematic studies of interactions among environmental factors with biogeochemical emissions of CO2 , N2 O and CH4 from soil aggregates, we remolded silt soil aggregates to different sizes and incorporated carbon at different configurations (core, mixed, no addition)...
October 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026301/rational-design-of-novel-fluorescent-tagged-glutamic-acid-dendrimers-with-different-terminal-groups-and-in-silico-analysis-of-their-properties
#20
Nuno Martinho, Liana C Silva, Helena F Florindo, Steve Brocchini, Mire Zloh, Teresa S Barata
Dendrimers are hyperbranched polymers with a multifunctional architecture that can be tailored for the use in various biomedical applications. Peptide dendrimers are particularly relevant for drug delivery applications due to their versatility and safety profile. The overall lack of knowledge of their three-dimensional structure, conformational behavior and structure-activity relationship has slowed down their development. Fluorophores are often conjugated to dendrimers to study their interaction with biomolecules and provide information about their mechanism of action at the molecular level...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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