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Biophysical profile

Marcel Stenvang, Nicholas P Schafer, Kirsten Gade Malmos, Adriana-Michelle Wolf Pérez, Olatz Niembro, Pietro Sormanni, Rajiv Vaid Basaiawmoit, Gunna Christiansen, Maria Andreasen, Daniel E Otzen
Numerous mutations in the corneal protein TGFBIp lead to opaque extracellular deposits and corneal dystrophies (CDs). Here we elucidate the molecular origins underlying TGFBIp's mutation-induced increase in aggregation propensity through comprehensive biophysical and bioinformatic analyses of mutations associated with every major subtype of TGFBIp-linked CDs including lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD) and three subtypes of granular corneal dystrophy (GCD 1-3). LCD mutations at buried positions in the C-terminal Fas1-4 domain lead to decreased stability...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Jiaojiao Hou, Yuan Li, Xüxia Ren, Fei Gao, Yuqin Chen, Yaoxing Yi, Lili Kang, Yürui Luo, Mei Yang
Aquaporin-9 (AQP9) is an aquaglyceroporin that biophysically conducts water, glycerol, and other small solutes. AQP9 is expressed in hepatocytes on the sinusoidal surfaces of hepatocyte plates in the liver, where it is considered responsible for the glycerol uptake in gluconeogenesis. However, limited information is available on the expression and regulating mechanism of AQP9 in different hyperglycemia models. Thus, this study examined the expression patterns of AQP9 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) to clarify the roles and regulating mechanism of AQP9 in gluconeogenesis...
March 9, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Hao D Cheng, Sebastian K Grimm, Morgan Sa Gilman, Luc Christian Gwom, Devin Sok, Christopher Sundling, Gina Donofrio, Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam, Mattia Bonsignori, Barton F Haynes, Timothy P Lahey, Isaac Maro, C Fordham von Reyn, Miroslaw K Gorny, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Bruce D Walker, Galit Alter, Dennis R Burton, Merlin L Robb, Shelly J Krebs, Michael S Seaman, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Margaret E Ackerman
Major advances in donor identification, antigen probe design, and experimental methods to clone pathogen-specific antibodies have led to an exponential growth in the number of newly characterized broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that recognize the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Characterization of these bnAbs has defined new epitopes and novel modes of recognition that can result in potent neutralization of HIV-1. However, the translation of envelope recognition profiles in biophysical assays into an understanding of in vivo activity has lagged behind, and identification of subjects and mAbs with potent antiviral activity has remained reliant on empirical evaluation of neutralization potency and breadth...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Paraskevi L Tsiolaki, Georgia I Nasi, Fotis A Baltoumas, Nikolaos N Louros, Vassiliki Magafa, Stavros J Hamodrakas, Vassiliki A Iconomidou
The Calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) family is a group of peptide hormones, which consists of IAPP, calcitonin, adrenomedullin, intermedin, αCGRP and βCGRP. IAPP and calcitonin have been extensively associated with the formation of amyloid fibrils, causing Type 2 Diabetes and Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma, respectively. In contrast, the potential amyloidogenic properties of αCGRP still remain unexplored, although experimental trials have indicated its presence in deposits, associated with the aforementioned disorders...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Ebenezer Ajewole, Liliana Santamaria-Kisiel, Agnieszka Pajak, Mariusz Jaskolski, Frédéric Marsolais
L-asparaginases (EC play an important role in nitrogen mobilization in plants. Here, we investigated the biochemical and biophysical properties of potassium dependent (PvAspG1) and potassium independent (PvAspG-T2) L-asparaginases from Phaseolus vulgaris. Our previous studies revealed that PvAspG1 requires potassium for catalytic activation and its crystal structure suggested that Ser-118 in the activation loop plays a critical role in coordinating the metal cation. This amino acid residue is replaced by isoleucine in PvAspG-T2...
March 2, 2018: FEBS Journal
Pablo González-Isaza, Torello Lotti, Katlein França, Rafael Sanchez-Borrego, Juan Escribano Tórtola, Jacopo Lotti, Uwe Wollina, Georgi Tchernev, Nicola Zerbinati
OBJECTIVE: To describe the benefits and safety of using Carbon Dioxide Laser in multi-pulse modalities when performing labiaplasty and anatomical variants approach for functional and cosmetic indications. DESIGN: This is a prospective, descriptive case series study. SETTING: Private Practice Quirofano Calculaser Megacentro Pinares Pereira Colombia. POPULATION: One Hundred and twelve women seeking labia minora labiaplasty for functional and cosmetic reasons were enrolled in the study protocol from June 2013 to June 2016...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
David R Calabrese, Katherine Zlotkowski, Stephanie Alden, William M Hewitt, Colleen M Connelly, Robert M Wilson, Snehal Gaikwad, Lu Chen, Rajarshi Guha, Craig J Thomas, Beverly A Mock, John S Schneekloth
Approaches to characterize the nucleic acid-binding properties of drugs and druglike small molecules are crucial to understanding the behavior of these compounds in cellular systems. Here, we use a Small Molecule Microarray (SMM) profiling approach to identify the preferential interaction between chlorhexidine, a widely used oral antiseptic, and the G-quadruplex (G4) structure in the KRAS oncogene promoter. The interaction of chlorhexidine and related drugs to the KRAS G4 is evaluated using multiple biophysical methods, including thermal melt, fluorescence titration and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays...
February 22, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Mohammad Ghasem Hanafi, Aliakbar Sahraeizadeh
INTRODUCTION: The objective is to assess if fetal halogen light stimulation can reduce the time needed to obtain a normal biophysical profile (BPP). METHODS: Patients scheduled for a BPP and who satisfied the inclusion criteria were prospectively randomized to halogen light stimulation and no stimulation groups. The study group was exposed to handheld halogen light for 10 s whenever fetal breathing, movement, or tone was absent through the first 5 min of BPP. The time required to achieve complete BPP score was recorded...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Ying-Hsien Kao, Po-Han Chen, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Yo-Chen Chang, Yu-Chun Lin, Ming-Shian Tsai, Po-Huang Lee, Cheng-I Cheng
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a potent mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) during embryogenesis and injury repair of vessel walls. Whether mechanical stimuli modulate HDGF expression remains unknown. This study aimed at investigating whether cyclic mechanical stretch plays a regulatory role in HDGF expression and regenerative cytokine production in aortic SMCs. A SMC cell line was grown on a silicone-based elastomer chamber with extracellular matrix coatings (either type I collagen or fibronectin) and received cyclic and uni-axial mechanical stretches with 10% deformation at frequency 1 Hz...
February 21, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Haiying Zhang, Daniela Freitas, Han Sang Kim, Kristina Fabijanic, Zhong Li, Haiyan Chen, Milica Tesic Mark, Henrik Molina, Alberto Benito Martin, Linda Bojmar, Justin Fang, Sham Rampersaud, Ayuko Hoshino, Irina Matei, Candia M Kenific, Miho Nakajima, Anders Peter Mutvei, Pasquale Sansone, Weston Buehring, Huajuan Wang, Juan Pablo Jimenez, Leona Cohen-Gould, Navid Paknejad, Matthew Brendel, Katia Manova-Todorova, Ana Magalhães, José Alexandre Ferreira, Hugo Osório, André M Silva, Ashish Massey, Juan R Cubillos-Ruiz, Giuseppe Galletti, Paraskevi Giannakakou, Ana Maria Cuervo, John Blenis, Robert Schwartz, Mary Sue Brady, Héctor Peinado, Jacqueline Bromberg, Hiroshi Matsui, Celso A Reis, David Lyden
The heterogeneity of exosomal populations has hindered our understanding of their biogenesis, molecular composition, biodistribution and functions. By employing asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4), we identified two exosome subpopulations (large exosome vesicles, Exo-L, 90-120 nm; small exosome vesicles, Exo-S, 60-80 nm) and discovered an abundant population of non-membranous nanoparticles termed 'exomeres' (~35 nm). Exomere proteomic profiling revealed an enrichment in metabolic enzymes and hypoxia, microtubule and coagulation proteins as well as specific pathways, such as glycolysis and mTOR signalling...
March 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Christopher D Radka, Lauren L Radford, Adriana V F Massicano, Lawrence J DeLucas, Suzanne E Lapi, Stephen G Aller
We demonstrate a scalable method for the separation of the bacterial periplasm from the cytoplasm. This method is used to purify periplasmic protein for the purpose of biophysical characterization, and measure substrate transfer between periplasmic and cytoplasmic compartments. By carefully limiting the time that the periplasm is separated from the cytoplasm, the experimenter can extract the protein of interest and assay each compartment individually for substrate without carry-over contamination between compartments...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jingjie Mo, Renzhe Jin, Qingrong Yan, Izabela Sokolowska, Michael J Lewis, Ping Hu
Glycation has been observed in antibody therapeutics manufactured by the fed-batch fermentation process. It not only increases the heterogeneity of antibodies, but also potentially affects product safety and efficacy. In this study, non-glycated and glycated fractions enriched from a monoclonal antibody (mAb1) as well as glucose-stressed mAb1 were characterized using a variety of biochemical, biophysical and biological assays to determine the effects of glycation on the structure and function of mAb1. Glycation was detected at multiple lysine residues and reduced the antigen binding activity of mAb1...
February 13, 2018: MAbs
Aida Ebrahimi, Laszlo N Csonka, Muhammad A Alam
Heat treatment is one of the most widely used methods for inactivation of bacteria in food products. Heat-induced loss of bacterial viability has been variously attributed to protein denaturation, oxidative stress, or membrane leakage; indeed, it is likely to involve a combination of these processes. We examine the effect of mild heat stress (50-55°C for ≤12 min) on cell permeability by directly measuring the electrical conductance of samples of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to answer a fundamental biophysical question, namely, how bacteria die under mild heat stress...
February 6, 2018: Biophysical Journal
J Marto, P Pinto, M Fitas, L M Gonçalves, A J Almeida, H M Ribeiro
The safety profile of the ingredients used in topical dosage forms and its evaluation is an issue of utmost importance. A suitable equilibrium between safety and efficacy is crucial before promoting a dermatological product. The aim of this work was to assess the safety and biological effects of starch-based vehicles (St-BV) used in such products. The hazard, exposure and dose-response assessment were used to characterize the risk of each ingredient. The EpiSkin™ assay and human repeat insult patch tests were performed to compare the theoretical safety assessment to in vitro and in vivo data...
January 31, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Hideaki Yano, Alessandro Bonifazi, Min Xu, Daryl A Guthrie, Stephanie N Schneck, Ara M Abramyan, Andrew D Fant, W Conrad Hong, Amy H Newman, Lei Shi
The sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) is a structurally unique transmembrane protein that functions as a molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and has been implicated in cancer, neuropathic pain, and psychostimulant abuse. Despite physiological and pharmacological significance, mechanistic underpinnings of structure-function relationships of σ1R are poorly understood, and molecular interactions of selective ligands with σ1R have not been elucidated. The recent crystallographic determination of σ1R as a homo-trimer provides the foundation for mechanistic elucidation at the molecular level...
January 30, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Charlotte Leclaire, Karine Lecointe, Patrick A Gunning, Sandra Tribolo, Devon W Kavanaugh, Alexandra Wittmann, Dimitrios Latousakis, Donald A MacKenzie, Norihito Kawasaki, Nathalie Juge
Intestinal mucins trigger immune responses upon recognition by dendritic cells via protein-carbohydrate interactions. We used a combination of structural, biochemical, biophysical, and cell-based approaches to decipher the specificity of the interaction between mucin glycans and mammalian lectins expressed in the gut, including galectin (Gal)-3 and C-type lectin receptors. Gal-3 differentially recognized intestinal mucins with different O-glycosylation profiles, as determined by mass spectrometry (MS). Modification of mucin glycosylation, via chemical treatment leading to a loss of terminal glycans, promoted the interaction of Gal-3 to poly- N-acetyllactosamine...
January 29, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
K C Jonas, S Chen, M Virta, J Mora, S Franks, I Huhtaniemi, A C Hanyaloglu
Signal crosstalk between distinct G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is one mechanism that underlies pleiotropic signalling. Such crosstalk is also pertinent for GPCRs activated by gonadotrophic hormones; follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH), with specific relevance to female reproduction. Here, we demonstrate that gonadotrophin receptor crosstalk alters LH-induced Gαq/11-calcium profiles. LH-induced calcium signals in both heterologous and primary human granulosa cells were prolonged by FSHR coexpression via influx of extracellular calcium in a receptor specific manner...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alon Diament, Anna Feldman, Elisheva Schochet, Martin Kupiec, Yoav Arava, Tamir Tuller
Ribosome queuing is a fundamental phenomenon suggested to be related to topics such as genome evolution, synthetic biology, gene expression regulation, intracellular biophysics, and more. However, this phenomenon hasn't been quantified yet at a genomic level. Nevertheless, methodologies for studying translation (e.g. ribosome footprints) are usually calibrated to capture only single ribosome protected footprints (mRPFs) and thus limited in their ability to detect ribosome queuing. On the other hand, most of the models in the field assume and analyze a certain level of queuing...
January 29, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
G D Brand, M H S Ramada, T C Genaro-Mattos, C Bloch
Mature proteins can act as potential sources of encrypted bioactive peptides that, once released from their parent proteins, might interact with diverse biomolecular targets. In recent work we introduced a systematic methodology to uncover encrypted intragenic antimicrobial peptides (IAPs) within large protein sequence libraries. Given that such peptides may interact with membranes in different ways, resulting in distinct observable outcomes, it is desirable to develop a predictive methodology to categorize membrane active peptides and establish a link to their physicochemical properties...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nastaran Rizan, Chan Yen Yew, Maryam Rajabpour Niknam, Jegenathan Krishnasamy, Subha Bhassu, Goh Zee Hong, Sridevi Devadas, Mohamed Shariff Mohd Din, Hairul Anuar Tajuddin, Rofina Yasmin Othman, Siew Moi Phang, Mitsumasa Iwamoto, Vengadesh Periasamy
The exciting discovery of the semiconducting-like properties of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and its potential applications in molecular genetics and diagnostics in recent times has resulted in a paradigm shift in biophysics research. Recent studies in our laboratory provide a platform towards detecting charge transfer mechanism and understanding the electronic properties of DNA based on the sequence-specific electronic response, which can be applied as an alternative to identify or detect DNA. In this study, we demonstrate a novel method for identification of DNA from different shrimp viruses and bacteria using electronic properties of DNA obtained from both negative and positive bias regions in current-voltage (I-V) profiles...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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