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Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Richard J Bennett, B Gillian Turgeon
This article provides an overview of sexual reproduction in the ascomycetes, a phylum of fungi that is named after the specialized sacs or "asci" that hold the sexual spores. They have therefore also been referred to as the Sac Fungi due to these characteristic structures that typically contain four to eight ascospores. Ascomycetes are morphologically diverse and include single-celled yeasts, filamentous fungi, and more complex cup fungi. The sexual cycles of many species, including those of the model yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the filamentous saprobes Neurospora crassa, Aspergillus nidulans, and Podospora anserina, have been examined in depth...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
S Raposo, A Constantino, F Rodrigues, B Rodrigues, M E Lima-Costa
Nowadays, bioethanol production is one of the most important technologies by the necessity to identify alternative energy resources, principally when based on inexpensive renewable resources. However, the costs of 2nd-generation bioethanol production using current biotechnologies are still high compared to fossil fuels. The feasibility of bioethanol production, by obtaining high yields and concentrations of ethanol, using low-cost medium, is the primary goal, leading the research done today. Batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of high-density sugar from carob residues with different organic (yeast extract, peptone, urea) and inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate) was performed for evaluating a cost-effective ethanol production, with high ethanol yield and productivity...
October 19, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Amit Ghosh, David Ando, Jennifer Gin, Weerawat Runguphan, Charles Denby, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Chris Shymansky, Jay D Keasling, Héctor García Martín
Efficient redirection of microbial metabolism into the abundant production of desired bioproducts remains non-trivial. Here, we used flux-based modeling approaches to improve yields of fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We combined (13)C labeling data with comprehensive genome-scale models to shed light onto microbial metabolism and improve metabolic engineering efforts. We concentrated on studying the balance of acetyl-CoA, a precursor metabolite for the biosynthesis of fatty acids. A genome-wide acetyl-CoA balance study showed ATP citrate lyase from Yarrowia lipolytica as a robust source of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA and malate synthase as a desirable target for downregulation in terms of acetyl-CoA consumption...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Jordi Tronchoni, Jose Antonio Curiel, Pilar Morales, Rafael Torres-Pérez, Ramon Gonzalez
Advances in microbial wine biotechnology have led to the recent commercialization of several non-Saccharomyces starter cultures. These are intended to be used in either simultaneous or sequential inoculation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The different types of microbial interactions that can be stablished during wine fermentation acquire an increased relevance in the context of these mixed-starter fermentations. We analysed the transcriptional response to co-cultivation of S. cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Renwen Zhang, Xiaoxue Han, Zhanfeng Xia, Xiaoxia Luo, Chuanxing Wan, Lili Zhang
A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 49605(T), was isolated from a desert soil sample from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, north-west China, and characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain exhibited antifungal activity against the following strains: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium citrinum, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis; Antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus; and no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli...
October 17, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Leonor Rodríguez-Sánchez, Eduardo Rial
The uncoupling protein UCP1 from brown adipose tissue is a mitochondrial carrier which allows dissipation of metabolic energy as heat. We have characterized the human UCP1 (HsUCP1) recombinantly expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and we demonstrate that HsUCP1 is activated by fatty acids and retinoids in a nucleotide sensitive manner just as its rodent orthologs. However, in the absence of regulators, rodent UCP1 presents a high ohmic proton conductance that cannot be detected in HsUCP1. Since the human protein can be activated in a nucleotide sensitive manner, we conclude that it must have lost selectively the basal proton conductance...
October 14, 2016: Biochimie
Mathias Klein, Martina Carrillo, Joeline Xiberras, Zia-Ul Islam, Steve Swinnen, Elke Nevoigt
One advantage of using glycerol as a carbon source for industrial bioprocesses is its higher degree of reduction compared to glucose. In order to exploit this reducing power for the production of reduced compounds thereby significantly increasing maximum theoretical yields, the electrons derived from glycerol oxidation must first be saved in the form of cytosolic NAD(P)H. However, the industrial platform organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae naturally uses a FAD-dependent pathway for glycerol catabolism transferring the electrons to the respiratory chain...
October 14, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
Jifeng Yuan, Pranjul Mishra, Chi Bun Ching
Medium branched-chain esters can be used not only as a biofuel but are also useful chemicals with various industrial applications. The development of economically feasible and environment friendly bio-based fuels requires efficient cell factories capable of producing desired products in high yield. Herein, we sought to use a number of strategies to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for high-level production of branched-chain esters. Mitochondrion-based expression of ATF1 gene in a base strain with an overexpressed valine biosynthetic pathway together with expression of mitochondrion-relocalized α-ketoacid decarboxylase (encoded by ARO10) and alcohol dehydrogenase (encoded by ADH7) not only produced isobutyl acetate, but also 3-methyl-1-butyl acetate and 2-methyl-1-butyl acetate...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Kyosei Urafuji, Manabu Arioka
In mammals, three types of intracellular phospholipase A1 (iPLA1) enzymes have been characterized and are thought to be involved in various cellular processes such as phospholipid metabolism, organelle biogenesis, and membrane trafficking. In this study we analyzed the unique iPLA1-like protein, Yor022c, in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By the mass spectrometry analysis, we demonstrate that Yor022c is actually a phospholipase displaying sn-1-specific activity toward phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidic acid, generating 2-acyl lysophospholipids...
October 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Adam Kawałek, Chandhuru Jagadeesan, Ida J van der Klei
The non-bilayer forming lipids cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) modulate membrane curvature, facilitate membrane fusion and affect the stability and function of membrane proteins. Yeast peroxisomal membranes contain significant amounts of CL and PE. We analysed the effect of CL deficiency and PE depletion on peroxisome biogenesis and proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our data indicate that deletion of CRD1, which encodes cardiolipin synthase, does not affect peroxisome biogenesis or abundance, both at peroxisome repressing (glucose) or inducing (oleate) growth conditions...
October 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Peng-Fei Xia, Guo-Chang Zhang, Berkley Walker, Seung-Oh Seo, Suryang Kwak, Jingjing Liu, Heejin Kim, Donald Ort, Shu-Guang Wang, Yong-Su Jin
Global climate change caused by the emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses (GHGs) is a grand challenge to humanity. To alleviate the trend, the consumption of fossil fuels needs to be largely reduced and alternative energy technologies capable of controlling GHG emissions are anticipated. In this study, we introduced a synthetic reductive pentose phosphate pathway (rPPP) into a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain SR8 to achieve simultaneous lignocellulosic bioethanol production and carbon dioxide recycling...
October 17, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Dong H Cha, Alejandro E Mieles, Paola F Lahuatte, Andrea Cahuana, Marie Piedad Lincango, Charlotte E Causton, Sabine Tebbich, Arno Cimadom, Stephen A Teale
We investigated the role of olfactory cues from actively fermenting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in attraction of adult Philornis downsi and identified two synergistically attractive yeast volatiles. Larvae of this invasive fly parasitize the hatchlings of passerines and threaten the Galapagos avifauna. Gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and field trapping experiments were used to identify volatile compounds from a yeast-sugar solution...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Cecilia Andreu, Marcel Lí Del Olmo
Yeast surface display is a powerful tool widely used for many biotechnological and biomedical applications. It consists in exposing peptides and proteins of interest on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts. These molecules are fused to the amino or carboxy terminus of an appropriate cell wall protein, usually bound by glycosylphosphatidylinositol. Several systems for this purpose have been reported to date. In this work, we describe a new yeast surface display strategy based on cell wall protein Spi1 as an anchor, which is expressed in centromeric and episomal plasmids under the control of its own promoter or that corresponding to the PGK1 glycolytic gene...
October 15, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Velimir Gayevskiy, Soon Lee, Matthew R Goddard
Humans have acted as vectors for species and expanded their ranges since at least the dawn of agriculture. While relatively well characterized for macrofauna and macroflora, the extent and dynamics of human-aided microbial dispersal is poorly described. We studied the role which humans have played in manipulating the distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the world's most important microbes, using whole genome sequencing. We include 52 strains representative of the diversity in New Zealand to the global set of genomes for this species...
October 15, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Eziuche A Ugbogu, Ke Wang, Lilian M Schweizer, Michael Schweizer
Two of the five unlinked genes theoretically capable of encoding 5-phosphoribosyl-1(α)-pyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase (Prs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PRS1 and PRS5, contain in-frame insertions which separate the cation- and PRPP-binding sites, diagnostic of Prs polypeptides. The impairment of cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in strains lacking PRS1 and the synthetic lethality associated with loss of PRS1 and PRS5 imply that these insertions are not gratuitous. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that Prs1 interacts with the CWI MAPK pathway, only when Slt2 has been phosphorylated by Mkk1/2...
October 15, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Ja Kyong Ko, Youngsoon Um, Sun-Mi Lee
The efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the presence of inhibitors is highly desirable for bioethanol production. Among the inhibitors, acetic acid released during the pretreatment of lignocellulose negatively affects the fermentation performance of biofuel producing organisms. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of acetic acid on glucose and xylose fermentation by a high performance engineered strain of xylose utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SXA-R2P-E, harboring a xylose isomerase based pathway...
October 6, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Felix Kliewe, Jacqueline Kumme, Mathias Grigat, Stefan Hintze, Hans-Joachim Schüller
Structural genes of phospholipid biosynthesis in the yeast S. cerevisiae are transcribed when precursor molecules inositol and choline (IC) are limiting. Gene expression is stimulated by the heterodimeric activator Ino2/Ino4 which binds to ICRE (inositol/choline-responsive element) promoter sequences. Activation is prevented by repressor Opi1, counteracting Ino2 when high concentrations of IC are available. Here we show that ICRE-dependent gene activation is not only repressed by an excess of IC but also under conditions of phosphate starvation...
October 15, 2016: Yeast
Ali Altıntaş, Kristian Davidsen, Christian Garde, Uffe H Mortensen, J Christian Brasen, Thomas Sams, Christopher T Workman
Although the role of oxidative stress factors and their regulation is well studied, the temporal dynamics of stress recovery is still poorly understood. In particular, measuring the kinetics of stress recovery in the first minutes after acute exposure provides a powerful technique for assessing the role of regulatory proteins or enzymes through the use of mutant backgrounds. This project endeavors to screen the temporal dynamics of intracellular oxidant levels in live cells as a function of gene deletion in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
October 11, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
L F A Guimarães, M Halpern, A S de Lemos, E F de Gouvêa, R T Gonçalves, M A A da Rosa Santos, M Nucci, G Santoro-Lopes
INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is an important complication after solid organ transplantation (SOT). A marked geographic variation in the epidemiology of IFD after kidney transplantation (KT) has been suggested by the results of previous studies. Nevertheless, data from Latin American centers are scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to describe the epidemiology of IFD at a Brazilian KT center. METHODS: This study was a retrospective single-center cohort study that included patients who underwent KT between 1998 and 2009 and were followed up until July 2015...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Trey K Sato, Mary Tremaine, Lucas S Parreiras, Alexander S Hebert, Kevin S Myers, Alan J Higbee, Maria Sardi, Sean J McIlwain, Irene M Ong, Rebecca J Breuer, Ragothaman Avanasi Narasimhan, Mick A McGee, Quinn Dickinson, Alex La Reau, Dan Xie, Mingyuan Tian, Jennifer L Reed, Yaoping Zhang, Joshua J Coon, Chris Todd Hittinger, Audrey P Gasch, Robert Landick
The inability of native Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert xylose from plant biomass into biofuels remains a major challenge for the production of renewable bioenergy. Despite extensive knowledge of the regulatory networks controlling carbon metabolism in yeast, little is known about how to reprogram S. cerevisiae to ferment xylose at rates comparable to glucose. Here we combined genome sequencing, proteomic profiling, and metabolomic analyses to identify and characterize the responsible mutations in a series of evolved strains capable of metabolizing xylose aerobically or anaerobically...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
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