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condyle fracture

Norachart Sirisreetreerux, Babar Shafiq, Greg M Osgood, Erik A Hasenboehler
OBJECTIVES: To determine the location of distal medial neurovascular structures, identifying a medial "safe zone" for minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis to treat displaced femoral condylar fractures. METHODS: Eleven uninjured lower-half torsos were dissected on the bilateral medial lower thigh. A longitudinal incision was made at the midsagittal plane of the medial thigh starting 1 cm proximal to the knee joint and extending to the proximal one-third of the femur...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Arunesh Tiwari, Jeevan Lata, Madan Mishra
AIMS: This study was set out to evaluate the relationship between the presence and absence of unerupted mandibular third molar and fracture of mandibular angle/condyle, and to analyse if prophylactic removal of symptom-free unerupted mandibular third molar is beneficial. METHODS: Hundred patients of mandible fracture were selected randomly irrespective of age, sex, caste, creed and socio-economic status. Data were collected from the patients on the basis of history, clinical examination and radiographs for the following information: age, sex, aetiology of fracture, presence and status of the mandibular third molar and location of mandible fracture...
September 2016: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
Iqra Luqman, Harish Kurup
We present the case of fishtail deformity of distal humerus in a 13-year-old boy presenting with a refracture 8 years after the original surgically treated lateral condyle fracture. This unusual incomplete vertical fracture of distal humerus starting at the apex of fishtail was treated non-surgically and went on to union but refractured yet again 12 months later. This also went on to full healing with conservative treatment, however the fishtail deformity persists. We discuss the possibility that fishtail deformity reflects an inherent weakness in the distal humerus...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Gurpal S Pannu, Craig P Eberson, Joshua M Abzug, Bernard D Horn, Donald S Bae, Martin Herman
Supracondylar humerus fractures and lateral condyle fractures are the two most common pediatric elbow fractures that require surgical intervention. Although most surgeons are familiar with supracondylar humerus fractures and lateral condyle fractures, these injuries present challenges that may lead to common errors in evaluation and management and, thus, compromise outcomes. It is well agreed upon that nondisplaced supracondylar fractures (Gartland type I) are best managed nonsurgically with cast immobilization...
February 15, 2016: Instructional Course Lectures
Joshua M Abzug, Christine Ann Ho, Todd F Ritzman, Brian Brighton
Transphyseal distal humerus fractures typically occur in children younger than 3 years secondary to birth trauma, nonaccidental trauma, or a fall from a small height. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture is crucial for a successful outcome. Recognizing that the forearm is not aligned with the humerus on plain radiographs may aid in the diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture. Surgical management is most commonly performed with the aid of an arthrogram. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning techniques similar to those used for supracondylar humerus fractures are employed...
February 15, 2016: Instructional Course Lectures
Denty Paul Vaughn, Jason Alan Syrcle, John E Ball, Steven H Elder, Jennifer Michele Gambino, Russell L Griffin, Ronald M McLaughlin
OBJECTIVE: Monocortical screws are commonly employed in locking plate fixation, but specific recommendations for their placement are lacking and use of short monocortical screws in metaphyseal bone may be contraindicated. Objectives of this study were to evaluate axial pullout strength of two different lengths of monocortical screws placed in various regions of the canine humerus compared to bicortical screws and to derive cortical thickness and bone density values for those regions using quantitative computed tomography analysis (QCT)...
October 6, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Michael D Ringler, Ezekiel E Shotts, Mark S Collins, B Matthew Howe
OBJECTIVE: Unlike with anterior cruciate ligament injury, little is known about the prevalence of intra-articular pathology associated with isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury in the knee. The objectives of this study were to characterize and identify the frequency of meniscal tears and osteochondral injuries in these patients, and to see if management might be affected. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Altogether, 48 knee MRI exams with isolated PCL tears were evaluated for the presence of: grade and location of PCL tear, meniscal tear, articular chondral lesion, bone bruise, and fracture...
October 4, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
M Burnier, G Buisson, A Ricard, V Cunin, J P Pracros, F Chotel
INTRODUCTION: Among the various elbow injuries in children that initially have normal radiographs, a certain number of occult fractures are only diagnosed correctly after the fact, during a follow-up visit. PURPOSE: This study evaluated the diagnostic contribution of ultrasonography in the treatment of acute elbow injuries in children and the strategic and economic impact of using this tool alongside radiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During this prospective study performed between January 1 and April 1 2014, elbow ultrasonography was performed within 6 days in all children under 15 years of age with a suspected occult fracture...
September 30, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Sophie Legrève
OBJECTIVE: Multifocal osteonecrosis is rare. A zone of epiphyseal bone-marrow necrosis of three or more joints characterizes it. The most common risk factors are glucocorticoids intake and alcoholism. However, there is a series of other causes that could be incriminated in osteonecrosis, among which antiphospholipid syndrome. This case report, illustrates a primary antiphospholipid syndrome with only one clinical manifestation: multifocal osteonecrosis. OBSERVATIONS: A 30-year-old woman, with a medical history of left total hip replacement (THR), presents with severe right coxalgia and pain in both knees and shoulders...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
R J Hinton, Y Jing, J Jing, J Q Feng
The formation of the mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) and its subchondral bone is an important but understudied topic in dental research. The current concept regarding endochondral bone formation postulates that most hypertrophic chondrocytes undergo programmed cell death prior to bone formation. Under this paradigm, the MCC and its underlying bone are thought to result from 2 closely linked but separate processes: chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. However, recent investigations using cell lineage tracing techniques have demonstrated that many, perhaps the majority, of bone cells are derived via direct transformation from chondrocytes...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
Benjamin Kienast, Hellal Mohsen, Robert Wendlandt, Nils Reimers, Arndt P Schulz, Hinrich Heuer, Justus Gille, Hanjo Neumann
BACKGROUND: Osteochondral injuries often lead to osteoarthritis of the affected joint. All established systems for refixation of osteochondral defects show certain disadvantages. To address the problem of reduced stability in resorbable implants, ultrasound-activated pins were developed. By ultrasound-activated melting of the tip of these implants, a more secure anchoring is assumed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to investigate if ultrasound-activated pins can provide secure fixation of osteochondral fragments compared to screws and conventional resorbable pins...
September 2, 2016: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
Christopher D Souder, Joanna H Roocroft, Eric W Edmonds
BACKGROUND: The radiocapitellar line (RCL) was originally described for evaluation of the alignment of the RC joint on lateral images of the elbow. Although, many authors have translated the utilization of RCL into coronal imaging, previous studies have not been performed to confirm validity. The purpose of this paper was to identify an accurate way of evaluating pediatric RC alignment in the coronal plane. METHODS: Thirty-seven anteroposterior (AP) radiographs of 37 children were evaluated to determine the position of the RC joint in the coronal plane...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Mao Qi Gong, Xiao Wen Huang, Cheng Wang, Ye Jun Zha, Ying Li, Li Dan Zhang, Xie Yuan Jiang, Man Yi Wang
PURPOSE: To evaluate surgical treatment of symptomatic non-union of lateral condylar elbow fractures in adults. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 11 consecutive adult patients were surgically treated for symptomatic non-union of the lateral humeral condyle. Milch type I fracture non-unions (n = 3) were treated with medial closing wedge osteotomy and ulnar nerve transposition, while type II equivalents (n = 8) were treated with non-union fixation and bone grafting...
September 5, 2016: International Orthopaedics
Yoshinori Ishii, Hideo Noguchi, Junko Sato, Koji Todoroki, Nobukazu Ezawa, Shin-Ichi Toyabe
BACKGROUND: Preoperative periarticular bone quality is affected by joint loading. The purpose of this study was to determine the periarticular bone mineral density of the knee joint of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty, and whether the location of the load-bearing axis correlates with the measured bone mineral density. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bone mineral densities of the medial and lateral femoral condyles and the medial and lateral tibial condyles were analyzed in consecutive 116 osteoarthritic patients (130 knees) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry...
2016: Open Orthopaedics Journal
J F Maempel, O D Stone, A W Murray
Introduction Surgical procedures to manage trauma to the wrist, forearm and elbow in children are very common. Image intensifiers are used routinely, yet studies/guidelines that quantify expected radiation exposure in such procedures are lacking. Methods Information on demographics, injury type, surgeon grade and dose area product (DAP) of radiation exposure per procedure was collected prospectively for 248 patients undergoing manipulation/fixation of injuries to the elbow, forearm or wrist at a paediatric hospital over 1 year...
September 2016: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Amit Srivastava, Anil-Kumar Jain, Ish Kumar Dhammi, Rehan-Ul Haq
The outward angulation of elbow with supinated forearm is cubitus varus deformity. This deformity is often seen as sequelae of malunited supracondylar fracture of humerus in paediatric age group of 5e8 years. The deformity is usually non-progressive, but in cases of physeal injury or congenital bony bar formation in the medial condyle of humerus, the deformity is progressive and can be grotesque in appearance. Various types of osteotomies are defined for standard non-progressive cubitus varus deformity, while multiple surgeries are required for progressive deformity until skeletal maturity...
August 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Toshiya Kudo, Akira Hara, Hideaki Iwase, Satoshi Ichihara, Masashi Nagao, Yuichiro Maruyama, Kazuo Kaneko
INTRODUCTION: Previous reports have questioned whether an orthogonal or parallel configuration is superior for distal humeral articular fractures. In previous clinical and biomechanical studies, implant failure of the posterolateral plate has been reported with orthogonal configurations; however, the reason for screw loosening in the posterolateral plate is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate biomechanical properties and to clarify the causes of posterolateral plate loosening using a humeral fracture model under axial compression on the radial or ulnar column separately...
October 2016: Injury
Tetsuya Yumoto, Tatsushi Matsumura, Kohei Tsukahara, Keiji Sato, Toyomu Ugawa, Yoshihito Ujike
INTRODUCTION: Cricothyroidotomy is an emergency procedure that can be used to secure the airway in situations in which intubation and ventilation are not possible. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We describe a case of 79-year-old male presenting with facial trauma combined with massive upper airway bleeding and swelling in which cricothyroidotomy was required to open the airway in an elderly male patient taking antiplatelet agents who suffered a simple ground-level fall. DISCUSSION: Although emergency airway management is often required in patients with Le Fort fractures, mandibular condyle fractures exhibit a significant relationship with ground-level falls, which are not usually associated with emergency airway management...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Ephraim R Rikhotso, Muhammad A Bobat
Traumatic dislocation of the mandibular condyle into the middle cranial fossa is an extremely rare complication of maxillofacial injury. The rarity of this injury has led researchers to propose a set of anatomic features that might explain this injury. These features include a small rounded condylar head, hyper-pneumatization of the temporal bone, a thin roof over the glenoid fossa, and missing posterior teeth. The greatest risk factor for this injury is a blow to the chin when the mouth is open without fracture of the condyle (and therefore no dissipation of the forces)...
July 30, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Leila Khojastepour, Shirin Kolahi, Nazi Panahi, Abdolaziz Haghnegahdar
OBJECTIVES: Differential diagnosis of bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) is important, since it may play a role in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunctions and joint symptoms. In addition, radiographic appearance of BMC may mimic tumors and/or fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and orientation of BMC based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on CBCT scans of paranasal sinuses of 425 patients...
December 2015: Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
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