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Metabolic obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346793/epicardial-fat-thickness-in-non-obese-neurologically-impaired-children-association-with-unfavorable-cardiometabolic-risk-profile
#1
Valeria Calcaterra, Hellas Cena, Pietro Mariano Casali, Gianluca Iacobellis, Riccardo Albertini, Mara De Amici, Annalisa de Silvestri, Calogero Comparato, Gloria Pelizzo
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk is reported in disabled children and epicardial fat (EF) is considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No data on the EF thickness (EFT) evaluation in disabled children have been published. OBJECTIVE: We investigated EFT in neurologically impaired (NI) children; its relationship with their metabolic profile was also considered. METHODS: Clinical data, body composition estimation, biochemical profile, and ultrasound-measured EFT were performed in 32 disabled patients (12...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346762/transcriptome-and-dna-methylome-analysis-in-a-mouse-model-of-diet-induced-obesity-predicts-increased-risk-of-colorectal-cancer
#2
Ruifang Li, Sara A Grimm, Deepak Mav, Haiwei Gu, Danijel Djukovic, Ruchir Shah, B Alex Merrick, Daniel Raftery, Paul A Wade
Colorectal cancer (CRC) tends to occur at older age; however, CRC incidence rates have been rising sharply among young age groups. The increasing prevalence of obesity is recognized as a major risk, yet the mechanistic underpinnings remain poorly understood. Using a diet-induced obesity mouse model, we identified obesity-associated molecular changes in the colonic epithelium of young and aged mice, and we further investigated whether the changes were reversed after weight loss. Transcriptome analysis indicated that obesity-related colonic cellular metabolic switch favoring long-chain fatty acid oxidation happened in young mice, while obesity-associated downregulation of negative feedback regulators of pro-proliferative signaling pathways occurred in older mice...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346138/obesity-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Edward Nehus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and treatment of obesity-related kidney disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have confirmed that obesity is associated with increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). This risk extends to those who are metabolically healthy, indicating that obesity per se contributes to CKD independent of the metabolic syndrome. Recent developments in the pathophysiology of obesity-related kidney disease indicate that chronic inflammation and abnormal lipid metabolism contribute to kidney cell injury...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345748/kudingcha-and-fuzhuan-brick-tea-prevent-obesity-and-modulate-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#4
Guijie Chen, Minhao Xie, Zhuqing Dai, Peng Wan, Hong Ye, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Yi Sun
SCOPE: Kudingcha (KDC) from Ilex kudingcha and Fuzhuan brick tea (FBT) are popular beverages in China, and their preventive and therapeutic roles in metabolic disorders have been reported. However, the relationship between the gut microbiota modulatory effects of KDC and FBT and prevention of obesity is still not clearly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: KDC and FBT were tested individually for their capacities to prevent obesity and modulate the gut microbiota in high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345733/putative-mechanisms-of-cognitive-decline-with-implications-for-clinical-research-and-practice
#5
Tadeu Oliveira, Angela Starkweather, Divya Ramesh, Joseph Fetta, Debra Lynch Kelly, Debra E Lyon, Lana Sargent
Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms contribute to vulnerability of cognitive decline and nurses play a significant role in assisting individuals and families to use strategies for healthy cognitive aging. The objective of this narrative review is to provide a synthesis of the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of cognitive decline and conditions that are associated with cognitive decline. Well-established intrinsic mechanisms of cognitive decline include aging, apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carrier status, SORL1 mutations, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, amyloid deposition, and demyelination...
January 18, 2018: Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345505/the-pharmacological-management-of-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Julie Rask Larsen, Lorena Dima, Christoph U Correll, Peter Manu
Introduction The metabolic syndrome includes a constellation of several well-established risk factors, which need to be aggressively treated in order to prevent overt type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While recent guidelines for the treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome focus on cardiovascular benefits as resulted from clinical trials, specific recent recommendations on the pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome are lacking. The objective of present paper was to review the therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome and its components, the available evidence related to their cardiovascular benefits, and to evaluate the extent to which they should influence the guidelines for clinical practice...
January 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345358/editorial-two-mdsc-faces-in-obesity-correcting-metabolic-dysfunctions-but-promoting-tumor-development
#7
EDITORIAL
Viktor Fleming, Viktor Umansky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345342/high-fat-diet-and-leptin-promote-tumor-progression-by-inducing-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#8
Virginia K Clements, Tiha Long, Ramses Long, Chas Figley, Daniel M C Smith, Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer incidence and cancer mortality. The association of obesity and cancer is attributed to multiple factors, but the tightest linkage is with the chronic, low-grade inflammation that accompanies obesity. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are known facilitators of cancer progression that act by suppressing the activation and function of tumor-reactive T cells. Because MDSC quantity and function are driven by chronic inflammation, we hypothesized that MDSC may accumulate in obese individuals and facilitate tumor growth by suppressing antitumor immunity...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345311/calcium-sensing-receptor-activates-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-ls14-preadipocytes-mediated-by-erk1-2-signaling
#9
Amanda D'Espessailles, Yuly A Mora, Cecilia Fuentes, Mariana Cifuentes
The study of the mechanisms that trigger inflammation in adipose tissue is key to understanding and preventing the cardiometabolic consequences of obesity. We have proposed a model where activation of the G protein-coupled calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) leads to inflammation and dysfunction in adipose cells. Upon activation, CaSR can mediate the expression and secretion of proinflammatory factors in human preadipocytes, adipocytes and adipose tissue explants. One possible pathway involved in CaSR-induced inflammation is the activation of the NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, that promotes maturation and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345158/the-impact-of-probiotics-and-n-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-intestinal-permeability-in-pregnancy-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#10
K Mokkala, P Pussinen, N Houttu, E Koivuniemi, T Vahlberg, K Laitinen
A disruption in intestinal barrier integrity may predispose individuals to metabolic aberrations, particularly during the vulnerable period of pregnancy. We investigated whether intestinal permeability, as measured by serum zonulin concentration, changes over the duration of pregnancy and whether this change is reflected in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity. Second, we tested in a randomised double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the impact of consuming dietary probiotics and/or long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) supplements in lowering serum zonulin concentration and LPS activity...
January 18, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345113/intervention-for-childhood-obesity-based-on-parents-only-or-parents-and-child-compared-with-follow-up-alone
#11
M Yackobovitch-Gavan, D Wolf Linhard, N Nagelberg, I Poraz, S Shalitin, M Phillip, J Meyerovitch
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to assess the effects of family-based interventions targeted to parents only or to parents-and-child for the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. METHOD: An open-label randomized study was conducted in 247 children (166 girls, 5-11 years) with body mass index (BMI) in the 85-98th percentile. Participants were allocated to three groups: parents-only (n = 89), parents-and-child (n = 84) and follow-up alone (n = 74). The intervention consisted of 12 once-weekly meetings with a dietician and psychologist...
January 17, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344727/work-related-stress-as-a-cardiovascular-risk-factor-in-police-officers-a-systematic-review-of-evidence
#12
N Magnavita, I Capitanelli, S Garbarino, E Pira
PURPOSE: Several studies suggest that work-related stress in police officers may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. A systematic review of studies is, however, still lacking. METHOD: According to PRISMA statement, a systematic search of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Cinahl and PsychInfo electronic databases was undertaken. Studies published in English between 1/1/2000 and 31/12/2016 were included. A studies quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle Ottawa scale (NOS)...
January 17, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344657/effects-of-hereditary-moderate-high-fat-diet-on-metabolic-performance-and-physical-endurance-capacity-in-c57bl-6-offspring
#13
Fang Liu, Guirong Zhang, Xue Sheng, Shang Liu, Meng Cui, Heyun Guo, Jianbin Xue, Lingyun Zhang
Obesity in pregnant women presents a risk to fetal health, leading to numerous metabolic syndromes and chronic inflammation risks. Previously, physical exercise was considered to be one of the primary treatments for obesity. However, the effect of fat consumption throughout the life cycle on physical endurance capacity remains unknown. A total of two groups of female mice (age, 6 weeks; C57BL/6J) were fed with a normal chow diet and a moderate high fat diet (MHFD), during pregnancy and lactation (8 weeks), with the offspring receiving the same diet as the mother...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344438/new-therapeutic-approaches-in-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-associated-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Fatima Saleem, Syed W Rizvi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a pathophysiological disorder affecting reproductive and metabolic indices. PCOS is commonly associated with a high prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity; this association carries an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. Guidelines recommend lifestyle modification, metformin, hormonal contraceptives (HCs), and bariatric surgery as the main treatment options in obese patients with PCOS. Studies are being conducted to test the efficacy of existing treatment options as well as to discover new therapies...
November 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344054/the-carnitine-status-does-not-affect-the-contractile-and-metabolic-phenotype-of-skeletal-muscle-in-pigs
#15
Daniel Kaup, Janine Keller, Erika Most, Joachim Geyer, Klaus Eder, Robert Ringseis
Background: Recently, supplementation of L-carnitine to obese rats was found to improve the carnitine status and to counteract an obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from type I to type II. However, it has not been resolved if the change of muscle fiber distribution induced in obese rats and the restoration of the "normal" muscle fiber distribution, which is found in lean rats, in obese rats by supplemental L-carnitine is causally linked with the carnitine status. In the present study we hypothesized that fiber type distribution in skeletal muscle is dependent on carnitine status...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344025/insulin-resistance-in-kidney-disease-is-there-a-distinct-role-separate-from-that-of-diabetes-or-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Adam Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers
Insulin resistance is a central component of the metabolic dysregulation observed in obesity, which puts one at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and complications related to diabetes such as chronic kidney disease. Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia place one at risk for other risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and proteinuria, e.g., development of kidney disease. Our traditional view of insulin actions focuses on insulin-sensitive tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and the pancreas...
December 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344005/biological-clocks-their-relevance-to-immune-allergic-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Roberto Paganelli, Claudia Petrarca, Mario Di Gioacchino
The 2017 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, awarded for the discoveries made in the past 15 years on the genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating many physiological functions, has renewed the attention to the importance of circadian rhythms. These originate from a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, photoentrained via direct connection with melanopsin containing, intrinsically light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells, and it projects to periphery, thus creating an inner circadian rhythm...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343656/crispr-cas9-mediated-generation-of-obese-and-diabetic-mouse-models
#18
Jae-Il Roh, Junghoon Lee, Seong Uk Park, Young-Shin Kang, Jaehoon Lee, Ah-Reum Oh, Dong Joon Choi, Ji-Young Cha, Han-Woong Lee
Mouse models of obesity (ob/ob) and diabetes (db/db) in which the leptin (Lep) and Leptin receptor (Lepr) genes have been mutated, respectively, have contributed to a better understanding of human obesity and type 2 diabetes and to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of these metabolic diseases. In this study, we report the first CRISPR-Cas9-induced Lep and Lepr KO mouse models by co-microinjection of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs that specifically targeted Lep or Lepr in C57BL/6J embryos. Our newly established Lep and Lepr knockout (KO) mouse models showed phenotypic disorders nearly identical to those found in ob/ob and db/db mice, such as an increase in body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343628/keeping-the-home-fires-burning-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#19
REVIEW
D Grahame Hardie
Living cells obtain energy either by oxidizing reduced compounds of organic or mineral origin or by absorbing light. Whichever energy source is used, some of the energy released is conserved by converting adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which are analogous to the chemicals in a rechargeable battery. The energy released by the conversion of ATP back to ADP is used to drive most energy-requiring processes, including cell growth, cell division, communication and movement. It is clearly essential to life that the production and consumption of ATP are always maintained in balance, and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is one of the key cellular regulatory systems that ensures this...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343498/the-gpr120-agonist-tug-891-promotes-metabolic-health-by-stimulating-mitochondrial-respiration-in-brown-fat
#20
Maaike Schilperoort, Andrea D van Dam, Geerte Hoeke, Irina G Shabalina, Anthony Okolo, Aylin C Hanyaloglu, Lea H Dib, Isabel M Mol, Natarin Caengprasath, Yi-Wah Chan, Sami Damak, Anne Reifel Miller, Tamer Coskun, Bharat Shimpukade, Trond Ulven, Sander Kooijman, Patrick Cn Rensen, Mark Christian
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation stimulates energy expenditure in human adults, which makes it an attractive target to combat obesity and related disorders. Recent studies demonstrated a role for G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) in BAT thermogenesis. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of GPR120 agonism and addressed GPR120-mediated signaling in BAT We found that activation of GPR120 by the selective agonist TUG-891 acutely increases fat oxidation and reduces body weight and fat mass in C57Bl/6J mice...
January 17, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
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