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Metabolic obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161316/acute-exercise-alters-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-respiration-and-h2o2-emission-in-response-to-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp-in-middle-aged-obese-men
#1
Adam J Trewin, Itamar Levinger, Lewan Parker, Christopher S Shaw, Fabio R Serpiello, Mitchell J Anderson, Glenn K McConell, David L Hare, Nigel K Stepto
Obesity, sedentary lifestyle and aging are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. Acute exercise increases insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle; however, whether mitochondria are involved in these processes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of insulin stimulation at rest and after acute exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function (JO2) and hydrogen peroxide emission (JH2O2), and the associations with insulin sensitivity in obese, sedentary men...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161258/insulin-resistance-and-hyperandrogenism-drive-steatosis-and-fibrosis-risk-in-young-females-with-pcos
#2
Salvatore Petta, Alessandro Ciresi, Jessica Bianco, Vincenzo Geraci, Roberta Boemi, Luigi Galvano, Franco Magliozzo, Giovanni Merlino, Antonio Craxì, Carla Giordano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) recognize obesity and insulin resistance (IR) as common pathogenic background. We assessed 1) whether PCOS is a risk factor for steatosis, and 2) the impact, in PCOS patients, of IR and hyperandrogenism on steatosis and fibrosis. METHODS: We considered 202 consecutive Italian PCOS nondiabetic patients and 101 age-matched controls. PCOS was diagnosed applying the Rotterdam diagnostic criteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161088/mechanistic-basis-for-obesity-related-increases-in-ozone-induced-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-mice
#3
Stephanie A Shore
Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, especially nonallergic asthma. Ozone, a common air pollutant, is a nonallergic asthma trigger. Importantly, ozone-induced decrements in lung function are greater in obese and overweight human subjects than in lean individuals. Obese mice also exhibit exaggerated pulmonary responses to ozone. Ozone causes greater increases in pulmonary resistance, in bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils, and in airway hyperresponsiveness in obese than in lean mice. Our data indicate that IL-33 plays a role in mediating these events...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161084/mitochondrial-dysfunction-linking-obesity-and-asthma
#4
Naveen K Bhatraju, Anurag Agrawal
The bidirectional epidemiological association between asthma and obesity is well known. Recent evidence suggests that there is an intersection of the pathophysiological molecular pathways leading to either obesity or asthma, at the level of mitochondria. This is not surprising, because mitochondria, beyond their roles as the metabolic powerhouses of the cell, serve as sensors of threats, regulators of stress signaling, and effectors of cytotoxicity. Reduced mitochondrial function and low metabolic activity are well-recognized features of obesity...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161083/chair-s-summary-obesity-and-associated-changes-in-metabolism-implications-for-lung-diseases
#5
Anne E Dixon, Benjamin T Suratt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161082/gut-microbiome-and-obesity-how-to-prove-causality
#6
Philippe Gérard
In recent years, the gut microbiota (the microorganisms that live in our digestive tract) has become an area of great interest. Indeed, this intestinal microbial community performs essential functions in maintaining our health, and has been proven to influence host physiology and metabolism. Thereby, dysregulation of this gut microbiota may be implicated in the development of various diseases, including obesity. However, studies rarely assess causality, which requires the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161076/obesity-and-metabolic-abnormalities-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
Emiel F M Wouters
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a relationship between COPD and obesity is increasingly recognized. The nature and underlying mechanisms of the link between obesity and COPD are still largely unknown. Obesity, and abdominal adiposity in particular, is linked to metabolic syndrome. Hypertension, hyperglycemia, and abdominal adiposity seem to be the most prevalent components of metabolic syndrome in COPD. Adipose tissues function as a source of a variety of signaling molecules in the pathobiology of respiratory diseases...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161075/metabolic-dysregulation-systemic-inflammation-and-pediatric-obesity-related-asthma
#8
Deepa Rastogi, Fernando Holguin
Obesity-related asthma is a distinct pediatric asthma phenotype. It is associated with higher disease burden, lower pulmonary function, and suboptimal response to current asthma medications. Recent studies have made inroads into elucidating its pathophysiology. Systemic immune responses in obese children with asthma are skewed to a nonatopic T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) pattern that correlates with pulmonary function deficits. The prevalence of metabolic dysregulation is also higher among obese children with asthma than among normal-weight children with asthma...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160505/metabolic-disorders-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-without-the-use-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Mariana Amaral Raposo, Geyza Nogueira de Almeida Armiliato, Nathalia Sernizon Guimarães, Camila Abrahão Caram, Raíssa Domingues de Simoni Silveira, Unaí Tupinambás
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLH) have been described even before the introduction of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the treatment of HIV infection and are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to assess metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in PLH before the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 87 PLH without the use of ART, which was carried out between January and September 2012 at a specialized infectious diseases center in Minas Gerais, Brazil...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160049/lower-irisin-levels-in-coronary-artery-disease-a-meta-analysis
#10
Wenwen Guo, Baihui Zhang, Xia Wang
INTRODUCTION: Irisin is a newly discovered myokine, which is involved in energy metabolism and associated with "browning" of the white adipose tissue, obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. It's still uncertain that whether irisin level is associated with coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between irisin levels and coronary artery disease. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Elsevier Science Direct, Springer, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for studies published from 2000 to 2017 was undertaken to identify relevant studies...
November 20, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159854/the-effect-of-impaired-glucose-metabolism-on-weight-loss-in-multidisciplinary-childhood-obesity-treatment
#11
Julie T Kloppenborg, Michael Gamborg, Cilius E Fonvig, Tenna R H Nielsen, Oluf Pedersen, Jesper Johannesen, Torben Hansen, Jens-Christian Holm
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether children and adolescents exhibiting an impaired glucose metabolism are more obese at treatment entry and less likely to reduce their degree of obesity during treatment. METHODS: The present study is a longitudinal observational study, including children and adolescents from the Children's Obesity Clinic, Holbaek, Denmark. Anthropometrics, pubertal development, socioeconomic status (SES), and fasting concentrations of plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum C-peptide, and whole blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were collected at treatment entry and at follow-up...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159583/the-association-between-artificial-sweeteners-and-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Michelle Pearlman, Jon Obert, Lisa Casey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the evolution of artificial sweeteners; to examine the latest research on the effects of artificial sweeteners on the host microbiome, the gut-brain axis, glucose homeostasis, and energy consumption; and to discuss how all of these changes ultimately contribute to obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Although artificial sweeteners were developed as a sugar substitute to help reduce insulin resistance and obesity, data in both animal models and humans suggest that the effects of artificial sweeteners may contribute to metabolic syndrome and the obesity epidemic...
November 21, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159554/detailed-description-of-change-in-serum-cholesterol-profile-with-incremental-weight-loss-after-restrictive-bariatric-surgery
#13
Geraldine J Ooi, Arul Earnest, Lisa Doyle, Cheryl Laurie, John M Wentworth, Ken Sikaris, Carel W le Roux, Paul R Burton, Paul E O'Brien, Wendy A Brown
INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidemia affects up to 75% of morbidly obese individuals and is a key driver of cardiovascular disease. Weight loss is an established strategy to improve metabolic risk, including dyslipidemia. We aimed to determine weight loss goals for resolution of serum lipid abnormalities, by measuring improvements during progressive weight loss in obese individuals. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome undergoing adjustable gastric banding...
November 21, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159216/data-on-the-decreased-expression-of-foxo1-by-mir-1271-in-hepg2-hepatocytes
#14
Won-Mo Yang, Kyung-Ho Min, Se-Whan Park, Wan Lee
Obesity and metabolic diseases are closely associated with insulin resistance. Obesity-induced miRNAs are also considered to be potential contributors to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Previously, the expression of miR-1271 was reported to be upregulated in the liver of diet-induced obese mice (Yang et al., 2016) [1]. In this data article, multiple in silico analysis predicted FOXO1 gene to be a direct target of miR-1271. Dual luciferase reporter gene analysis showed that miR-1271 suppressed FOXO1 expression by direct binding to 3'UTR...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159174/prevalence-and-association-of-obesity-with-self-reported-comorbidity-a-cross-sectional-study-of-1321-adult-participants-in-lasbela-balochistan
#15
I Khan, Z Ul-Haq, A S Taj, A Z Iqbal, S Basharat, B H Shah
Association of fatness with chronic metabolic diseases is a well-established fact, and a high prevalence of risk factors for these disorders has increasingly been reported in the third world. In order to incorporate any preventive strategies for such risk factors into clinical practice, decision-makers require objective evidence about the associated burden of disease. A cross-sectional study of 1321 adults from one of the districts of Balochistan, among the most economically challenged areas of Pakistan, was carried out for the measures of fatness and self-reported comorbidities...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158770/does-the-enterolactone-enl-affect-fatty-acid-transporters-and-lipid-metabolism-in-liver
#16
Krzysztof Drygalski, Klaudia Berk, Tomasz Charytoniuk, Nicoletta Iłowska, Bartłomiej Łukaszuk, Adrian Chabowski, Karolina Konstantynowicz-Nowicka
Background: NAFLD as a result of inappropriate diet and obesity, may progress to sever conditions such as: type 2 diabetes mellitus or steatohepatitis, and has recently become a prevalent topic of numerous investigations. Due to its dangerous aftermaths, finding new substances, such as polyphenols and their derivatives, which might reduce liver steatosis is the main target of research into NAFLD treatment. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect(s) of enterolactone (ENL), a metabolite of secoisolariciresinol (SECO), on lipid metabolism together with changes in the expression of fatty acid transporters in fatty liver...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158665/pharmacokinetics-and-tolerability-of-mb12066-a-beta-lapachone-derivative-targeting-nad-p-h-quinone-oxidoreductase-1-two-independent-double-blind-placebo-controlled-combined-single-and-multiple-ascending-dose-first-in-human-clinical-trials
#17
Seokuee Kim, SeungHwan Lee, Joo-Youn Cho, Seo Hyun Yoon, In-Jin Jang, Kyung-Sang Yu
MB12066 is a molecule derived from β-lapachone that shown effects on obesity in previous studies. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the tolerability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of MB12066 after the oral administration of single and multiple doses to healthy volunteers. The study comprised 2 independent, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, combined single and multiple ascending dose first-in-human clinical trials to evaluate the safety, tolerability and PK of MB12066 in healthy Korean volunteers...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158587/analysis-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-plasma-short-chain-fatty-acid-profiles-in-a-spontaneous-mouse-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Kazuchika Nishitsuji, Jinzhong Xiao, Ryosuke Nagatomo, Hitomi Umemoto, Yuki Morimoto, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Koichi Inoue, Koichi Tsuneyama
Male Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetes (TSOD) mice spontaneously develop obesity and obesity-related metabolic syndrome. Gut dysbiosis, an imbalance of gut microbiota, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but its mechanisms are unknown. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main fermentation products of gut microbiota and a link between the gut microbiota and the host's physiology. Here, we investigated a correlation among gut dysbiosis, SCFAs, and metabolic syndrome in TSOD mice. We detected enriched levels of Gram-positive bacteria and corresponding decreases in Gram-negative bacteria in 24-wk-old metabolic syndrome-affected TSOD mice compared with age-matched controls...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158542/metabolic-profiling-of-umbilical-cord-blood-in-macrosomia
#19
H Sun, Y Wang, C Wang, X Xu, Y Wang, H Yan, X Yang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The term macrosomia is used to describe neonates with a birth weight of 4000 g or more. Macrosomia is a potential risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndromes in postnatal and adult life, yet little is known about its associations with metabolic difference in the early-age. We performed metabolic profiling of umbilical cord blood to discover differential metabolites of macrosomia. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of full-term singletons with normal maternal glucose tolerance [50 cases (macrosomia, birth weight ⩾4000 g); 50 controls (normal weight, birth weight 2500-3999 g)]...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158541/dysregulation-of-mitochondrial-function-and-biogenesis-modulators-in-adipose-tissue-of-obese-children
#20
R Zamora-Mendoza, H Rosas-Vargas, M T Ramos-Cervantes, P Garcia-Zuniga, H Perez-Lorenzana, P Mendoza-Lorenzo, A Perez-Ortiz, J Estrada, A Miliar-Garcia, E Lara-Padilla, G Ceballos, A Rodriguez, F Villarreal, I Ramirez-Sanchez
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate mitochondrial biogenesis (MB), structure, metabolism, and dysfunction in abdominal adipose tissue from male pediatric patients with obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Samples were collected from five children with obesity (percentile ⩾95) and five eutrophic boys (percentile ⩾5/⩽85) (8-12 years old) following parental informed consent. We analyzed the expression of key genes involved in MB (SIRT1, PPARγ, PGC1α, NRF1, NRF2, and TFAM) and surrogates for mitochondrial function/structure/metabolism (porin, TOMM20, complex I and V, UCP1, UCP2, SIRT3, SOD2) by Western blot...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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