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Lixia Zhu, Kung-Jong Lui
Three test procedures accounting for patients with tied responses based on Prescott's ideas are developed for comparing three treatments under a three-period crossover trial in binary data. Monte Carlo simulation is employed to evaluate the performance of these test procedures in a variety of situations. The test procedures proposed here are noted to have power larger than those procedures, which utilize only those patients with un-tied responses. The data taken from a three-period crossover trial comparing two different doses of an analgesic with placebo for the relief of primary dysmenorrhea are used to illustrate the use of the test procedures developed here...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
Meng Chen, Shein-Chung Chow
As indicated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), approved generic drug products can be used as substitute for their respective innovative drug products. FDA, however, does not indicate that two generic copies of the same innovative drug can be used interchangeably, even though they have been shown to be bioequivalent to the same innovative drug product. As more and more generic drug products become available in the market place, it is a concern whether these approved generic drug products have the same quality, safety/efficacy and hence can be used interchangeably...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
Albin Guillaud, Nelly Darbois, Richard Monvoisin, Nicolas Pinsault
CONTEXT: In 2010, the World Health Organization released benchmarks for training in osteopathy in which they considered cranial osteopathy as an important osteopathic skill. However, the evidence supporting the reliability of diagnosis and the efficacy of treatment in this field appears scientifically weak and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To identify and critically evaluate the scientific literature dealing with the reliability of diagnosis and the clinical efficacy of techniques and therapeutic strategies used in cranial osteopathy...
2016: PloS One
Jacob T Bonafiglia, Mario P Rotundo, Jonathan P Whittall, Trisha D Scribbans, Ryan B Graham, Brendon J Gurd
The current study examined the adaptive response to both endurance (END) and sprint interval training (SIT) in a group of twenty-one recreationally active adults. All participants completed three weeks (four days/ week) of both END (30 minutes at ~65% VO2peak work rate (WR) and SIT (eight, 20-second intervals at ~170% VO2peak WR separated by 10 seconds of active rest) following a randomized crossover study design with a three-month washout period between training interventions. While a main effect of training was observed for VO2peak, lactate threshold, and submaximal heart rate (HR), considerable variability was observed in the individual responses to both END and SIT...
2016: PloS One
Caoileann H Murphy, Nelson I Saddler, Michaela C Devries, Chris McGlory, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips
BACKGROUND: Leucine co-ingestion with lower-protein (LP)-containing meals may overcome the blunted muscle protein synthetic response to food intake in the elderly but may be effective only in individuals who consume LP diets. OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of leucine co-ingestion with mixed macronutrient meals on integrated 3-d rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) in free-living older men who consumed higher protein (HP) (1.2 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) or LP (0...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Nan Jiang, Megan E Bailey, Jessica Burke, Jennifer L Ross, Ruxandra I Dima
Microtubule reorganization often results from the loss of polymer induced through break- age or active destruction by energy-using enzymes. Pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice likely lower structural integrity and aid filament destruction. Using large-scale molecular simulations, we model diverse microtubule fragments under forces generated at specific positions to locally crush the filament. We show that lattices with 2% defects are crushed and severed by forces three times smaller than defect-free ones...
December 9, 2016: Cytoskeleton
Kummari V Sreenivasulu, Naresh K Rotte, Vadali V S S Srikanth, Sharika Nandan Kaul
A careful magnetic study of MgO decked multi-layered graphene (MDMLG), synthesized by a combustion process that does not involve the use of graphite (which can be a source of magnetic impurities) was conducted and an elaborate analysis of high-precision magnetization data permits us to completely rule out the presence of a long-range ferromagnetic (FM) ordering at temperatures T ≥ 2.5 K. Instead, a non-collinear FM short-range order persists up to temperatures as high as 300 K and a concomitant paramagnetic component is present at all the temperatures...
December 9, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yin Fai Amy Siu, Weidong George Lai
Accurately assessing the contribution of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms to overall metabolic clearance is important for prediction of clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI). The relative activity factor (RAF) approach in CYP reaction phenotyping assumes that the interaction between CYP selective probes and testing systems is the same as to drug candidate with those systems. To test this assumption, Intersystem Clearance Ratio (ICR) was created to evaluate the difference in values between RAF-scaled intrinsic clearance (CLint) and measured CLint in human liver microsomes (HLM)...
December 1, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Margarethe van der Meer, Yvonne Rechkemmer, Frauke D Breitgoff, Raphael Marx, Petr Neugebauer, Uta Frank, Joris van Slageren, Biprajit Sarkar
Quinonoid bridges are well-suited for generating dinuclear assemblies that might display various bistable properties. In this contribution we present two diiron(II) complexes where the iron(II) centers are either bridged by the doubly deprotonated form of a symmetrically substituted quinonoid bridge, 2,5-bis[4-(isopropyl)anilino]-1,4-benzoquinone (H2L2') with a [O,N,O,N] donor set, or with the doubly deprotonated form of an unsymmetrically substituted quinonoid bridge, 2-[4-(isopropyl)anilino]-5-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (H2L5') with a [O,O,O,N] donor set...
November 21, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Yonggang Wang, Zhengyang Zhou, Ting Wen, Yannan Zhou, Nana Li, Fei Han, Yuming Xiao, Paul Chow, Junliang Sun, Michael Pravica, Andrew L Cornelius, Wenge Yang, Yusheng Zhao
Spin-crossover (SCO) is generally regarded as a spectacular molecular magnetism in 3d(4)-3d(7) metal complexes and holds great promise for various applications such as memory, displays, and sensors. In particular, SCO materials can be multifunctional when a classical light- or temperature-induced SCO occurs along with other cooperative structural and/or electrical transport alterations. However, such a cooperative SCO has rarely been observed in condensed matter under hydrostatic pressure (an alternative external stimulus to light or temperature), probably due to the lack of synergy between metal neighbors under compression...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Prithwish K Nandi, Niall J English
Elucidation of the role of hydration water underpinning dynamical crossover in proteins has proven challenging. Indeed, many contradictory findings in the literature seek to establish either causal or correlative links between water and protein behavior. Here, via molecular dynamics, we compute the temperature dependence of mean-square displacement and translational self-diffusivities for both hen egg white lysozyme and its hydration layer from 190 to 300 K. We find that the protein's mobility increases sharply at ∼230 K, indicating dynamical onset; concerted motion with hydration-water molecules is evident up to ∼285 K, confirming dynamical correlation between them...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Navjot Kaur, Indu Kumari, Shuchi Gupta, Neetu Goel
The direct and selective introduction of hydroxyl group into aromatic compounds remains one of the challenging problems in oxidation chemistry. Keeping in view the reported reactivity of vanadium oxide in C-H activation of saturated hydrocarbons, the study explores the reactivity of neutral V4O10 cluster with benzene through rigorous computations performed within the formalism of density functional theory. Three possible reaction channels for the reactivity of V4O10 cluster with benzene have been deciphered, and comprehensive understanding of all possible mechanistic pathways has been obtained by analysis of all the intermediates and transition states encountered en route...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Claudia Felser, Janna-Deborah Drummer
We report the results from two experiments examining native and non-native German speakers' sensitivity to crossover constraints on pronoun resolution. Our critical stimuli sentences contained personal pronouns in either strong (SCO) or weak crossover (WCO) configurations. Using eye-movement monitoring during reading and a gender-mismatch paradigm, Experiment 1 investigated whether a fronted wh-phrase would be considered as a potential antecedent for a pronoun intervening between the wh-phrase and its canonical position...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Marc A Riedl, William R Lumry, H Henry Li, Aleena Banerji, Jonathan A Bernstein, Murat Ba, Janne Bjrkander, Markus Magerl, Marcus Maurer, Kevin Rockich, Hongzi Chen, Jennifer Schranz
BACKGROUND: The currently approved method of C1 inhibitor (C1 INH) administration for patients with hereditary angioedema with C1 INH deficiency (HAE) is by intravenous injection. A C1 INH subcutaneous formulation may provide an attractive mode of administration for some patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy and safety of two doses of subcutaneous, plasma-derived C1 INH with the dispersing agent, recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) to prevent angioedema attacks in patients with HAE...
November 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Anthony S Wolfe, Sallee A Brandt, Isaac Krause, Rachel Mavison, Josh Aponte, Lisa M Ferguson-Stegall
Ingesting multiple carbohydrate (CHO) types during exercise can improve endurance performance compared to single CHO only. Adding protein to a multiple CHO beverage has been shown to increase cycling time to exhaustion (TTE) compared to a single CHO beverage. However, it is unclear if improvements were due to multiple CHOs or protein, and TTE protocols are not representative of typical race events. This study investigated whether adding protein to a multiple CHO beverage improved performance and recovery in 2 same-day cycling time trials compared to isocaloric multiple CHO-only...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jon S Clarke, Jamie Highton, Graeme L Close, Craig Twist
The study examined the effects of carbohydrate and caffeine ingestion on simulated rugby league interchange performance. Eight male elite rugby league forwards completed two trials of a rugby league simulation protocol for interchange players seven days apart in a randomized crossover design, ingesting either carbohydrate (CHO; 40 g·h-1) or carbohydrate and caffeine (CHO-C) (40 g·h-1 + 3 mg·kg-1) drink. Movement characteristics, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and countermovement jump height (CMJ) were measured during the protocol...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Javier Marhuenda, Sonia Medina, Pedro Martínez-Hernández, Simón Arina, Pilar Zafrilla, Juana Mulero, Camille Oger, Jean-Marie Galano, Thierry Durand, Federico Ferreres, Angel Gil-Izquierdo
Adrenic acid (AdA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) peroxidation produces F2-dihomo-IsoPs and neuroprostanes, which have been related to oxidative damage in the central nervous system. Besides polyphenols, melatonin (MEL) and hydroxytyrosol (OHTyr) could be partly responsible for the antioxidant benefits of red wine (excluding colon derivatives). In order to elucidate whether these compounds are responsible for the protective antioxidant effects of red wine, a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled in vivo study - involving the intake of red wines and their native musts by healthy volunteers - was performed...
December 8, 2016: Food & Function
G Borges, C L Bagge, C J Cherpitel, K R Conner, R Orozco, I Rossow
BACKGROUND: No review has used a meta-analytic approach to estimate common odds ratios (ORs) for the effect of acute use of alcohol (AUA) on suicide attempts. We aim to report the results of the first meta-analysis of controlled epidemiological studies on AUA and suicide attempt. METHOD: The English-language literature on Medline, PsycINFO and Google Scholar was searched for original articles and critical review on AUA and suicide attempt (period 1996-2015). Studies had to report an OR estimate for this association...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Babak Abdolkarimi, Soheila Zareifar, Majid Golestani Eraghi, Fazl Saleh
Background: Children suffering from cancer always require pain relief and reduce anxiety when undergoing painful procedures. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of pethedine and ketamine administration in cancer-diagnosed children undergoing bone marrow aspiration and biopsy procedures. Subjects and Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, crossover trial was carried out on 57 children undergoing painful procedures (bone marrow aspiration/biopsy). Patients were randomly assigned in a double-blinded fashion to receive either intravenous pethedine (1 mg/kg/dose) or ketamine (1 mg/kg/dose), respectively...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
Masoud Fallahinejad Ghajari, Ghassem Ansari, Leila Hasanbeygi, Shahnaz Shayeghi
OBJECTIVES: Midazolam with variable dosages has been used to induce sedation in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two dosages of oral midazolam for conscious sedation of children undergoing dental treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized crossover double blind clinical trial, 20 healthy children (ASA I) aged three to six years with definitely negative Frankl behavioral rating scale were evaluated. Half of the children received 0...
March 2016: Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
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