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Chest medicine

Anand Kaul, Sunil Manjila, Jonathan P Miller
: Isadore Max Tarlov (1905-1977) is primarily remembered for his 1938 description of the eponymous perineural "Tarlov cyst." However, during his long career as a neurosurgeon and researcher, he was responsible for many other observations and inventions that influenced the development of neurosurgery in the 20th century. While studying at Johns Hopkins Medical School he was acquainted with Walter Dandy, and he became the first resident to study under Wilder Penfield at the newly formed Montreal Neurological Institute...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Monique Mounce, Candace Essel, Tiffany Kim, Che Matthew Harris
BACKGROUND: Supratherapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) in patients on warfarin is a common side effect. Updated guidelines recommend against using vitamin K to correct INRs 4.5 to 10 in the absence of bleeding. The impact of compliance with updated guidelines during hospitalization has not been fully explored. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was performed utilizing electronic medical records. The goal was to evaluate management of supratherapeutic INR values for medicine inpatients and identify differences in clinical outcomes among inpatients treated and not treated with vitamin K...
November 2015: Hospital Pharmacy
Richard S Irwin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Chest
Alejandro Suarez De La Rica, Fernando Gilsanz, Emilio Maseda
Since the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the Society of Critical care Medicine (SCCM) published the first consensus definition of syndromes related to sepsis in 1992, the knowledge of epidemiology of sepsis has clearly improved, although no prospective studies have been performed to analyse the incidence of sepsis in general population. There are differences in epidemiologic trends in sepsis between western countries and low-income and middle-income countries. In the United States (US), most of epidemiologic studies have been based on large, administrative databases, reporting an increase in the incidence of severe sepsis over years...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
S B Wilhelms, S M Walther, F Huss, F Sjöberg
BACKGROUND: Different International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-based code abstraction strategies have been used when studying the epidemiology of severe sepsis. The aim of this study was to compare three previously used ICD code abstraction strategies to the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine (ACCP/SCCM) consensus criteria for severe sepsis, in a setting of intensive care patients. METHODS: All patients (≥ 18 years of age) with severe sepsis according to the ACCP/SCCM criteria registered in the Swedish Intensive Care Registry (2005-2009) were included in the study...
October 4, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Xin Jin, Jianfeng Cao, Yong Liu, Fang Bian, Qingqing Zhao, Yan Wang, Xu Lv, Yayong Huang
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are small, round cell tumors that may be classified as peripheral or central, based on their site of origin. PNETs often arise in the soft tissue or bone of young adults. Although not common, PNETs have been described in other organs, including the gonads, kidneys, myocardium and pancreas, but rarely in the lungs without chest wall or pleural involvement. The present study reports a rare case of peripheral PNET (pPNET), which originated in the lung. A 37-year-old female patient presented at Xuzhou Central Hospital (Xuzhou, China) with a history of a dry cough, mild dyspnea and slight pain in the left chest...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Xiaoping Lin, Zhijun Xu, Pengfei Wang, Yan Xu, Gensheng Zhang
Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is occasionally observed in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, this condition is often underappreciated. NPE is frequently misdiagnosed due to its atypical clinical performance, thus delaying appropriate treatment. A comprehensive management protocol of NPE in patients with TBI has yet to be established. The current study reported the case of a 67-year-old man with severe TBI who was transferred to our intensive care unit (ICU). On day 7 after hospitalization, the patient suddenly suffered tachypnea, tachycardia, systemic hypertension and hypoxemia during lumbar cistern drainage...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Shelby R Hayes, Ashley J Vargas
: Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD004827. BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. They alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Probiotics may prevent AAD via restoration of the gut microflora...
August 26, 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
M Garetier, L Deloire, F Dédouit, E Dumousset, C Saccardy, D Ben Salem
Suicide is the eighth cause of mortality in France and the leading cause in people aged between 25 and 34 years. The most common methods of suicide are hanging, self-poisoning with medicines and firearms. Postmortem computed tomography (CT) is a useful adjunct to autopsy to confirm suicide and exclude other causes of death. At autopsy, fractures of the hyoid bone or thyroid cartilage, or both, are found in more than 50% of suicidal hangings. Cervical vertebra fractures are rare and only seen in suicide victims jumping from a great height...
September 26, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
M Kobek, R Skowronek, C Jabłoński, Z Jankowski, A Pałasz
On 28 January 2003 snow avalanche in the Polish Tatras happened, in which 8 people died and 5 were injured. We tried to determine cause and manner of death in 6 fatal victims instead of advanced late post mortem changes in internal organs. Taking into consideration the circumstances of death, we paid special attention to histopathological examination of lungs, extended by Gomori's and AZAN staining. Pattern of the changes was similar to those observed in forensic medicine in cases of asphyxia due to airway obstruction and/or immobilization of chest and abdomen (Perthes' syndrome)...
2016: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
Todd C Crawford, J Trent Magruder, Joshua C Grimm, Christopher M Sciortino, Kaushik Mandal, Kenton J Zehr, Duke E Cameron, Glenn J Whitman, John V Conte
BACKGROUND: Mediastinal reexplorations for bleeding are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study hypothesized that bleeding patients who undergo delayed chest closure after an initial operation experience similar outcomes in comparison with patients who have initial chest closure and later require an unplanned reexploration. METHODS: This study included all patients in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (Baltimore, MD) institutional Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database who underwent cardiac surgical procedures or thoracic transplantation from 2011 to June 2014, had an intraoperative red blood cell transfusion requirement of 2 units or more, and required mediastinal reexploration for bleeding...
September 22, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Ozgul Yigit, Meltem Erol, Ozlem Bostan Gayret, Isıl Ustun, Selami Ulas
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in developing countries. Diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis can be difficult, as it requires a higher index of suspicion than primary tuberculosis. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis may mimic malignancies and many other diseases, so it should be included in the differential diagnosis. Here, we present a case of extrapulmonary tuberculosis associated with Pott's disease and hip arthritis in a patient who recovered after 12 months of antituberculosis therapy...
July 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Ze-Rui Zhao, Zheng Li, Dong-Rong Situ, Calvin S H Ng
The concept of personalized medicine, which aims to provide patients with targeted therapies while greatly reducing surgical trauma, is gaining popularity among Asian clinicians. Single port video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has rapidly gained popularity in Hong Kong for major lung resections, despite bringing new challenges such as interference between surgical instruments and insertion of the optical source through a single incision. Novel types of endocutters and thoracoscopes can help reduce the difficulties commonly encountered during single-port VATS...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Shaun Mohan, Deipanjan Nandi, Paul Stephens, Mirna MʼFarrej, R Lee Vogel, Christopher P Bonafide
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a pediatric emergency department (ED) chest pain clinical pathway on resource utilization. METHODS: Motivated by perceived overuse of cardiology consultation for non-cardiac chest pain in the ED, clinicians from the Divisions of Cardiology and Emergency Medicine collaboratively developed a chest pain clinical pathway, educated staff, and implemented the pathway on March 1, 2014. We reviewed records of children aged 3 to 18 years without prior diagnoses of heart disease who presented to the ED with chest pain between March 1, 2013, and April 22, 2015...
September 20, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Karriem S Watson, Amanda C Blok, Joanna Buscemi, Yamile Molina, Marian Fitzgibbon, Melissa A Simon, Lance Williams, Kameron Matthews, Jamie L Studts, Sarah E Lillie, Jamie S Ostroff, Lisa Carter-Harris, Robert A Winn
The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) supports the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening of the chest for eligible populations to reduce lung cancer mortality. Consistent with efforts to translate research findings into real-world settings, SBM encourages health-care providers and health-care systems to (1) integrate evidence-based tobacco treatment as an essential component of LDCT-based lung cancer screening, (2) examine the structural barriers that may impact screening uptake, and (3) incorporate shared decision-making as a clinical platform to facilitate consultations and engagement with individuals at high risk for lung cancer about the potential benefits and harms associated with participation in a lung cancer screening program...
September 19, 2016: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Łukasz Kryst, Agnieszka Woronkowicz, Małgorzata Kowal, Jan Sobiecki
OBJECTIVES: The size and proportions of the human body change continuously in response to social change and economic development. As reported by papers on intergenerational changes in chest size, this part of the human body is also influenced by environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess changes in the dimensions and proportions of the chest of children and adolescents over a span of 70 years. METHODS: In 2010 an anthropological study was conducted on 3878 children and adolescents aged 3-18 years living in Kraków (Poland)...
September 17, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
H Drinhaus, T Annecke, J Hinkelbein
Decompression of the chest is a life-saving invasive procedure for tension pneumothorax, trauma-associated cardiopulmonary resuscitation or massive haematopneumothorax that every emergency physician or intensivist must master. Particularly in the preclinical setting, indication must be restricted to urgent cases, but in these cases chest decompression must be executed without delay, even in subpar circumstances. The methods available are needle decompression or thoracentesis via mini-thoracotomy with or without insertion of a chest tube in the midclavicular line of the 2nd/3rd intercostal space (Monaldi-position) or in the anterior to mid-axillary line of the 4th/5th intercostal space (Bülau-position)...
October 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Shahin Salehi, Farhad Moradi Shahpar, Gholamreza Norouzi, Farshad Ghazalian, Mehrshad Poursaid Esfehani, Amir Hosein Abedi Yekta
BACKGROUND: Athletes' health is an important issue and for promoting it, pre-participation examination (PPE) is widely performed by responsible bodies around the world. OBJECTIVES: This study was to determine prevalence of cardiovascular disorders among athletes participating in the Asian games and answering the question whether the electrocardiogram (ECG) is a necessary part of pre-participation examination (PPE) for prevention of sudden cardiac death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All athletes participated at Asian games came to sports medicine federation for a PPE including a comprehensive questionnaire, physical examination and ECG...
June 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
Simon G A Brown, Emma L Ball, Kyle Perrin, Catherine A Read, Stephen E Asha, Richard Beasley, Diana Egerton-Warburton, Peter G Jones, Gerben Keijzers, Frances B Kinnear, Ben C H Kwan, Y C Gary Lee, Julian A Smith, Quentin A Summers, Graham Simpson
INTRODUCTION: Current management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is variable, with little evidence from randomised controlled trials to guide treatment. Guidelines emphasise intervention in many patients, which involves chest drain insertion, hospital admission and occasionally surgery. However, there is evidence that conservative management may be effective and safe, and it may also reduce the risk of recurrence. Significant questions remain regarding the optimal initial approach to the management of PSP...
September 13, 2016: BMJ Open
Yan-Qin Huang, Qing-Feng Yang, Hua Wang, Yun-Sheng Xu, Wei Peng, Yue-Hua Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term clinical effect of Tangyiping Granules (, TYP) on patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to achieve normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and hence preventing them from conversion to diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: In total, 127 participants with IGT were randomly assigned to the control (63 cases, 3 lost to follow-up) and treatment groups (64 cases, 4 lost to follow-up) according to the random number table. The control group received lifestyle intervention alone, while the patients in the treatment group took orally 10 g of TYP twice daily in addition to lifestyle intervention for 12 weeks...
September 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
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