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Inflammation mediators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812103/re-expression-of-pro-fibrotic-embryonic-preserved-mediators-in-irradiated-arterial-vessels-of-the-head-and-neck-region
#1
Patrick Möbius, Raimund H M Preidl, Manuel Weber, Kerstin Amann, Friedrich W Neukam, Falk Wehrhan
PURPOSE: Surgical treatment of head and neck malignancies frequently includes microvascular free tissue transfer. Preoperative radiotherapy increases postoperative fibrosis-related complications up to transplant loss. Fibrogenesis is associated with re-expression of embryonic preserved tissue developmental mediators: osteopontin (OPN), regulated by sex-determining region Y‑box 9 (Sox9), and homeobox A9 (HoxA9) play important roles in pathologic tissue remodeling and are upregulated in atherosclerotic vascular lesions; dickkopf-1 (DKK1) inhibits pro-fibrotic and atherogenic Wnt signaling...
August 15, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811977/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-extrinsic-oncosuppressor-ptx3-gene-in-inflammation-and-cancer
#2
Marcello Rubino, Paolo Kunderfranco, Gianluca Basso, Carolina Magdalen Greco, Fabio Pasqualini, Simone Serio, Massimo Roncalli, Luigi Laghi, Alberto Mantovani, Roberto Papait, Cecilia Garlanda
PTX3 is a component of the humoral arm of innate immunity and an extrinsic oncosuppressor gene taming tumor-promoting inflammation. Here, we show that two enhancers differently regulate PTX3 expression: enhancer 1, located 230 kb upstream of PTX3 promoter, mediated the action of inflammatory transcription factors; and enhancer 2, encompassing PTX3 second exon, was implicated in pre-initiation complex assembly. Polycomb repressive complex 2 silenced these regulatory elements and the promoter in basal condition...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811953/from-inflammation-to-current-and-alternative-therapies-involved-in-wound-healing
#3
REVIEW
Mariana Barreto Serra, Wermerson Assunção Barroso, Neemias Neves da Silva, Selma do Nascimento Silva, Antonio Carlos Romão Borges, Iracelle Carvalho Abreu, Marilene Oliveira da Rocha Borges
Wound healing is a complex event that develops in three overlapping phases: inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling. These phases are distinct in function and histological characteristics. However, they depend on the interaction of cytokines, growth factors, chemokines, and chemical mediators from cells to perform regulatory events. In this article, we will review the pathway in the skin healing cascade, relating the major chemical inflammatory mediators, cellular and molecular, as well as demonstrating the local and systemic factors that interfere in healing and disorders associated with tissue repair deficiency...
2017: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811745/inhibition-of-inflammation-mediated-through-the-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-biochemical-pathway-can-lead-to-favorable-outcomes-in-alzheimer-disease
#4
REVIEW
Daniah Shamim, Michael Laskowski
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors have long been used as disease-modifying agents in immune disorders. Recently, research has shown a role of chronic neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, and interest has been generated in the use of anti-TNF agents and TNF-modulating agents for prevention and treatment. This article extensively reviewed literature on animal studies testing these agents. The results showed a role for direct and indirect TNF-α inhibition through agents such as thalidomide, 3,6-dithiothalidomide, etanercept, infliximab, exendin-4, sodium hydrosulfide, minocycline, imipramine, and atorvastatin...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811572/inhibition-of-connexin-hemichannels-alleviates-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#5
Joost Willebrords, Bruno Cogliati, Isabel Veloso Alves Pereira, Tereza Cristina da Silva, Sara Crespo Yanguas, Michaël Maes, Veronica Mollica Govoni, Andressa Lima, Daniele Aparecida Felisbino, Elke Decrock, Marina Sayuri Nogueira, Inar Alves de Castro, Isabelle Leclercq, Luc Leybaert, Robim Marcelino Rodrigues, Mathieu Vinken
While gap junctions mediate intercellular communication and support liver homeostasis, connexin hemichannels are preferentially opened by pathological stimuli, including inflammation and oxidative stress. The latter are essential features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In this study, it was investigated whether connexin32 and connexin43 hemichannels play a role in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet or normal diet for 8 weeks. Thereafter, TAT-Gap24 or TAT-Gap19, specific inhibitors of hemichannels composed of connexin32 and connexin43, respectively, were administered for 2 weeks...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811386/trimetazidine-protects-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-acute-glaucoma-via-the-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#6
Peixing Wan, Wenru Su, Yingying Zhang, Zhidong Li, Caibin Deng, Yehong Zhuo
Acute glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible vision impairment characterized by the rapid elevation of intraocular pressure and consequent retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation have been considered critical for the pathogenesis of RGC death in acute glaucoma. Trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-ischemic drug, possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, contributing to its therapeutic potential in tissue damage. However, the role of TMZ in acute glaucoma and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811301/topically-applied-carvedilol-attenuates-solar-ultraviolet-radiation-induced-skin-carcinogenesis
#7
Kevin M Huang, Sherry Liang, Steven Yeung, Etuajie Oiyemhonlan, Kristan H Cleveland, Cyrus Parsa, Robert Orlando, Frank L Meyskens, Bradley Andresen, Ying Huang
In previous studies, the β-blocker carvedilol inhibited EGF-induced epidermal cell transformation and chemical carcinogen-induced mouse skin hyperplasia. As exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation leads to skin cancer, the present study examined whether carvedilol can prevent UV-induced carcinogenesis. Carvedilol absorbs UV like a sunscreen; thus, to separate pharmacological from sunscreen effects, 4-hydroxycarbazole (4-OHC), which absorbs UV to the same degree as carvedilol, served as control. JB6 P+ cells, an established epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, were used for evaluating the effect of carvedilol on UV-induced neoplastic transformation...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811236/interleukin-26-is-overexpressed-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-and-enhances-th17-related-cytokines
#8
Wajih Kaabachi, Eya Bouali, Anissa Berraïes, Imen Ben Dhifallh, Besma Hamdi, Kamel Hamzaoui, Agnès Hamzaoui
Behçet's disease (BD) is a multi-systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by the "triple symptom complex". Several pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly derived from the immune Th17 axis, seem to be involved in different pathogenic pathways leading to development of the clinical manifestations. Here, we have analyzed the expression and role of IL-26 in active BD patients, an inflammatory disorder characterized by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation. On this basis, the primary aim of our work was to study IL-26 levels in serum, BAL CSF) from active BD patients...
August 12, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811226/characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-six-interleukin-17-receptor-genes-in-grouper-epinephelus-coioides-after-cryptocaryon-irritans-infection
#9
Biao Jiang, Yan-Wei Li, Ya-Zhou Hu, Heng-Li Luo, An-Xing Li
Interleukin-17 receptors (IL17Rs) mediate the activation of several downstream signal pathways to induce inflammatory response and contribute to the pathology of many autoimmune diseases. In this study, six IL17Rs (IL17RA1, RA2, RB, RC, RD and RE) were cloned and characterized from Epinephelus coioides, an orange-spotted grouper. Multiple sequence alignment and structural analysis revealed that all members of IL17Rs were low in sequence identity with each other. But their structures were conservative in grouper, which contain signal peptide, extracellular FNIII domain (IL17RA1/RA2/RB) or IL-17_R_N domain (IL17RC/RD/RE), transmembrane domain and SEFIR domain in their intracellular region...
August 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810553/evaluation-of-the-c-domain-of-heparanase-during-age-induced-macrophage-inflammatory-response
#10
Qiaojing Qin, Guang Xu, Weiwei Qi, Mei Guo, Zhaoxia Wang, Wangjie Xu, Zhongdong Qiao, Yong Gu, Jianying Niu
Diabetic vasculopathy is intensified by macrophage inflammation caused by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Heparanase (HPA) is a unique endoglycosidase, which cleaves heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) including syndecan-1 (Syn-1) to further stimulate macrophage cell migration and inflammation. The present study was planned to evaluated the role of C-domain (if any) of HPA in AGE inflammatory response in macrophages. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay, migration assay, ELISA for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, mRNA expression by RT-PCR and heparan degrading enzyme assay for HPA activity...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810528/neuroprotection-of-bradykinin-bradykinin-b2-receptor-system-in-cerebral-ischemia
#11
REVIEW
Bingyuan Ji, Baohua Cheng, Yanyou Pan, Chunmei Wang, Jing Chen, Bo Bai
Bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) activated by its endogenous ligand bradykinin participates in various physiological processes including neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, and control of inflammation and blood pressure. Besides these effects, B2R has been demonstrated to protect neurons from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, we highlight the mechanisms of BK/B2R-mediated neuroprotective effects in the peripheral and central nervous systems. Moreover, this review article summarizes some of the signaling pathways of B2R in cerebral ischemia, leading to a better understanding of its neuroprotection...
August 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809783/role-of-omentin-vaspin-cardiotrophin-1-tweak-and-nov-ccn3-in-obesity-and-diabetes-development
#12
REVIEW
Xavier Escoté, Saioa Gómez-Zorita, Miguel López-Yoldi, Iñaki Milton-Laskibar, Alfredo Fernández-Quintela, J Alfredo Martínez, María J Moreno-Aliaga, María P Portillo
Adipose tissue releases bioactive mediators called adipokines. This review focuses on the effects of omentin, vaspin, cardiotrophin-1, Tumor necrosis factor-like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis (TWEAK) and nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV/CCN3) on obesity and diabetes. Omentin is produced by the stromal-vascular fraction of visceral adipose tissue. Obesity reduces omentin serum concentrations and adipose tissue secretion in adults and adolescents. This adipokine regulates insulin sensitivity, but its clinical relevance has to be confirmed...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809572/antigen-specific-gut-inflammation-and-systemic-immune-responses-induced-by-pro-longing-wheat-gluten-sensitization-in-balb-c-murine-model
#13
Vijaykrishnaraj M, Mohan Kumar Bv, Muthukumar Sp, Nawneet K Kurrey, Pichan Prabhasankar
Gluten-related diseases such as wheat allergy, celiac disease, and gluten intolerance are widespread in the globe to genetically pre-disposed individuals. The present study aims to develop wheat-gluten induced BALB/c murine model for addressing wheat-gluten related disorders by sensitizing the wheat gluten through the route of intraperitoneal and oral challenge in prolonged days. During the sensitization, the sera were collected for specific anti-gliadin antibodies response and pro-inflammatory markers quantification...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808975/isolation-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-from-mouse-lungs
#14
Claudia U Duerr, Jörg H Fritz
The recently described group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) exert critical roles in type 2 immune responses, epithelial repair at mucosal tissues and metabolic homeostasis. ILC2 release large amounts of type 2 cytokines such as interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13, driving type 2 immunity such as the defense against helminths. However, if not tightly regulated ILC2 can trigger unwanted type 2 immunopathologies including allergic airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness, and atopic dermatitis. Viral respiratory tract infections, archetypal triggers of type 1 immune responses, often give rise to pulmonary type 2 immunopathologies such as asthma and asthma exacerbations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808887/chronic-silymarin-quercetin-and-naringenin-treatments-increase-monoamines-synthesis-and-hippocampal-sirt1-levels-improving-cognition-in-aged-rats
#15
F Sarubbo, M R Ramis, C Kienzer, S Aparicio, S Esteban, A Miralles, D Moranta
Polyphenols have beneficial neurological effects delaying cognitive and motor decline in aging due to their antioxidant, antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties. These effects could be related to SIRT1 activation (implicated in synaptic plasticity, memory and inflammation) and monoaminergic synthesis modulation. In this work, we studied in old male rats, the in vivo effects of long-term administration of different polyphenols (silymarin, quercetin and naringenin; 20 mg/kg/day i.p, 4 weeks) (Sprague-Dawley, 18 months) on cognition and motor coordination...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808878/role-of-intestinal-microbiome-in-american-ginseng-mediated-colon-cancer-protection-in-high-fat-diet-fed-aom-dss-mice
#16
C-Z Wang, W-H Huang, C-F Zhang, J-Y Wan, Y Wang, C Yu, S Williams, T-C He, W Du, M W Musch, E B Chang, C-S Yuan
OBJECTIVE: Chronic intestinal inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and development. Diets that are rich in Western style fats have been shown to promote CRC. This study was conducted to investigate the role of intestinal microbiome in American ginseng-mediated CRC chemoprevention in a mouse model. The population and diversity of enteric microbiome were evaluated after the ginseng treatment. METHODS: Using an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced gut inflammation and tumorigenesis mouse model, the effects of oral American ginseng on high fat diet-associated enteric pathology were determined...
August 14, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808842/colonic-motor-dysfunctions-in-a-mouse-model-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-an-involvement-of-a2b-adenosine-receptors
#17
Luca Antonioli, Carolina Pellegrini, Matteo Fornai, Erika Tirotta, Daniela Gentile, Laura Benvenuti, Maria Cecilia Giron, Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Genny Orso, Nunzia Bernardini, Cristina Segnani, Chiara Ippolito, Balázs Csóka, Zoltán H Németh, György Haskó, Carmelo Scarpignato, Corrado Blandizzi, Rocchina Colucci
Adenosine A2B receptors (A2BR) regulate several enteric functions. However, their implication in the pathophysiology of intestinal dysmotility associated with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has not been elucidated. We investigated the expression of A2BR in mouse colon and their role in the mechanisms underlying the development of enteric dysmotility associated with obesity. Wild-type C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD (60% kcal from fat) or normocaloric diet (NCD; 18% kcal from fat) for 8 weeks. Colonic A2BR localization was examined by immunofluorescence...
August 14, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808475/yacon-smallanthus-sonchifolius-leaf-extract-attenuates-hyperglycemia-and-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-diabetic-rats
#18
Klinsmann Carolo Dos Santos, Bianca Guerra Bueno, Luana Ferreira Pereira, Fabiane Valentini Francisqueti, Mariana Gobbo Braz, Lahis Fernandes Bincoleto, Lilian Xavier da Silva, Ana Lúcia A Ferreira, Ana Cláudia de Melo Stevanato Nakamune, C-Y Oliver Chen, Jeffrey B Blumberg, Camila Renata Corrêa
The effects of hydroethanolic extract of Yacon leaves (HEYL) on antioxidant, glycemic, and inflammatory biomarkers were tested in diabetic rats. Outcome parameters included glucose, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity (HAC) in serum and IL-6, HAC, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in soleus. The rats (10/group) were divided as follows: C, controls; C + Y, HEYL treated; DM, diabetic controls; and DM + Y, diabetic rats treated with HEYL...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808418/emerging-roles-of-sirt1-in-fatty-liver-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Ren-Bo Ding, Jiaolin Bao, Chu-Xia Deng
Fatty liver diseases, which are commonly associated with high-fat/calorie diet, heavy alcohol consumption and/or other metabolic disorder causes, lead to serious medical concerns worldwide in recent years. It has been demonstrated that metabolic homeostasis disruption is most likely to be responsible for this global epidemic. Sirtuins are a group of conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) dependent histone and/or protein deacetylases belonging to the silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) family...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808377/anti-inflammatory-potential-of-petiveria-alliacea-on-activated-raw264-7-murine-macrophages
#20
Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez, Carlos Hoyo-Vadillo
BACKGROUND: Defense and protection to multiple harmful stimuli are the inflammation, when is self-amplified and uncontrolled is the basis of the pathogenesis of a wide variety of inflammatory illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate if Petiveria alliacea could attenuate inflammation in a murine model of RAW264 macrophages the involved model and its involved mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanol extract from P. alliacea was precipitated with water and supernatant was used for this study (PW)...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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