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Meiotic recombination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932493/prdm9-interactions-with-other-proteins-provide-a-link-between-recombination-hotspots-and-the-chromosomal-axis-in-meiosis
#1
Emil D Parvanov, Hui Tian, Timothy Billings, Ruth L Saxl, Catrina Spruce, Rakesh Aithal, Lumir Krejci, Kenneth Paigen, Petko M Petkov
In mammals, meiotic recombination occurs at 1-2 kb genomic regions termed hotspots, whose positions and activities are determined by PRDM9, a DNA-binding histone methyltransferase. We now show that the KRAB domain of PRDM9 forms complexes with additional proteins to allow hotspots to proceed into the next phase of recombination. By a combination of yeast-two hybrid assay, in vitro binding, and co-immunoprecipitation from mouse spermatocytes, we identified four proteins that directly interact with PRDM9's KRAB domain, namely CXXC1, EWSR1, EHMT2, and CDYL...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930825/modulation-of-meiotic-homologous-recombination-by-dna-helicases
#2
Alexander Lorenz
DNA helicases are ATP-driven motor proteins which translocate along DNA capable of dismantling DNA-DNA interactions and/or removing proteins bound to DNA. These biochemical capabilities make DNA helicases main regulators of crucial DNA metabolic processes, including DNA replication, DNA repair, and genetic recombination. This budding topic will focus on reviewing the function of DNA helicases important for homologous recombination during meiosis, and discuss recent advances in how these modulators of meiotic recombination are themselves regulated...
December 8, 2016: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927900/questions-and-assays
#3
Nancy Kleckner
The Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal is awarded to an individual Genetics Society of America member for lifetime achievement in the field of genetics. It recognizes the full body of work of an exceptional geneticist. The 2016 recipient is Nancy Kleckner, who has made many significant contributions to our understanding of chromosomes and the mechanisms of inheritance. Kleckner has made seminal achievements in several different research areas, including bacterial transposition, chromosome organization, and meiosis. She has repeatedly combined traditional genetic approaches with molecular biology, microscopy, physics, and modeling-unprecedented applications of these methods at the time, but which have now become commonplace...
December 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926907/mammalian-meiotic-recombination-a-toolbox-for-genome-evolution
#4
Laia Capilla, Montserrat Garcia Caldés, Aurora Ruiz-Herrera
Meiotic recombination is a process that increases genetic diversity and is fundamental for sexual reproduction. Determining by which mechanisms genetic variation is generated and maintained across different phylogenetic groups provides the basis for our understanding of biodiversity and evolution. In this review, we go through different aspects of this essential phenomenon, paying special attention to mammals. We provide a comprehensive view on the organization of meiotic chromosomes and the mechanisms involved in the formation and genomic distribution of recombination hotspots, focusing on the factors influencing the formation and repair of the massive amount of self-induced DNA breaks in early stages of meiosis...
December 8, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923845/numerical-and-spatial-patterning-of-yeast-meiotic-dna-breaks-by-tel1
#5
Neeman Mohibullah, Scott Keeney
The Spo11-generated double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination are dangerous lesions that can disrupt genome integrity, so meiotic cells regulate their number, timing, and distribution. Mechanisms of this regulation remain poorly understood. Here, we use Spo11-oligonucleotide complexes, a byproduct of DSB formation, to reveal aspects of the contribution of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA damage-responsive kinase Tel1 (ortholog of mammalian ATM). A tel1Δ mutant has globally increased amounts of Spo11-oligonucleotide complexes and altered Spo11-oligonucleotide lengths, consistent with conserved roles for Tel1 in control of DSB number and processing...
December 6, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913833/tight-repulsion-linkage-between-sr36-and-sr39-was-revealed-by-genetic-cytogenetic-and-molecular-analyses
#6
Bosco Chemayek, Urmil K Bansal, Naeela Qureshi, Peng Zhang, William W Wagoire, Harbans S Bariana
The shortening of Aegilops speltoides segment did not facilitate recombination between stem rust resistance genes Sr36 and Sr39 . Robustness of marker rwgs28 for marker-assisted selection of Sr39 was demonstrated. Stem rust resistance genes Sr39 and Sr36 were transferred from Aegilops speltoides and Triticum timopheevii, respectively, to chromosome 2B of wheat. Genetic stocks RL6082 and RWG1 carrying Sr39 on a large and a shortened Ae. speltoides segments, respectively, and the Sr36-carrying Australian wheat cultivar Cook were used in this study...
December 2, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913618/meiotic-centromere-coupling-and-pairing-function-by-two-separate-mechanisms-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Emily L Kurdzo, David Obeso, Hoa Chuong, Dean S Dawson
In meiosis I, chromosomes become paired with their homologous partners and then are pulled towards opposite poles of the spindle. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in early meiotic prophase, centromeres are observed to associate in pairs in a homology-independent manner, a process called centromere coupling. Later, as homologous chromosomes align, their centromeres associate in a process called centromere pairing. The synaptonemal complex protein Zip1 is necessary for both types of centromere association...
December 2, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909815/homoeologous-recombination-in-the-presence-of-ph1-gene-in-wheat
#8
Dal-Hoe Koo, Wenxuan Liu, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill
A crossover (CO) and its cytological signature, the chiasma, are major features of eukaryotic meiosis. The formation of at least one CO/chiasma between homologous chromosome pairs is essential for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division and genetic recombination. Polyploid organisms with multiple sets of homoeologous chromosomes have evolved additional mechanisms for the regulation of CO/chiasma. In hexaploid wheat (2n = 6× = 42), this is accomplished by pairing homoeologous (Ph) genes, with Ph1 having the strongest effect on suppressing homoeologous recombination and homoeologous COs...
December 1, 2016: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893960/eukaryotic-dna-polymerases-in-homologous-recombination
#9
Mitch McVey, Varandt Y Khodaverdian, Damon Meyer, Paula Gonçalves Cerqueira, Wolf-Dietrich Heyer
Homologous recombination (HR) is a central process to ensure genomic stability in somatic cells and during meiosis. HR-associated DNA synthesis determines in large part the fidelity of the process. A number of recent studies have demonstrated that DNA synthesis during HR is conservative, less processive, and more mutagenic than replicative DNA synthesis. In this review, we describe mechanistic features of DNA synthesis during different types of HR-mediated DNA repair, including synthesis-dependent strand annealing, break-induced replication, and meiotic recombination...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890643/coordination-of-dna-single-strand-break-repair
#10
Rachel Abbotts, David M Wilson
The genetic material of all organisms is susceptible to modification. In some instances, these changes are programmed, such as the formation of DNA double strand breaks during meiotic recombination to generate gamete variety or class switch recombination to create antibody diversity. However, in most cases, genomic damage is potentially harmful to the health of the organism, contributing to disease and aging by promoting deleterious cellular outcomes. A proportion of DNA modifications are caused by exogenous agents, both physical (namely ultraviolet sunlight and ionizing radiation) and chemical (such as benzopyrene, alkylating agents, platinum compounds and psoralens), which can produce numerous forms of DNA damage, including a range of "simple" and helix-distorting base lesions, abasic sites, crosslinks and various types of phosphodiester strand breaks...
November 24, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880796/foxn1-cre-expression-in-the-male-germline
#11
Jianjun Shi, Irina Getun, Bivian Torres, Howard T Petrie
Foxn1 (forkhead box N1), also known as the nude gene or winged-helix nude (Whn), is a forkhead transcription factor thought to be restricted to keratinocytes in the skin and thymus. Consistent with this tissue distribution, spontaneous or targeted mutation of Foxn1 results in the absence of both hair and a thymus. Genetic manipulation of the Foxn1 locus thus represents a powerful tool for tissue specific gene control in the skin and thymus, and tools such as Cre recombinase under control of the Foxn1 locus are widely used for this purpose...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875982/comparative-genomics-to-explore-phylogenetic-relationship-cryptic-sexual-potential-and-host-specificity-of-rhynchosporium-species-on-grasses
#12
Daniel Penselin, Martin Münsterkötter, Susanne Kirsten, Marius Felder, Stefan Taudien, Matthias Platzer, Kevin Ashelford, Konrad H Paskiewicz, Richard J Harrison, David J Hughes, Thomas Wolf, Ekaterina Shelest, Jenny Graap, Jan Hoffmann, Claudia Wenzel, Nadine Wöltje, Kevin M King, Bruce D L Fitt, Ulrich Güldener, Anna Avrova, Wolfgang Knogge
BACKGROUND: The Rhynchosporium species complex consists of hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens specialized to different sweet grass species including the cereal crops barley and rye. A sexual stage has not been described, but several lines of evidence suggest the occurrence of sexual reproduction. Therefore, a comparative genomics approach was carried out to disclose the evolutionary relationship of the species and to identify genes demonstrating the potential for a sexual cycle. Furthermore, due to the evolutionary very young age of the five species currently known, this genus appears to be well-suited to address the question at the molecular level of how pathogenic fungi adapt to their hosts...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872942/graphical-genotyping-as-a-method-to-map-ny-o-n-sto-and-gpa5-using-a-reference-panel-of-tetraploid-potato-cultivars
#13
Herman J van Eck, Peter G Vos, Jari P T Valkonen, Jan G A M L Uitdewilligen, Hellen Lensing, Nick de Vetten, Richard G F Visser
The method of graphical genotyping is applied to a panel of tetraploid potato cultivars to visualize haplotype sharing. The method allowed to map genes involved in virus and nematode resistance. The physical coordinates of the amount of linkage drag surrounding these genes are easily interpretable. Graphical genotyping is a visually attractive and easily interpretable method to represent genetic marker data. In this paper, the method is extended from diploids to a panel of tetraploid potato cultivars. Application of filters to select a subset of SNPs allows one to visualize haplotype sharing between individuals that also share a specific locus...
November 21, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861941/interconnections-between-meiotic-recombination-and-sequence-polymorphism-in-plant-genomes
#14
REVIEW
Piotr A Ziolkowski, Ian R Henderson
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Meiosis is fundamental to sexual reproduction and creates genetic variation in progeny. During meiosis paired homologous chromosomes undergo recombination, which can result in reciprocal crossovers. This process can recombine independently arising mutations onto the same chromosome. Recombination locations are highly variable between meioses, although total crossover numbers are tightly regulated. In addition to the effect of meiosis on genetic variation, sequence polymorphisms between homologous chromosomes can feedback onto the recombination pathways...
November 10, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855779/local-chromosome-context-is-a-major-determinant-of-crossover-pathway-biochemistry-during-budding-yeast-meiosis
#15
Darpan Medhi, Alastair Sh Goldman, Michael Lichten
The budding yeast genome contains regions where meiotic recombination initiates more frequently than in others. This pattern parallels enrichment for the meiotic chromosome axis proteins Hop1 and Red1. These proteins are important for Spo11-catalyzed double strand break formation; their contribution to crossover recombination remains undefined. Using the sequence-specific VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE) to initiate recombination in meiosis, we show that chromosome structure influences the choice of proteins that resolve recombination intermediates to form crossovers...
November 18, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847512/evidence-of-genomic-exchanges-between-homeologous-chromosomes-in-a-cross-of-peanut-with-newly-synthetized-allotetraploid-hybrids
#16
Joel R Nguepjop, Hodo-Abalo Tossim, Joseph M Bell, Jean-François Rami, Shivali Sharma, Brigitte Courtois, Nalini Mallikarjuna, Djibril Sane, Daniel Fonceka
Cultivated peanut and synthetics are allotetraploids (2n = 4x = 40) with two homeologous sets of chromosomes. Meiosis in allotetraploid peanut is generally thought to show diploid-like behavior. However, a recent study pointed out the occurrence of recombination between homeologous chromosomes, especially when synthetic allotetraploids are used, challenging the view of disomic inheritance in peanut. In this study, we investigated the meiotic behavior of allotetraploid peanut using 380 SSR markers and 90 F2 progeny derived from the cross between Arachis hypogaea cv Fleur 11 (AABB) and ISATGR278-18 (AAKK), a synthetic allotetraploid that harbors a K-genome that was reported to pair with the cultivated B-genome during meiosis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833618/depletion-of-key-meiotic-genes-and-transcriptome-wide-abiotic-stress-reprogramming-mark-early-preparatory-events-ahead-of-apomeiotic-transition
#17
Jubin N Shah, Olga Kirioukhova, Pallavi Pawar, Muhammad Tayyab, Juan L Mateo, Amal J Johnston
Molecular dissection of apomixis - an asexual reproductive mode - is anticipated to solve the enigma of loss of meiotic sex, and to help fixing elite agronomic traits. The Brassicaceae genus Boechera comprises of both sexual and apomictic species, permitting comparative analyses of meiotic circumvention (apomeiosis) and parthenogenesis. Whereas previous studies reported local transcriptome changes during these events, it remained unclear whether global changes associated with hybridization, polyploidy and environmental adaptation that arose during evolution of Boechera might serve as (epi)genetic regulators of early development prior apomictic initiation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821479/functional-roles-of-acetylated-histone-marks-at-mouse-meiotic-recombination-hotspots
#18
Irina V Getun, Zhen Wu, Mohammad Fallahi, Souad Ouizem, Qin Liu, Weimin Li, Roberta Costi, William R Roush, John L Cleveland, Philippe R J Bois
Meiotic recombination initiates following the formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by the Spo11 endonuclease early in prophase I at discrete regions in the genome coined hotspots. In mammals, meiotic DSB site selection is directed in part by sequence specific binding of PRDM9, a polymorphic histone H3 (H3K4Me3) methyltransferase. However, other chromatin features needed for meiotic hotspot specification are largely unknown. Here, we show that the recombinogenic cores of active hotspots in mice harbor several histone H3 and H4 acetylation and methylation marks that are typical of open, active chromatin...
November 7, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820601/scai-promotes-dna-double-strand-break-repair-in-distinct-chromosomal-contexts
#19
Rebecca Kring Hansen, Andreas Mund, Sara Lund Poulsen, Maria Sandoval, Karolin Klement, Katerina Tsouroula, Maxim A X Tollenaere, Markus Räschle, Rebeca Soria, Stefan Offermanns, Thomas Worzfeld, Robert Grosse, Dominique T Brandt, Björn Rozell, Matthias Mann, Francesca Cole, Evi Soutoglou, Aaron A Goodarzi, Jeremy A Daniel, Niels Mailand, Simon Bekker-Jensen
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions, whose accurate repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) is crucial for genome integrity and is strongly influenced by the local chromatin environment. Here, we identify SCAI (suppressor of cancer cell invasion) as a 53BP1-interacting chromatin-associated protein that promotes the functionality of several DSB repair pathways in mammalian cells. SCAI undergoes prominent enrichment at DSB sites through dual mechanisms involving 53BP1-dependent recruitment to DSB-surrounding chromatin and 53BP1-independent accumulation at resected DSBs...
November 7, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811955/cytological-basis-of-sterility-in-male-and-female-hybrids-between-sibling-species-of-grey-voles-microtus-arvalis-and-m-levis
#20
Anna A Torgasheva, Pavel M Borodin
To make insight into the cytological basis of reproductive isolation, we examined chromosome synapsis and recombination in sterile male and female hybrids between Microtus arvalis and M. levis. These sibling species differ by a series of chromosomal rearrangements (fusions, inversions, centromere shifts and heterochromatin insertions). We found that meiosis in male hybrids was arrested at leptotene with complete failure of chromosome pairing and DNA double-strand breaks repair. In the female hybrids meiosis proceeded to pachytene; however, the oocytes varied in the degree of pairing errors...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
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