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Meiotic recombination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788002/intraindividual-variation-of-meiotic-recombination-parameters-in-pig-spermatocytes-a-preliminary-study
#1
Nicolas Mary, Stéphane Ferchaud, Harmonie Barasc, Anne Calgaro, Nathalie Bonnet, Alain Ducos, Alain Pinton
Meiotic recombination parameters like crossover (CO) rate or synaptonemal complex (SC) length are known to vary strongly between individuals and between cells from the same individual. The origins of this variability remain elusive, and little is known about the variations that might occur between different samples and/or over time within the same individual. To document this question, pachytene cells from 3 boars of the Large White breed were analyzed twice, at a 1-year interval, using immunocytological techniques...
May 23, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787435/nhej-contributes-to-the-fast-repair-of-radiation-induced-dna-double-strand-breaks-at-late-prophase-i-telomeres
#2
Emad A Ahmed, Michael Rosemann, Harry Scherthan
Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation induces DNA double-strand breaks. To repair double-strand breaks correctly, cells must distinguish between the ends of chromosomes (telomeres) and DNA double-strand breaks within chromosomes. Double-strand breaks in telomeric DNA may lead to telomere shortening and mutagenesis. Eukaryotic cells repair double-strand breaks primarily by two mechanisms: error-free homologous recombination and error-prone nonhomologous end joining, of which homologous recombination is used in early meiotic prophase I to create recombined haploid gametes by two meiotic cell divisions lacking an intervening S-phase...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771908/elevated-temperature-increases-meiotic-crossover-frequency-via-the-interfering-type-i-pathway-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
Jennifer L Modliszewski, Hongkuan Wang, Ashley R Albright, Scott M Lewis, Alexander R Bennett, Jiyue Huang, Hong Ma, Yingxiang Wang, Gregory P Copenhaver
For most eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is a fundamental process that requires meiosis. In turn, meiosis typically depends on a reciprocal exchange of DNA between each pair of homologous chromosomes, known as a crossover (CO), to ensure proper chromosome segregation. The frequency and distribution of COs are regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors, but much more is known about the molecular mechanisms governing the former compared to the latter. Here we show that elevated temperature induces meiotic hyper-recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana and we use genetic analysis with mutants in different recombination pathways to demonstrate that the extra COs are derived from the major Type I interference sensitive pathway...
May 17, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770515/structural-variation-and-rates-of-genome-evolution-in-the-grass-family-seen-through-comparison-of-sequences-of-genomes-greatly-differing-in-size
#4
Jan Dvorak, Le Wang, Tingting Zhu, Chad M Jorgensen, Karin R Deal, Xiongtao Dai, Matthew W Dawson, Hans-Georg Müller, Ming-Cheng Luo, Ramesh K Ramasamy, Hamid Dehghani, Yong Q Gu, Bikram S Gill, Assaf Distelfeld, Katrien M Devos, Peng Qi, Frank M You, Patrick J Gulick, Patrick E McGuire
Homology was searched with genes annotated in the Aegilops tauschii pseudomolecules against genes annotated in the pseudomolecules of tetraploid wild emmer wheat, Brachypodium distachyon, sorghum, and rice. Similar searches were initiated with genes annotated in the rice pseudomolecules. Matrices of colinear genes and rearrangements in their order were constructed. Optical Bionano genome maps were constructed and used to validate rearrangements unique to the wild emmer and Ae. tauschii genomes. Most common rearrangements were short paracentric inversions and short intrachromosomal translocations...
May 16, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754818/dynamic-architecture-of-dna-repair-complexes-and-the-synaptonemal-complex-at-sites-of-meiotic-recombination
#5
Alexander Woglar, Anne M Villeneuve
Meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generated and repaired in a highly regulated manner to ensure formation of crossovers (COs) while also enabling efficient non-CO repair to restore genome integrity. We use structured-illumination microscopy to investigate the dynamic architecture of DSB repair complexes at meiotic recombination sites in relationship to the synaptonemal complex (SC). DSBs resected at both ends are converted into inter-homolog repair intermediates harboring two populations of BLM helicase and RPA, flanking a single population of MutSγ...
May 4, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748894/the-capacity-of-oocytes-for-dna-repair
#6
REVIEW
Jessica M Stringer, Amy Winship, Seng H Liew, Karla Hutt
Female fertility and offspring health are critically dependent on the maintenance of an adequate supply of high-quality oocytes. Like somatic cells, oocytes are subject to a variety of different types of DNA damage arising from endogenous cellular processes and exposure to exogenous genotoxic stressors. While the repair of intentionally induced DNA double strand breaks in gametes during meiotic recombination is well characterised, less is known about the ability of oocytes to repair pathological DNA damage and the relative contribution of DNA repair to oocyte quality is not well defined...
May 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743337/oocyte-quality-control-causes-mechanisms-and-consequences
#7
Neil Hunter
Oocyte quality and number are key determinants of reproductive life span and success. These variables are shaped in part by the elimination of oocytes that experience problems during the early stages of meiosis. Meiotic prophase-I marks an extended period of genome vulnerability in which epigenetic reprogramming unleashes retroelements and hundreds of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are inflicted to initiate the programmed recombination required for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division...
May 9, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716744/why-do-sex-chromosomes-stop-recombining
#8
REVIEW
Suvi Ponnikas, Hanna Sigeman, Jessica K Abbott, Bengt Hansson
It is commonly assumed that sex chromosomes evolve recombination suppression because selection favours linkage between sex-determining and sexually antagonistic genes. However, although the role of sexual antagonism during sex chromosome evolution has attained strong support from theory, experimental and observational evidence is rare or equivocal. Here, we highlight alternative, often neglected, hypotheses for recombination suppression on sex chromosomes, which invoke meiotic drive, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift, respectively...
April 28, 2018: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709199/the-mre11-rad50-nbs1-complex-conducts-the-orchestration-of-damage-signaling-and-outcomes-to-stress-in-dna-replication-and-repair
#9
Aleem Syed, John A Tainer
Genomic instability in disease and its fidelity in health depend on the DNA damage response (DDR), regulated in part from the complex of meiotic recombination 11 homolog 1 (MRE11), ATP-binding cassette-ATPase (RAD50), and phosphopeptide-binding Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1 (NBS1). The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex forms a multifunctional DDR machine. Within its network assemblies, MRN is the core conductor for the initial and sustained responses to DNA double-strand breaks, stalled replication forks, dysfunctional telomeres, and viral DNA infection...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703147/characterization-of-recombination-features-and-the-genetic-basis-in-multiple-cattle-breeds
#10
Botong Shen, Jicai Jiang, Eyal Seroussi, George E Liu, Li Ma
BACKGROUND: Crossover generated by meiotic recombination is a fundamental event that facilitates meiosis and sexual reproduction. Comparative studies have shown wide variation in recombination rate among species, but the characterization of recombination features between cattle breeds has not yet been performed. Cattle populations in North America count millions, and the dairy industry has genotyped millions of individuals with pedigree information that provide a unique opportunity to study breed-level variations in recombination...
April 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700881/elucidation-of-the-developmental-mechanism-of-ovarian-mature-cystic-teratomas-using-b-allele-frequency-plots-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-array-data
#11
Hirokazu Usui, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Hiroshi Kaku, Kayoko Maehara, Kenichiro Hata, Makio Shozu
Ovarian mature cystic teratomas (MCTs) originate from post-meiotic germ cells. Conventional methods such as karyotyping or short tandem repeat-polymorphism analysis may be used to better classify MCTs, although such data would be insufficient. The aim of this study was to elucidate the origin of ovarian MCTs using B allele-frequency (BAF) plots of single nucleotide polymorphism array data. MCTs can be classified in terms of the zygosity of the centromeres and distal chromosome regions. We evaluated the zygosity of all chromosomes from 38 MCT specimens using BAF plot data...
April 26, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697370/ldsplitdb-a-database-for-studies-of-meiotic-recombination-hotspots-in-mhc-using-human-genomic-data
#12
Jing Guo, Hao Chen, Peng Yang, Yew Ti Lee, Min Wu, Teresa M Przytycka, Chee Keong Kwoh, Jie Zheng
BACKGROUND: Meiotic recombination happens during the process of meiosis when chromosomes inherited from two parents exchange genetic materials to generate chromosomes in the gamete cells. The recombination events tend to occur in narrow genomic regions called recombination hotspots. Its dysregulation could lead to serious human diseases such as birth defects. Although the regulatory mechanism of recombination events is still unclear, DNA sequence polymorphisms have been found to play crucial roles in the regulation of recombination hotspots...
April 20, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693587/chromosome-synapsis-and-recombination-in-male-sterile-and-female-fertile-interspecies-hybrids-of-the-dwarf-hamsters-phodopus-cricetidae
#13
Tatiana I Bikchurina, Katerina V Tishakova, Elena A Kizilova, Svetlana A Romanenko, Natalya A Serdyukova, Anna A Torgasheva, Pavel M Borodin
Hybrid sterility is an important step in the speciation process. Hybrids between dwarf hamsters Phodopus sungorus and P. campbelli provide a good model for studies in cytological and genetic mechanisms of hybrid sterility. Previous studies in hybrids detected multiple abnormalities of spermatogenesis and a high frequency of dissociation between the X and Y chromosomes at the meiotic prophase. In this study, we found that the autosomes of the hybrid males and females underwent paring and recombination as normally as their parental forms did...
April 25, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686104/interdependent-and-separable-functions-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-mrn-c-complex-members-couple-formation-and-repair-of-meiotic-dsbs
#14
Chloe Girard, Baptiste Roelens, Karl A Zawadzki, Anne M Villeneuve
Faithful inheritance of genetic information through sexual reproduction relies on the formation of crossovers between homologous chromosomes during meiosis, which, in turn, relies on the formation and repair of numerous double-strand breaks (DSBs). As DSBs pose a potential threat to the genome, mechanisms that ensure timely and error-free DSB repair are crucial for successful meiosis. Here, we identify NBS-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of the NBS1 (mutated in Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome) subunit of the conserved MRE11-RAD50-NBS1/Xrs2 (MRN) complex, as a key mediator of DSB repair via homologous recombination (HR) during meiosis...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681056/a-cytological-approach-to-study-meiotic-recombination-and-chromosome-dynamics-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-male-meiocytes-in-three-dimensions
#15
Aurélie Hurel, Dylan Phillips, Nathalie Vrielynck, Christine Mézard, Mathilde Grelon, Nicolas Christophorou
During meiotic prophase I chromosomes undergo dramatic conformational changes that accompany chromosome condensation, pairing and recombination between homologs. These changes include the anchoring of telomeres to the nuclear envelope and their clustering to form a bouquet. In plants, these events have been studied and illustrated in intact meiocytes of large genome species. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent genetic model where major molecular pathways that control synapsis and recombination between homologs have been uncovered...
April 22, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676042/meta-analysis-of-chromosome-scale-crossover-rate-variation-in-eukaryotes-and-its-significance-to-evolutionary-genomics
#16
Quiterie Haenel, Telma G Laurentino, Marius Roesti, Daniel Berner
Understanding the distribution of crossovers along chromosomes is crucial to evolutionary genomics because the crossover rate determines how strongly a genome region is influenced by natural selection on linked sites. Nevertheless, generalities in the chromosome-scale distribution of crossovers have not been investigated formally. We fill this gap by synthesizing joint information on genetic and physical maps across 62 animal, plant, and fungal species. Our quantitative analysis reveals a strong and taxonomically wide-spread reduction of the crossover rate in the center of chromosomes relative to their peripheries...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674518/interrogating-the-functions-of-prdm9-domains-in-meiosis
#17
Sarah Thibault-Sennett, Qi Yu, Fatima Smagulova, Jeff Cloutier, Kevin Brick, R Daniel Camerini-Otero, Galina V Petukhova
Homologous recombination is required for proper segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. It predominantly occurs at recombination hotspots that are defined by the DNA binding specificity of the PRDM9 protein. PRDM9 contains three conserved domains typically involved in regulation of transcription, yet, the role of PRDM9 in gene expression control is not clear. Here we analyze the germline transcriptome of Prdm9-/- male mice in comparison to Prdm9+/+ males and find no apparent differences in the mRNA and miRNA profiles...
April 19, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667147/effects-of-heyan-kuntai-capsule-on-follicular-development-and-oocyte-cohesin-levels-in-aged-mice
#18
Bin Zhang, Nan Chu, Xue-Min Qiu, Wei Tang, Hans-Jürgen Gober, Da-Jin Li, Ling Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Heyan Kuntai Capsule (, HYKT) on the ovarian function of aged mice and expressions of cohesion complexes in oocytes. METHODS: Twenty-five 9-month-old female C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 5 groups by block randomization method (n=5 per group), including the control group (saline), 17 β-estradiol group [E2 , 100 μg/(kg·d)], and low-, medium-, and high-dose of HYKT groups [0.3, 0.9, 2.7 g/(kg·d), respectively]. All mice were treated by intragastric administration for 4 weeks...
April 17, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661171/a-novel-tex11-mutation-induces-azoospermia-a-case-report-of-infertile-brothers-and-literature-review
#19
Yanwei Sha, Liangkai Zheng, Zhiyong Ji, Libin Mei, Lu Ding, Shaobin Lin, Xu Wang, Xiaoyu Yang, Ping Li
BACKGROUND: Testis-expressed gene 11 (TEX11) is an X-linked gene and essential for meiotic recombination and chromosomal synapsis. TEX11 deficiency causes meiotic arrest and male infertility, and many TEX11 mutations have been found in azoospermic and infertile men. CASE PRESENTATION: This study reported one novel TEX11 mutation (2653G → T, in exon 29, GenBank accession number, NM_031276) in two brothers with azoospermia. This mutation was firstly screened out by whole-exome sequencing (WES) and further verified by amplifying and sequencing the specific exon 29...
April 16, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661137/1000-human-genomes-carry-widespread-signatures-of-gc-biased-gene-conversion
#20
Rajib Dutta, Arnab Saha-Mandal, Xi Cheng, Shuhao Qiu, Jasmine Serpen, Larisa Fedorova, Alexei Fedorov
BACKGROUND: GC-Biased Gene Conversion (gBGC) is one of the important theories put forward to explain profound long-range non-randomness in nucleotide compositions along mammalian chromosomes. Nucleotide changes due to gBGC are hard to distinguish from regular mutations. Here, we present an algorithm for analysis of millions of known SNPs that detects a subset of so-called "SNP flip-over" events representing recent gBGC nucleotide changes, which occurred in previous generations via non-crossover meiotic recombination...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
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