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Meiotic recombination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339470/meiotic-recombination-modulates-the-structure-and-dynamics-of-the-synaptonemal-complex-during-c-elegans-meiosis
#1
Divya Pattabiraman, Baptiste Roelens, Alexander Woglar, Anne M Villeneuve
During meiotic prophase, a structure called the synaptonemal complex (SC) assembles at the interface between aligned pairs of homologous chromosomes, and crossover recombination events occur between their DNA molecules. Here we investigate the inter-relationships between these two hallmark features of the meiotic program in the nematode C. elegans, revealing dynamic properties of the SC that are modulated by recombination. We demonstrate that the SC incorporates new subunits and switches from a more highly dynamic/labile state to a more stable state as germ cells progress through the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase...
March 24, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335590/roles-of-budding-yeast-hrr25-in-recombination-and-sporulation
#2
Min-Su Lee, Jeong Hwan Joo, Keunpil Kim
Hrr25, a casein kinase 1 δ/ε homolog in budding yeast, is essential to set up mono-orientation of sister kinetochores during meiosis. Hrr25 kinase activity coordinates sister chromatid cohesion via cohesin phosphorylation. Here, we investigated the prophase roles of Hrr25 using the auxin-inducible degron system and by ectopic expression of Hrr25 during yeast meiosis. Hrr25 mediates nuclear division in meiosis I but does not affect DNA replication. We also found that initiation of meiotic double-strand breaks as well as joint molecule formation were normal in HRR25-deficient cells...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315859/heteromorphism-of-homomorphic-sex-chromosomes-in-two-anole-species-squamata-dactyloidae-revealed-by-synaptonemal-complex-analysis
#3
Artem P Lisachov, Vladimir A Trifonov, Massimo Giovannotti, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Pavel M Borodin
Iguanians (Pleurodonta) are one of the reptile lineages that, like birds and mammals, have sex chromosomes of ancient origin. In most iguanians these are microchromosomes, making a distinction between the X and Y as well as between homeologous sex chromosomes in other species difficult. Meiotic chromosome analysis may be used to elucidate their differentiation, because meiotic prophase chromosomes are longer and less condensed than metaphase chromosomes, and the homologues are paired with each other, revealing minor heteromorphisms...
March 18, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315832/modulating-crossover-frequency-and-interference-for-obligate-crossovers-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-meiosis
#4
Parijat Chakraborty, Ajith V Pankajam, Gen Lin, Abhishek Dutta, Krishnaprasad G Nandanan, Manu M Tekkedil, Akira Shinohara, Lars M Steinmetz, Nishant K Thazath
Meiotic crossover frequencies show wide variation among organisms. But most organisms maintain at least one crossover per homolog pair (obligate crossover). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, previous studies have shown crossover frequencies are reduced in the mismatch repair related mutant mlh3Δ and enhanced in a meiotic checkpoint mutant pch2Δ by up to two-fold at specific chromosomal loci, but both mutants maintain high spore viability. We analyzed meiotic recombination events genome-wide in mlh3Δ, pch2Δ and mlh3Δ pch2Δ mutants to test the effect of variation in crossover frequency on obligate crossovers...
March 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297694/immunocytological-analysis-of-meiotic-recombination-in-the-gray-goose-anser-anser
#5
Anna A Torgasheva, Pavel M Borodin
Studies on mammals demonstrate wide interspecific variation in the number and distribution of recombination events along chromosomes. Birds represent an interesting model group for comparative analysis of cytological and ecological drivers of recombination rate evolution. Yet, data on variation in recombination rates in birds are limited to a dozen of species. In this study, we used immunolocalization of MLH1, a mismatch repair protein marking mature recombination nodules, to estimate the overall recombination rate and distribution of crossovers along macrochromosomes in female and male meiosis of the gray goose (Anser anser)...
March 16, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297563/spermatogenesis-associated-22-is-required-for-dna-repair-and-synapsis-of-homologous-chromosomes-in-mouse-germ-cells
#6
E Hays, N Majchrzak, V Daniel, Z Ferguson, S Brown, K Hathorne, S La Salle
Analysis of the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced repro42 mutation previously identified spermatogenesis associated 22 (Spata22) as a gene required for meiotic progression and fertility in both male and female mice, but its specific contribution to the process was unclear. Here, we report on a novel, null allele of Spata22 (Spata22(Gt) ) and confirm its requirement for germ cell development. Similar to repro42 mutant mice, histological and mating analyses indicate that gametogenesis is profoundly affected in Spata22(Gt/Gt) males and females, resulting in infertility...
March 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295812/hybridization-between-two-cryptic-filamentous-brown-seaweeds-along-the-shore-analysing-pre-and-post-zygotic-barriers-in-populations-of-individuals-with-varying-ploidy-levels
#7
Alejandro E Montecinos, Marie-Laure Guillemin, Lucia Couceiro, Akira F Peters, Solenn Stoeckel, Myriam Valero
We aimed to study the importance of hybridization between two cryptic species of the genus Ectocarpus, a group of filamentous algae with haploid-diploid life cycles that include the principal genetic model organism for the brown algae. In haploid-diploid species, the genetic structure of the two phases of the life cycle can be analysed separately in natural populations. Such life cycles provide a unique opportunity to estimate the frequency of hybrid genotypes in diploid sporophytes and meiotic recombinant genotypes in haploid gametophytes allowing the effects of reproductive barriers preventing fertilization or preventing meiosis to be untangle...
March 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295769/hill-robertson-interference-maintained-by-red-queen-dynamics-favours-the-evolution-of-sex
#8
Jack da Silva, James D Galbraith
Although it is well established theoretically that selective interference among mutations (Hill-Robertson interference) favours meiotic recombination, genome-wide mean rates of mutation and strengths of selection appear too low to support this as the mechanism favouring recombination in nature. A possible solution to this discrepancy between theory and observation is that selection is at least intermittently very strong due to the antagonistic coevolution between a host and its parasites. The Red Queen theory posits that such coevolution generates fitness epistasis among loci, which generates negative linkage disequilibrium among beneficial mutations, which in turn favours recombination...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292260/ruminant-specific-multiple-duplication-events-of-prdm9-before-speciation
#9
Abinash Padhi, Botong Shen, Jicai Jiang, Yang Zhou, George E Liu, Li Ma
BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms of speciation genes in sexually reproducing organisms would provide important insights into mammalian reproduction and fitness. PRDM9, a widely known speciation gene, has recently gained attention for its important role in meiotic recombination and hybrid incompatibility. Despite the fact that PRDM9 is a key regulator of recombination and plays a dominant role in hybrid incompatibility, little is known about the underlying genetic and evolutionary mechanisms that generated multiple copies of PRDM9 in many metazoan lineages...
March 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265284/chromosomal-speciation-in-the-genomics-era-disentangling-phylogenetic-evolution-of-rock-wallabies
#10
Sally Potter, Jason G Bragg, Mozes P K Blom, Janine E Deakin, Mark Kirkpatrick, Mark D B Eldridge, Craig Moritz
The association of chromosome rearrangements (CRs) with speciation is well established, and there is a long history of theory and evidence relating to "chromosomal speciation." Genomic sequencing has the potential to provide new insights into how reorganization of genome structure promotes divergence, and in model systems has demonstrated reduced gene flow in rearranged segments. However, there are limits to what we can understand from a small number of model systems, which each only tell us about one episode of chromosomal speciation...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258986/meiotic-recombination-gets-stressed-out-co-frequency-is-plastic-under-pressure
#11
REVIEW
Jennifer L Modliszewski, Gregory P Copenhaver
Meiotic recombination ensures the fertility of gametes and creates novel genetic combinations. Although meiotic crossover (CO) frequency is under homeostatic control, CO frequency is also plastic in nature and can respond to environmental conditions. Most investigations have focused on temperature and recombination, but other external and internal stimuli also have important roles in modulating CO frequency. Even less is understood about the molecular mechanisms that underly these phenomenon, but recent work has begun to advance our knowledge in this field...
February 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258181/a-pooled-sequencing-approach-identifies-a-candidate-meiotic-driver-in-drosophila
#12
Kevin H-C Wei, Hemakumar M Reddy, Chandramouli Rathnam, Jimin Lee, Deanna Lin, Shuqing Ji, James M Mason, Andrew G Clark, Daniel A Barbash
Meiotic drive occurs when a selfish element increases its transmission frequency above the Mendelian ratio by hijacking the asymmetric divisions of female meiosis. Meiotic drive causes genomic conflict and potentially has a major impact on genome evolution, but only a few drive loci of large effect have been described. New methods to reliably detect meiotic drive are therefore needed, particularly for discovering moderate-strength drivers that are likely to be more prevalent in natural populations than strong drivers...
March 3, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249986/coordination-of-double-strand-break-repair-and-meiotic-progression-in-yeast-by-a-mek1-ndt80-negative-feedback-loop
#13
Evelyn Prugar, Cameron Burnett, Xiangyu Chen, Nancy M Hollingsworth
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes are physically connected by crossovers and sister chromatid cohesion. Interhomolog crossovers are generated by the highly regulated repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs). The meiosis-specific kinase, Mek1, is critical for this regulation. Mek1 down-regulates the mitotic recombinase Rad51, indirectly promoting interhomolog strand invasion by the meiosis-specific recombinase, Dmc1. Mek1 also promotes the formation of crossovers that are distributed throughout the genome by interference and is the effector kinase for a meiosis-specific checkpoint that delays entry into Meiosis I until DSBs have been repaired...
March 1, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247048/prophase-i-preparing-chromosomes-for-segregation-in-the-developing-oocyte
#14
Rachel Reichman, Benjamin Alleva, Sarit Smolikove
Formation of an oocyte involves a specialized cell division termed meiosis. In meiotic prophase I (the initial stage of meiosis), chromosomes undergo elaborate events to ensure the proper segregation of their chromosomes into gametes. These events include processes leading to the formation of a crossover that, along with sister chromatid cohesion, forms the physical link between homologous chromosomes. Crossovers are formed as an outcome of recombination. This process initiates with programmed double-strand breaks that are repaired through the use of homologous chromosomes as a repair template...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247044/role-of-chromatin-modifications-in-drosophila-germline-stem-cell-differentiation
#15
Pooja Flora, Alicia McCarthy, Maitreyi Upadhyay, Prashanth Rangan
During Drosophila oogenesis, germline stem cells (GSCs) self-renew and differentiate to give rise to a mature egg. Self-renewal and differentiation of GSCs are regulated by both intrinsic mechanisms such as regulation of gene expression in the germ line and extrinsic signaling pathways from the surrounding somatic niche. Epigenetic mechanisms, including histone-modifying proteins, nucleosome remodeling complexes, and histone variants, play a critical role in regulating intrinsic gene expression and extrinsic signaling cues from the somatic niche...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239026/ectopic-expression-of-meiotic-cohesin-rad21l-promotes-adjacency-of-homologous-chromosomes-in-somatic-cells
#16
Mei Rong, Sachi Miyauchi, Jibak Lee
Pairing, synapsis, and crossover recombination of homologous chromosomes (homologs) are prerequisite for the proper segregation of homologs during meiosis I. The meiosis-specific cohesin subunit, RAD21L, is essential for such meiotic chromosomal events, but it is unknown to what extent RAD21L by itself contributes to the process since various meiotic genes are also involved. To reveal the exclusive contribution of RAD21L to the specific regulation of homologs, we examined the effects of ectopic RAD21L expression on chromosome dynamics in somatic cells...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224497/hidden-markov-models-in-population-genomics
#17
Julien Y Dutheil
With the advent of sequencing techniques population genomics took a major shift. The structure of data sets has evolved from a sample of a few loci in the genome, sequenced in dozens of individuals, to collections of complete genomes, virtually comprising all available loci. Initially sequenced in a few individuals, such genomic data sets are now reaching and even exceeding the size of traditional data sets in the number of haplotypes sequenced. Because all loci in a genome are not independent, this evolution of data sets is mirrored by a methodological change...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223312/natural-variation-and-dosage-of-the-hei10-meiotic-e3-ligase-control-arabidopsis-crossover-recombination
#18
Piotr A Ziolkowski, Charles J Underwood, Christophe Lambing, Marina Martinez-Garcia, Emma J Lawrence, Liliana Ziolkowska, Catherine Griffin, Kyuha Choi, F Chris H Franklin, Robert A Martienssen, Ian R Henderson
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo crossover recombination, which creates genetic diversity and balances homolog segregation. Despite these critical functions, crossover frequency varies extensively within and between species. Although natural crossover recombination modifier loci have been detected in plants, causal genes have remained elusive. Using natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we identified two major recombination quantitative trait loci (rQTLs) that explain 56.9% of crossover variation in Col×Ler F2 populations...
February 21, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211906/dynamics-of-male-meiotic-recombination-frequency-during-plant-development-using-fluorescent-tagged-lines-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Fan Li, Nico De Storme, Danny Geelen
Meiotic homologous recombination plays a central role in creating genetic variability, making it an essential biological process relevant to evolution and crop breeding. In this study, we used pollen-specific fluorescent tagged lines (FTLs) to measure male meiotic recombination frequency during the development of Arabidopsis thaliana. Interestingly, a subset of pollen grains consistently shows loss of fluorescence expression in tested lines. Using nine independent FTL intervals, the spatio-temporal dynamics of male recombination frequency was assessed during plant development, considering both shoot type and plant age as independent parameters...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207814/jmjd-5-kdm8-regulates-h3k36me2-and-is-required-for-late-steps-of-homologous-recombination-and-genome-integrity
#20
Pier Giorgio Amendola, Nico Zaghet, João J Ramalho, Jens Vilstrup Johansen, Mike Boxem, Anna Elisabetta Salcini
The eukaryotic genome is organized in a three-dimensional structure called chromatin, constituted by DNA and associated proteins, the majority of which are histones. Post-translational modifications of histone proteins greatly influence chromatin structure and regulate many DNA-based biological processes. Methylation of lysine 36 of histone 3 (H3K36) is a post-translational modification functionally relevant during early steps of DNA damage repair. Here, we show that the JMJD-5 regulates H3K36 di-methylation and it is required at late stages of double strand break repair mediated by homologous recombination...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
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