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Meiotic recombination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644726/cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-actions-of-casiopeina-iii-ea-cas-iii-ea-in-somatic-and-germ-cells-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
L M Vidal, E Pimentel, M P Cruces, S Hernández, L Ruiz-Azuara
Casiopeinas® are a group of newly synthesized drugs designed to treat cancer. These copper (Cu) complexes exhibit cytostatic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antineoplastic activities through different mechanisms of action. To evaluate the influence of these compounds, some in vivo studies were performed using predominantly somatic cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic actions of Casiopeina III-Ea (Cas III-Ea) in somatic as well as germ cells of Drosophila melanogaster. For cytotoxicity, the productivity and some morphometric parameters were measured and genotoxicity was assessed by means of the somatic mutation and recombination test assay in the wing...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642366/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-red1-protein-exhibits-nonhomologous-dna-end-joining-activity-and-potentiates-hop1-promoted-pairing-of-double-stranded-dna
#2
Rucha Kshirsagar, Indrajeet Ghodke, Kalappa Muniyappa
Elucidation of the function of synaptonemal complex (SC) in <Saccharomyces cerevisiae> has mainly focused on in vivo analysis of recombination-defective meiotic mutants. Consequently, significant gaps remain in the mechanistic understanding of the activities of different SC proteins and the functional relationships among them. S. cerevisiae Hop1 and Red1 are essential structural components of the SC axial/lateral elements. Previous studies have demonstrated that Hop1 is a structure-specific DNA-binding protein that exhibits high affinity for the Holliday junction, promotes DNA bridging, condensation and pairing between duplex DNA molecules...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628358/h2b-ubiquitination-conserved-molecular-mechanism-diverse-physiological-functions-of-the-e3-ligase-during-meiosis
#3
Liying Wang, Cunwei Cao, Fang Wang, Jianguo Zhao, Wei Li
RNF20/Bre1 mediated H2B ubiquitination (H2Bub) has various physiological functions. Recently, we found that H2Bub participates in meiotic recombination by promoting chromatin relaxation during meiosis. We then analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among the E3 ligase for H2Bub, its E2 Rad6 and their partner WW domain-containing adapter with a coiled-coil (WAC) or Lge1, and found that the molecular mechanism underlying H2Bub is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. However, RNF20 has diverse physiological functions in different organisms, which might be caused by the evolutionary divergency of their domain/motif architectures...
June 19, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627638/meiotic-defects-and-decreased-expression-of-genes-located-around-the-chromosomal-breakpoint-in-the-testis-of-a-patient-with-a-novel-46-x-t-y-1-p11-3-p31-translocation
#4
Guangyuan Li, Furhan Iqbal, Liu Wang, Zhipeng Xu, Xiaoyan Che, Wen Yu, Liang Shi, Tonghang Guo, Guixiang Zhou, Xiaohua Jiang, Huan Zhang, Yuanwei Zhang, Dexin Yu
Balanced translocations are known to be associated with infertility, spontaneous abortions and birth defects in mammals. Spermatocyte spreading and immunostaining were applied to detect meiotic prophase I progression, homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis and recombination in an azoospermic reciprocal translocation 46,X,t(Y;1)(p11.3;p31) carrier. Histological examination of testicular sections revealed a severely reduced number of germ cells with no spermatids or sperm in the carrier. A significant reduction in XY recombination was observed in the patient...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617799/p53-and-tap63-participate-in-the-recombination-dependent-pachytene-arrest-in-mouse-spermatocytes
#5
Marina Marcet-Ortega, Sarai Pacheco, Ana Martínez-Marchal, Helena Castillo, Elsa Flores, Maria Jasin, Scott Keeney, Ignasi Roig
To protect germ cells from genomic instability, surveillance mechanisms ensure meiosis occurs properly. In mammals, spermatocytes that display recombination defects experience a so-called recombination-dependent arrest at the pachytene stage, which relies on the MRE11 complex-ATM-CHK2 pathway responding to unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we asked if p53 family members-targets of ATM and CHK2-participate in this arrest. We bred double-mutant mice combining a mutation of a member of the p53 family (p53, TAp63, or p73) with a Trip13 mutation...
June 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615006/brief-temperature-stress-during-reproductive-stages-alters-meiotic-recombination-and-somatic-mutation-rates-in-the-progeny-of-arabidopsis
#6
Ramswaroop Saini, Amit Kumar Singh, Shanmuhapreya Dhanapal, Thoufeequl Hakeem Saeed, Geoffrey J Hyde, Ramamurthy Baskar
BACKGROUND: Plants exposed to environmental stresses draw upon many genetic and epigenetic strategies, with the former sometimes modulated by the latter. This can help the plant, and its immediate progeny, at least, to better endure the stress. Some evidence has led to proposals that (epi) genetic changes can be both selective and sustainably heritable, while other evidence suggests that changes are effectively stochastic, and important only because they induce genetic variation. One type of stress with an arguably high level of stochasticity in its effects is temperature stress...
June 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612727/-topovil%C3%A2-a-molecular-scissor-essential-for-reproduction
#7
Thomas Robert, Bernard de Massy, Mathilde Grelon
During sexual reproduction haploid gametes are generated out of diploid mother cells. This ploidy reduction is accomplished during meiosis and, in most species, relies on the occurrence of homologous recombination that is triggered by the induction of a large number of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The mechanism by which such DSBs are generated without provoking massive DNA breakdown in gamete mother cells is still poorly understood. However, the recent characterisation, in plants and in mammals, of a new component of the meiotic DSB forming machinery, defining a meiotic-specific TOPOVIB-Like protein family, has established a clear connection between the meiotic DSB activity and topoisomerases, enzymes that modify the DNA topology by introducing transient DSBs...
May 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608340/functional-analysis-of-arabidopsis-argonautes-in-meiosis-and-dna-repair
#8
Marina Martinez-Garcia, Mónica Pradillo
Plant ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins regulate a wide range of cellular and developmental functions. Recent findings highlight their role during homologous recombination, a basic mechanism to repair double-strand DNA lesions (in somatic cells) and programmed DNA breaks (in meiocytes). This chapter contains an exhaustive description of procedures applied to analyze meiotic chromosome behavior (cytogenetic techniques) and DNA repair capacity (genotoxicity assays) in AGO-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605512/low-coverage-resequencing-detects-meiotic-recombination-pattern-and-features-in-tomato-rils
#9
Lars S de Haas, Roy Koopmans, Cilia L C Lelivelt, Remco Ursem, Rob Dirks, Geo Velikkakam James
Traditional plant breeding relies on meiotic recombination for mixing of parental alleles to create novel allele combinations. Detailed analysis of recombination patterns in model organisms shows that recombination is tightly regulated within the genome, but frequencies vary extensively along chromosomes. Despite being a model organism for fruit developmental studies, high-resolution recombination patterns are lacking in tomato. In this study, we developed a novel methodology to use low-coverage resequencing to identify genome-wide recombination patterns and applied this methodology on 60 tomato Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs)...
June 9, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604658/in-vitro-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-into-ovarian-follicle-like-cells
#10
Dajung Jung, Jie Xiong, Min Ye, Xunsi Qin, Lin Li, Shunfeng Cheng, Mengyuan Luo, Jia Peng, Ji Dong, Fuchou Tang, Wei Shen, Martin M Matzuk, Kehkooi Kee
Understanding the unique mechanisms of human oogenesis necessitates the development of an in vitro system of stem cell differentiation into oocytes. Specialized cell types and organoids have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro, but generating a human ovarian follicle remains a challenge. Here we report that human embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate into ovarian follicle-like cells (FLCs) in vitro. First, we find that two RNA-binding proteins specifically expressed in germ cells, DAZL and BOULE, regulate the exit from pluripotency and entry into meiosis...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592499/structural-variation-shapes-the-landscape-of-recombination-in-mouse
#11
Andrew P Morgan, Daniel M Gatti, Maya L Najarian, Thomas M Keane, Raymond J Galante, Allan I Pack, Richard Mott, Gary A Churchill, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena
Meiotic recombination is an essential feature of sexual reproduction that ensures faithful segregation of chromosomes and redistributes genetic variants in populations. Multiparent populations such as the Diversity Outbred (DO) mouse stock accumulate large numbers of crossover (CO) events between founder haplotypes, and thus present a unique opportunity to study the role of genetic variation in shaping the recombination landscape. We obtained high-density genotype data from [Formula: see text] DO mice, and localized 2...
June 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590593/the-proteasome-enters-the-meiotic-prophase-fray
#12
REVIEW
Aleksandar Vujin, Monique Zetka
The segregation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis depends on their ability to locate one another in the nucleus and establish a physical association through crossing over. A tightly regulated number of crossovers (COs) emerges following repair of induced DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination (HR), but the process of how HR intermediates transition into COs is still poorly understood. Two recent studies by Ahuja et al. and Rao et al. have revealed a role for chromosomally localized proteasomes in choreographing both homologous chromosome pairing and the evolution of HR intermediates into segregation-competent COs...
June 7, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590247/repeated-losses-of-prdm9-directed-recombination-despite-the-conservation-of-prdm9-across-vertebrates
#13
Zachary Baker, Molly Schumer, Yuki Haba, Lisa Bashkirova, Chris Holland, Gil G Rosenthal, Molly Przeworski
Studies of highly diverged species have revealed two mechanisms by which meiotic recombination is directed to the genome-through PRDM9 binding or by targeting promoter-like features-that lead to dramatically different evolutionary dynamics of hotspots. Here, we identify PRDM9 orthologs from genome and transcriptome data in 225 species. We find the complete PRDM9 ortholog across distantly related vertebrates but, despite this broad conservation, infer a minimum of six partial and three complete losses. Strikingly, taxa carrying the complete ortholog of PRDM9 are precisely those with rapid evolution of its predicted binding affinity, suggesting that all domains are necessary for directing recombination...
June 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574013/identifying-the-risk-of-producing-aneuploids-using-meiotic-recombination-genes-as-biomarkers-a-copy-number-variation-approach
#14
Raviraj V Suresh, Kusuma Lingaiah, Avinash M Veerappa, Nallur B Ramachandra
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Aneuploids are the most common chromosomal abnormality in liveborns and are usually the result of non-disjunction (NDJ) in meiosis. Copy number variations (CNVs) are large structural variations affecting the human genome. CNVs influence critical genes involved in causing NDJ by altering their copy number which affects the clinical outcome. In this study influence of CNVs on critical meiotic recombination was examined using new computational technologies to assess their role in causing aneuploidy...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570559/analysis-of-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-function-in-meiotic-recombination-immunoglobulin-class-switching-and-dna-damage-tolerance
#15
Kei-Ichi Takata, Shelley Reh, Matthew J Yousefzadeh, Maciej J Zelazowski, Sarita Bhetawal, David Trono, Megan G Lowery, Maria Sandoval, Yoko Takata, Yue Lu, Kevin Lin, Jianjun Shen, Donna F Kusewitt, Kevin M McBride, Francesca Cole, Richard D Wood
DNA polymerase ν (pol ν), encoded by the POLN gene, is an A-family DNA polymerase in vertebrates and some other animal lineages. Here we report an in-depth analysis of pol ν-defective mice and human cells. POLN is very weakly expressed in most tissues, with the highest relative expression in testis. We constructed multiple mouse models for Poln disruption and detected no anatomic abnormalities, alterations in lifespan, or changed causes of mortality. Mice with inactive Poln are fertile and have normal testis morphology...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562599/arabidopsis-rad51-rad51c-and-xrcc3-proteins-form-a-complex-and-facilitate-rad51-localization-on-chromosomes-for-meiotic-recombination
#16
Hang Su, Zhihao Cheng, Jiyue Huang, Juan Lin, Gregory P Copenhaver, Hong Ma, Yingxiang Wang
Meiotic recombination is required for proper homologous chromosome segregation in plants and other eukaryotes. The eukaryotic RAD51 gene family has seven ancient paralogs with important roles in mitotic and meiotic recombination. Mutations in mammalian RAD51 homologs RAD51C and XRCC3 lead to embryonic lethality. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, RAD51C and XRCC3 homologs are not essential for vegetative development but are each required for somatic and meiotic recombination, but the mechanism of RAD51C and XRCC3 in meiotic recombination is unclear...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559338/superresolution-microscopy-reveals-the-three-dimensional-organization-of-meiotic-chromosome-axes-in-intact-caenorhabditis-elegans-tissue
#17
Simone Köhler, Michal Wojcik, Ke Xu, Abby F Dernburg
When cells enter meiosis, their chromosomes reorganize as linear arrays of chromatin loops anchored to a central axis. Meiotic chromosome axes form a platform for the assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC) and play central roles in other meiotic processes, including homologous pairing, recombination, and chromosome segregation. However, little is known about the 3D organization of components within the axes, which include cohesin complexes and additional meiosis-specific proteins. Here, we investigate the molecular organization of meiotic chromosome axes in Caenorhabditis elegans through STORM (stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) and PALM (photo-activated localization microscopy) superresolution imaging of intact germ-line tissue...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539630/functional-characterization-of-the-meiosis-specific-dna-double-strand-break-inducing-factor-spo-11-from-c-elegans
#18
Hsin-Yi Yeh, Sheng-Wei Lin, Yi-Chun Wu, Nei-Li Chan, Peter Chi
The programmed induction of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the evolutionarily conserved SPO-11 protein, which is structurally related to archaeal Topo VIA topoisomerases, triggers meiotic recombination. Identification of several meiosis-specific factors that are required for SPO-11-mediated DSB formation raises the question whether SPO-11 alone can cleave DNA. Here, we have developed procedures to express and purify C. elegans SPO-11 in a soluble, untagged, and monodispersed form. Our biochemical and biophysical analyses demonstrate that SPO-11 is monomeric and binds DNA, double-stranded DNA in particular...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538144/probing-the-potential-role-of-non-b-dna-structures-at-yeast-meiosis-specific-dna-double-strand-breaks
#19
Rucha Kshirsagar, Krishnendu Khan, Mamata V Joshi, Ramakrishna V Hosur, K Muniyappa
A plethora of evidence suggests that different types of DNA quadruplexes are widely present in the genome of all organisms. The existence of a growing number of proteins that selectively bind and/or process these structures underscores their biological relevance. Moreover, G-quadruplex DNA has been implicated in the alignment of four sister chromatids by forming parallel guanine quadruplexes during meiosis; however, the underlying mechanism is not well defined. Here we show that a G/C-rich motif associated with a meiosis-specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae folds into G-quadruplex, and the C-rich sequence complementary to the G-rich sequence forms an i-motif...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531371/wing-1-of-protein-hop2-is-as-important-as-helix-3-in-dna-binding-by-md-simulation
#20
Hem Moktan, Donghua H Zhou
The repair of programmed DNA double-strand breaks through recombination is required for proper association and disjunction of the meiotic homologous chromosomes. Meiosis-specific protein HOP2 plays essential roles in recombination by promoting recombinase activities. The N-terminal domain of HOP2 interacts with DNA through helix 3 (H3) and wing 1 (W1). Mutations in wing 1 (Y65A/K67A/Q68A) slightly weakened the binding but mutations in helices 2 and 3 (Q30A/K44A/K49A) nearly abolished the binding. To better understand such differential effects at atomic level, molecular dynamics simulations were employed...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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