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Meiotic recombination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727826/germline-and-reproductive-tract-effects-intensify-in-male-mice-with-successive-generations-of-estrogenic-exposure
#1
Tegan S Horan, Alyssa Marre, Terry Hassold, Crystal Lawson, Patricia A Hunt
The hypothesis that developmental estrogenic exposure induces a constellation of male reproductive tract abnormalities is supported by experimental and human evidence. Experimental data also suggest that some induced effects persist in descendants of exposed males. These multi- and transgenerational effects are assumed to result from epigenetic changes to the germline, but few studies have directly analyzed germ cells. Typically, studies of transgenerational effects have involved exposing one generation and monitoring effects in subsequent unexposed generations...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723680/meiotic-recombination-in-the-giraffe-g-reticulata
#2
Miluse Vozdova, Jan Fröhlich, Svatava Kubickova, Hana Sebestova, Jiri Rubes
Recently, the reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata) was identified as a distinct species, which emphasized the need for intensive research in this interesting animal. To shed light on the meiotic process as a source of biodiversity, we analysed the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination in 2 reticulated giraffe males. We used immunofluorescence detection of synaptonemal complex protein (SYCP3), meiotic double strand breaks (DSB, marked as RAD51 foci) in leptonema, and crossovers (COs, as MLH1 foci) in pachynema...
July 20, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708824/tex19-1-promotes-spo11-dependent-meiotic-recombination-in-mouse-spermatocytes
#3
James H Crichton, Christopher J Playfoot, Marie MacLennan, David Read, Howard J Cooke, Ian R Adams
Meiosis relies on the SPO11 endonuclease to generate the recombinogenic DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) required for homologous chromosome synapsis and segregation. The number of meiotic DSBs needs to be sufficient to allow chromosomes to search for and find their homologs, but not excessive to the point of causing genome instability. Here we report that the mammal-specific gene Tex19.1 promotes Spo11-dependent recombination in mouse spermatocytes. We show that the chromosome asynapsis previously reported in Tex19...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696245/the-histone-codes-for-meiosis
#4
REVIEW
Lina Wang, Zhiliang Xu, Muhammad Babar Khawar, Chao Liu, Wei Li
Meiosis is a specialized process that produces haploid gametes from diploid cells by a single round of DNA replication followed by two successive cell divisions. It contains many special events, such as programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation, homologous recombination, crossover formation and resolution. These events are associated with dynamically regulated chromosomal structures, the dynamic transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling are mainly modulated by histone modifications, termed 'histone codes'...
September 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696221/meica-1-meiotic-chromosome-association-1-interacts-with-top3%C3%AE-and-regulates-meiotic-recombination-in-rice
#5
Qing Hu, Yafei Li, Hongjun Wang, Yi Shen, Chao Zhang, Guijie Du, Ding Tang, Zhukuan Cheng
Homologous recombination plays a central role in guaranteeing chromosome segregation during meiosis. The precise regulation of the resolution of recombination intermediates is critical for the success of meiosis. Many proteins, including the RECQ DNA helicases (Sgs1/BLM) and Topoisomerase 3α (TOP3α), have essential functions in managing recombination intermediates. However, many other factors involved in this process remain to be defined. Here we report the isolation of meiotic chromosome association 1 (MEICA1), a novel protein participating in meiotic recombination in rice (Oryza sativa)...
July 10, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696215/a-model-for-epigenetic-inhibition-via-transvection-in-the-mouse
#6
Juan D Rodriguez, Dexter A Myrick, Ilaria Falciatori, Michael A Christopher, Teresa W Lee, Gregory J Hannon, David J Katz
Transvection is broadly defined as the ability of one locus to affect its homologous locus in trans Although it was first discovered in the 1950s, there are only two known cases in mammals. Here, we report another instance of mammalian transvection induced by the Cre/LoxP system, which is widely used for conditional gene targeting in the mouse. We attempted to use the germline expressed Vasa-Cre transgene to engineer a mouse mutation, but observe a dramatic reduction of LoxP recombination in mice that inherit an already deleted LoxP allele in trans A similar phenomenon has previously been observed with another Cre that is expressed during meiosis, Sycp-1-Cre This second example of LoxP inhibition in trans reinforces the conclusion that certain meiotically expressed Cre alleles can initiate transvection in mammals...
July 10, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694245/fundamental-cell-cycle-kinases-collaborate-to-ensure-timely-destruction-of-the-synaptonemal-complex-during-meiosis
#7
Bilge Argunhan, Wing-Kit Leung, Negar Afshar, Yaroslav Terentyev, Vijayalakshmi V Subramanian, Yasuto Murayama, Andreas Hochwagen, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Tomomi Tsubouchi, Hideo Tsubouchi
The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a proteinaceous macromolecular assembly that forms during meiotic prophase I and mediates adhesion of paired homologous chromosomes along their entire lengths. Although prompt disassembly of the SC during exit from prophase I is a landmark event of meiosis, the underlying mechanism regulating SC destruction has remained elusive. Here, we show that DDK (Dbf4-dependent Cdc7 kinase) is central to SC destruction. Upon exit from prophase I, Dbf4, the regulatory subunit of DDK, directly associates with and is phosphorylated by the Polo-like kinase Cdc5...
July 10, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693746/so-similar-yet-so-different-the-two-ends-of-a-double-strand-break
#8
REVIEW
Keun P Kim, Ekaterina V Mirkin
Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for ensuring proper segregation of chromosomes in the first round of meiotic division. HR is also crucial for preserving genomic integrity of somatic cells due to its ability to rescue collapsed replication forks and eliminate deleterious DNA lesions, such as double-strand breaks (DSBs), interstrand crosslinks, and single-strand DNA gaps. Here, we review the early steps of HR (homology search and strand exchange), focusing on the roles of the two ends of a DSB. A detailed overview of the basic HR machinery and its mechanism for template selection and capture of duplex DNA via strand exchange is provided...
June 27, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688040/identification-of-all-homoeologous-chromosomes-of-newly-synthetic-allotetraploid-cucumis-%C3%A3-hytivus-and-its-wild-parent-reveals-stable-subgenome-structure
#9
Yunzhu Wang, Qinzheng Zhao, Xiaodong Qin, Shuqiong Yang, Ziang Li, Ji Li, Qunfeng Lou, Jinfeng Chen
Allopolyploidy and homoeologous recombination are two important processes in reshaping genomes and generating evolutionary novelties. Newly formed allopolyploids usually display chromosomal perturbations as a result of pairing errors at meiosis. To understand mechanisms of stabilization of allopolyploid species derived from distant chromosome bases, we investigated mitotic stability of a synthetic Cucumis allotetraploid species in relation to meiosis chromosome behavior. The Cucumis × hytivus is an allotetraploid synthesized from interspecific hybridization between cucumber (Cucumis sativus, 2n = 14) and its wild relative Cucumis hystrix (2n = 24) followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling...
July 7, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667018/a-high-density-linkage-map-reveals-sexual-dimorphism-in-recombination-landscapes-in-red-deer-cervus-elaphus
#10
Susan E Johnston, Jisca Huisman, Philip A Ellis, Josephine M Pemberton
High density linkage maps are an important tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of traits of evolutionary and economic interest, and provide a resource to characterise variation in recombination landscapes. Here, we used information from the cattle genome and the 50K Cervine Illumina BeadChip to inform and refine a high density linkage map in a wild population of red deer (Cervus elaphus). We constructed a predicted linkage map of 38,038 SNPs and a skeleton map of 10,835 SNPs across 34 linkage groups...
June 30, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652620/differential-cohesin-loading-marks-paired-and-unpaired-regions-of-platypus-sex-chromosomes-at-prophase-i
#11
Aaron E Casey, Tasman J Daish, Jose Luis Barbero, Frank Grützner
Cohesins are vital for chromosome organisation during meiosis and mitosis. In addition to the important function in sister chromatid cohesion, these complexes play key roles in meiotic recombination, DSB repair, homologous chromosome pairing and segregation. Egg-laying mammals (monotremes) feature an unusually complex sex chromosome system, which raises fundamental questions about organisation and segregation during meiosis. We discovered a dynamic and differential accumulation of cohesins on sex chromosomes during platypus prophase I and specific reorganisation of the sex chromosome complex around a large nucleolar body...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645372/analysis-of-structure-selective-endonuclease-activities-from-yeast-and-human-extracts
#12
Joao Matos, Stephen C West
The efficient separation of two equal DNA masses to the daughter cells is an essential step in mitosis. This process is dependent upon the removal of any remaining recombination or replication intermediates that link sister chromatids, and a failure to resolve these intermediates leads to genome instability. Similarly, a failure to resolve meiotic recombination intermediates that link homologous chromosomes can cause chromosome nondisjunction and aneuploidy. Cleavage of these potentially toxic replication/recombination intermediates requires the Mus81 endonuclease, which is active upon flaps, forks, and more complex secondary structures in DNA such as Holliday junctions...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644726/cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-actions-of-casiopeina-iii-ea-cas-iii-ea-in-somatic-and-germ-cells-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
L M Vidal, E Pimentel, M P Cruces, S Hernández, L Ruiz-Azuara
Casiopeinas® are a group of newly synthesized drugs designed to treat cancer. These copper (Cu) complexes exhibit cytostatic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, and antineoplastic activities through different mechanisms of action. To evaluate the influence of these compounds, some in vivo studies were performed using predominantly somatic cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic actions of Casiopeina III-Ea (Cas III-Ea) in somatic as well as germ cells of Drosophila melanogaster. For cytotoxicity, the productivity and some morphometric parameters were measured and genotoxicity was assessed by means of the somatic mutation and recombination test assay in the wing...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642366/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-red1-protein-exhibits-nonhomologous-dna-end-joining-activity-and-potentiates-hop1-promoted-pairing-of-double-stranded-dna
#14
Rucha Kshirsagar, Indrajeet Ghodke, Kalappa Muniyappa
Elucidation of the function of synaptonemal complex (SC) in <Saccharomyces cerevisiae> has mainly focused on in vivo analysis of recombination-defective meiotic mutants. Consequently, significant gaps remain in the mechanistic understanding of the activities of different SC proteins and the functional relationships among them. S. cerevisiae Hop1 and Red1 are essential structural components of the SC axial/lateral elements. Previous studies have demonstrated that Hop1 is a structure-specific DNA-binding protein that exhibits high affinity for the Holliday junction, promotes DNA bridging, condensation and pairing between duplex DNA molecules...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628358/h2b-ubiquitination-conserved-molecular-mechanism-diverse-physiologic-functions-of-the-e3-ligase-during-meiosis
#15
Liying Wang, Chunwei Cao, Fang Wang, Jianguo Zhao, Wei Li
RNF20/Bre1 mediated H2B ubiquitination (H2Bub) has various physiologic functions. Recently, we found that H2Bub participates in meiotic recombination by promoting chromatin relaxation during meiosis. We then analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among the E3 ligase for H2Bub, its E2 Rad6 and their partner WW domain-containing adaptor with a coiled-coil (WAC) or Lge1, and found that the molecular mechanism underlying H2Bub is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. However, RNF20 has diverse physiologic functions in different organisms, which might be caused by the evolutionary divergency of their domain/motif architectures...
June 19, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627638/meiotic-defects-and-decreased-expression-of-genes-located-around-the-chromosomal-breakpoint-in-the-testis-of-a-patient-with-a-novel-46-x-t-y-1-p11-3-p31-translocation
#16
Guangyuan Li, Furhan Iqbal, Liu Wang, Zhipeng Xu, Xiaoyan Che, Wen Yu, Liang Shi, Tonghang Guo, Guixiang Zhou, Xiaohua Jiang, Huan Zhang, Yuanwei Zhang, Dexin Yu
Balanced translocations are known to be associated with infertility, spontaneous abortions and birth defects in mammals. Spermatocyte spreading and immunostaining were applied to detect meiotic prophase I progression, homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis and recombination in an azoospermic reciprocal translocation 46,X,t(Y;1)(p11.3;p31) carrier. Histological examination of testicular sections revealed a severely reduced number of germ cells with no spermatids or sperm in the carrier. A significant reduction in XY recombination was observed in the patient...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617799/p53-and-tap63-participate-in-the-recombination-dependent-pachytene-arrest-in-mouse-spermatocytes
#17
Marina Marcet-Ortega, Sarai Pacheco, Ana Martínez-Marchal, Helena Castillo, Elsa Flores, Maria Jasin, Scott Keeney, Ignasi Roig
To protect germ cells from genomic instability, surveillance mechanisms ensure meiosis occurs properly. In mammals, spermatocytes that display recombination defects experience a so-called recombination-dependent arrest at the pachytene stage, which relies on the MRE11 complex-ATM-CHK2 pathway responding to unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we asked if p53 family members-targets of ATM and CHK2-participate in this arrest. We bred double-mutant mice combining a mutation of a member of the p53 family (p53, TAp63, or p73) with a Trip13 mutation...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615006/brief-temperature-stress-during-reproductive-stages-alters-meiotic-recombination-and-somatic-mutation-rates-in-the-progeny-of-arabidopsis
#18
Ramswaroop Saini, Amit Kumar Singh, Shanmuhapreya Dhanapal, Thoufeequl Hakeem Saeed, Geoffrey J Hyde, Ramamurthy Baskar
BACKGROUND: Plants exposed to environmental stresses draw upon many genetic and epigenetic strategies, with the former sometimes modulated by the latter. This can help the plant, and its immediate progeny, at least, to better endure the stress. Some evidence has led to proposals that (epi) genetic changes can be both selective and sustainably heritable, while other evidence suggests that changes are effectively stochastic, and important only because they induce genetic variation. One type of stress with an arguably high level of stochasticity in its effects is temperature stress...
June 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612727/-topovil%C3%A2-a-molecular-scissor-essential-for-reproduction
#19
Thomas Robert, Bernard de Massy, Mathilde Grelon
During sexual reproduction haploid gametes are generated out of diploid mother cells. This ploidy reduction is accomplished during meiosis and, in most species, relies on the occurrence of homologous recombination that is triggered by the induction of a large number of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The mechanism by which such DSBs are generated without provoking massive DNA breakdown in gamete mother cells is still poorly understood. However, the recent characterisation, in plants and in mammals, of a new component of the meiotic DSB forming machinery, defining a meiotic-specific TOPOVIB-Like protein family, has established a clear connection between the meiotic DSB activity and topoisomerases, enzymes that modify the DNA topology by introducing transient DSBs...
May 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608340/functional-analysis-of-arabidopsis-argonautes-in-meiosis-and-dna-repair
#20
Marina Martinez-Garcia, Mónica Pradillo
Plant ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins regulate a wide range of cellular and developmental functions. Recent findings highlight their role during homologous recombination, a basic mechanism to repair double-strand DNA lesions (in somatic cells) and programmed DNA breaks (in meiocytes). This chapter contains an exhaustive description of procedures applied to analyze meiotic chromosome behavior (cytogenetic techniques) and DNA repair capacity (genotoxicity assays) in AGO-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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